Protein evaluation in cereals and legumes

Protein evaluation in cereals and legumes

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Commission of the European Communities
AGRICULTURE
Protein evaluation in cereals
and legumes
Report
EUR 10404 EN Commission of the European Communities
AGRICULTURE
Protein evaluation in cereals
and legumes
A seminar in the CEC programme
of coordination of agricultural research on
plant productivity, held in Thessaloniki,
23-24 October 1985
Edited by
Dr V. Pattakou
Cereals Institute
Thessaloniki
Greece
Sponsored by the
Commission of the European Communities
Directorate-General for Agriculture
Coordination of agricultural research
1987 EUR 10404 EN Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
Bâtiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1987
ISBN 92-825-7006-1
Catalogue number:
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1987
Printed in Luxembourg CONTENTS Page
SESSION I: Introduction to Seed Proteins
The Biology and Genetics of Cereal Storage Proteins 1
B.J. MIFLIN
The Biology, Biochemistry and Genetics of Legume Seed Storage Proteins 3
R. CASEY
SESSION II: Methods of Cereal Protein Analysis
Methods for the Analysis of Cereal Prolamine 5
P.R. SCHEWRY
Determination of Protein Content of Seeds in Breeding Programmes 21
D. SMITH
SESSION III: Application of Methods to Specific Problems
The Measurement of Wheat Gliadin by Enzyme Immuno Assay 33
J.P. GOSLING, P.F. POTTRELL and D.F. McKILLOP
The Use of Electrcphoretic Techniques in Genetic Studies of Legume and 45
Proteins
R.RAO
Genetic and Technological Basis of Protein Quality for Durum Wheat for 59
Pasta.
J.C. AUTRAN and P. FEILLET
The Study of the Protein Fraction in Wheat, in Spelt and in Triticale 73
E. BAUDART and R. BISTON
Electrophoretic Identification of Wheat Varieties under Cultivation in 81
Greece.
P.J. KALTSIKES, Y. SYMILLIDES and E. RAFTOPOULOU
Proteins Determining the Technological Characteristics of Flour: 85
Effects on Wheat and Triticale Breeding Programmes
G. BRANLARD
SESSION IV:
Discussions
Plant Evaluation in Greek Agriculture 103
V. PATTAKDU SESSION V:
Nutritional Quality of Seeds
Can we Breed High Yielding Cereals with Better Protein? 107
H. DOLL
The Measurement of Lysine Content in Cereal Breeding Programmes 111
A. TALLBERG
The use of Immunological Techniques to Measure Cereal Seed Proteins 121
J. HEJGAARD
Biological Evaluation of Plant Proteins 123
B.O. EGGUM
The Nutritional Quality of Protein in Legumes and Oil Crops and the 131
Hole of Anti-nutritional Factors
B.O. EGGUM
Evaluation of Cereal and Legume Seed Quality by Using Animals 145
H.F. ERBERSDOBLER
Protein Evaluation and Protein Quality of Feeds for Ruminants7
D. LIAMADIS and A. KARALAZOS
Evaluation of Plant Protein Sources in Diets for Non-ruminants 153
in Greece
P.E. ZOIOPOULOS
General Summary of the Meeting 161
W.M.J, van GELDER
List of participants3 The Biology and Genetics of Cereal Storage Proteins
B. J. Miflin
Biochemistry Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station,
Harpenden, Herts. AL5 2JQ
The seeds of cereals contain a large number of proteins that can be
classified in different ways, of which the most frequently used are on the
basis of function or solubility. In terms of function the proteins may be
divided into metabolic, structural and storage. Solubility criteria,
originally defined by Osborne1, led to the recognition of albumins,
globulins, prol amins and glutelins. The lecture considered the nature of
the proteins of the grains of the major cereals in relation to this
classification. More recent advances in classicial and molecular genetics
are enabling us to understand better the relationships within and between
these different groups2. These results were discussed particularly in
relation to the storage proteins of wheat, barley and rye. They allow the
prol ami n storage proteins to be divided into three groups:- the S-rich, the
S-poor and the high molecular weight prol amins, each of which is encoded by
a small multigene family^"9. The results of detailed molecular analysis
also show how the prol amins may have evolved from a group of minor seed
proteins widely distributed across flowering plants10'11.
1. Osborne, T. B. "Vegetable Proteins", Longmans Green, London (1924) pp.
154.
2. Fowden, L. and Miflin, B. J. (Eds.) (1983) In: "Seed Storage Proteins",
The Royal Society, London
- 1 -3. Miflin, Β. J., Field, J. M. and Shewry, P. R. in "Seed Proteins" (J.
Daussant, J. Mosse and J. Vaughan, eds.) Academic Press, London (1983)
pp. 255-319.
4. Bartels, D. and Thompson, R. D. Nucl. Acids Res. 11 (1983) 2961-
2977.
5. Okita, T. W. Plant Mol. Biol. 3 (1984) 325-332.
6. Forde, B. G., Kreis, M., Williamson, M., Fry, R., Pywell, J., Shewry, P.
R., Bunce N. and Miflin, B. J. EMBO J. 4 (1985) 9-15.
7. Forde, J., Malpica, J-M., Halford, N., Shewry, P. R., Miflin, B. J.,
Anderson, 0. and Green, F. C. Nucl. Acids Res. 13 (1985) 6817-6832.
8. Thompson, R. D., Bartels, D. and Harberd, Ν. P. Nucí. Acids Res. 13
(1985) 6833-6846.
9. Shewry, P. R. and Miflin, B. J. in "Advances in Cereal Science and
Technology" Vol. 7. (Y. Pomeranz ed.) American Association of Cereal
Chemists, Minnesota (1985) pp. 1-83.
10. Kreis, M., Shewry, P. R., Forde, B. G., Forde, J. and Miflin, Β. J.
Oxford Surveys of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology 2 (1985) 253-
317.
11. Kreis, M., Forde, B. G., Rahman, S., Miflin, Β. J. and Shewry, P. R.
J. Mol. Biol. 183 (1985) 499-502.
2 -THE BIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY AND GENETICS OF LEGUME SEED STORAGE PROTEINS
Dr. Rod Casey
John Innes Institute
Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
Legume seeds contain two major classes of storage protein that can be
distinguished in a variety of ways, including size, solubility, amino acid
composition, sequence and polypeptide composition. These two classes, gene­
rally referred to as the IIS (legumin) and 7 (vicilin) fractions, are synthe­
sized during seed development, deposited in membrane-bound organelles (pro­
tein bodies) within cotyledonary parenchyma cells and are thought to act as
a store of nitrogen and carbon for the developing seedling after germination.
Proteins corresponding to legumin are to be found in Pisum (pea) and
Glycine (soyabean) and have been well charecterized biochemically and geneti­
cally. Vicilin-like proteins are found in Phaseolus (French bean), as well
as pea and soyabean, and the major 7S protein of French beans (phaseolin)
has been especially well characterized in terms of its structure, synthesis
and genetics.
Although IIS and 7S proteins are not confined to legumes - oats (Avena
sativa) and rape (Brassica napus) contain legumin-like proteins, for instance
- this review will consider only the storage proteins of Pisum , Phaseolus
and Glysine. It will deal with the structure, biosynthesis, gene structure
and genetics of the proteins and draw attention to the striking homologies
that exist between the storage proteins of the three genera.
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