# A TUTORIAL ON GEOMETRIC CONTROL THEORY´SLOBODAN

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A TUTORIAL ON GEOMETRIC CONTROL THEORY´SLOBODAN N. SIMICThis tutorial consists of three parts: 1. Basic concepts, 2. Basic results, 3. Steering withpiecewise constant inputs. The goal is to present only the necessary minimum to understandpart 3, which describes a constructive procedure for steering aﬃne drift-free systems usingpiecewise constant inputs. All technical details will be omitted. The reader is referred to theliterature at the end for proofs and details.1. Basic conceptsControl theory studies families of ordinary diﬀerential equations parametrized by input,which is external to the ODEs and can be controlled.1.1. Deﬁnition. A control system is an ODE of the form(1) x˙ = f(x,u),where x∈ M is the state of the system, M is the state space, u∈ U(x)istheinput or control,U(x) is the (state dependent) input set,andf is a smooth function called the system map(Fig. 1).Mf(x,u )1xf(x,u )2f(x,u )3Figure 1. Control directions at a point.December 11, 2001.1´2SLOBDAN.SIMCThe state space is usually a Euclidean space or a smooth manifold. The set!U = U(x)x∈is called the control bundle. With each control system we associate the set of admissiblecontrol functions, U, consisting of functions u:[0,T]→ U,forsomeT>0. These are usuallysquare integrable functions, such as piecewise continuous, piecewise smooth, or smooth ones(depending on what the control system is modeling).1.2. Deﬁnition. Acurvex :[0,T] → M is called a control trajectory if there exists ...

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