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Research and development in respect of energy storage. Evaluation of programmes in progress within the Community

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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES energy Research and development in respect of energy storage Evaluation of programmes in progress within the Community EUR5929EN.FR COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES energy Research and development in respect of energy storage Evaluation of programmes in progress within the Community P. RICATEAU Report prepared by CEA Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, Paris - France Study contract 239-76-5 ECIF 1978 EUR5929EN.FR Published by the COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Directorate-General 'Scientific and Technical Information and Information Management' Bâtiment Jean Monnet LUXEMBOURG LEGAL NOTICE Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information A bibliographical slip can be found at the end of this volume © ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg, 1978 Printed in Belgium ISBN 92-825-0299-6 Catalogue number : FOREWORD This evaluation of research and development in respect of energy storage in the Member States of the Conmunity was prepared at the request of Directorate-General XII as part of the work of the CRilST energy R&D sub-commit tee. This work would not have been possible without the assistance provided by Mr Valentin!

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Nombre de lectures 25
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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
energy
Research and development
in respect of energy storage
Evaluation of programmes in progress
within the Community
EUR5929EN.FR COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
energy
Research and development
in respect of energy storage
Evaluation of programmes in progress
within the Community
P. RICATEAU
Report prepared by CEA
Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, Paris - France
Study contract 239-76-5 ECIF
1978 EUR5929EN.FR Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
'Scientific and Technical Information and Information Management'
Bâtiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
A bibliographical slip can be found at the end of this volume
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg, 1978
Printed in Belgium
ISBN 92-825-0299-6 Catalogue number : FOREWORD
This evaluation of research and development in respect of
energy storage in the Member States of the Conmunity was prepared
at the request of Directorate-General XII as part of the work of
the CRilST energy R&D sub-commit tee.
This work would not have been possible without the assistance
provided by Mr Valentin! and Mr Francini of DG XII, as well as
help given by many people throughout the Community, among whom
the author would particularly like to thank the following:
In Belgium Mr. A. Stenmans and Mr. J. Laurent
In the Federal
Republic of Germany Mr. Stöcker and Mr. Friedrich
In Denmark Mr. N.O. Gram
In France Mr. Bindel, Mr. Bonnin and Mr. Godin
In Ireland Mr. McAlister
lår· C. Corvi and Mr. N. Merz agora In Italy
Mr. G. Preston and Mr. J.K. Duxbury In the UK
Mr. R. Van der Vart In the Netherlands
However the author takes sole responsibility for the opinions
expressed and wants to stress that the view of the state of the
art in each member State is strictly personal, and in some cases
may not necessarily reflect the opinion of those people from whom
he received factual information or with whom he had consultation· -IV-
C0NT2NTS
Page
Introduction : Storage in the energy system 1
Part One : Techniques and lines of research
1.1 - Electrochemical storage 8
1.2 - Inertia flywheel 12
1.3 - Heat storage 13
1.4 - Storage of natural hydrocarbons 18
1.5 -e of hydrogen 20
20 1.6 - Reversible chemical storage
1.7 - Other storage systems 21
Part Two ; Research activities and programmes
of the various EEC Member States 23
2.1 - Belgium 24
2.1.1 - Energy position and storage requirements 2
2.1.2 - Storage research programmes 30
2.2 - Federal Republic of Germany 33
2.2.1 - Energy position and storage requirements 3
2.2.2 - Storage research programmes-V-
2.3 - Denmark 38
2.3·1 - Energy position and storage requirements 3
2.3·2 - Storage research programmes 42
2.4 - France 44
2.4· 1 - Energy position and storage requirements 4
2.4.2 - Storare research programmes 57
2.5 - Ireland 61
2.5·1 - Energy posxtion and storage requirements 6
2.5.2 - Storage research programmes 65
2.6 - Italy6
2.6.1 - Energy position and storage requirements 6
2.6.2 - Storage research programmes 71
2.7 - UK 74
2.7·1 - Energy position and storage requirements 7
2.7.2 - Storage research programmes 83
2.8 - Netherlands 8.6
2.8.1 - Energy position and storace requirements 8
2.8.2 - Storage research programmes 9INTRODUC TION
Storage in the energy system In our industrial societies, there are three main ways in which
energy is stored: massive amounts of energy are reserved to meet cyclic
or accidental irregularities in respect of external supplies; means
intended for adjusting production capacity and demand via an intermediate
form of energy of some kind, thus avoiding the need for investment for
peak demand, this method of energy storage being justifiable for reasons
of economy; and mobile storage to ensure independent operation of means
of transport.
Storage in the form of reserves to meet fluctuations in external
supplies, ie strategic storage, does not necessarily entail storing primary
however
energy or products which have had only little processing;/the natural fossil
fuels - coal, oil or methane - are of themselves energy forms which are
more concentrated and storable at lower cost than the intermediate forms
known and used today, eg electricity or heat, synthesis fuels such as
hydrogen, or chemical products that one thinks of as energy vehicles.
Strategic storage is therefore based on primary fossil products, the
methods of storing which can undoubtedly be improved (storage of GNL),
usually technologically and even industrially rather than by any breakthrough
in research. Energy supplies will in future depend more and more on
nuclear raw material. Uranium is a natural form of energy concentration
10 000 times greater than oil and gives rise to no storage problems. This
advantage of nuclear raw material should not be overlooked.
Storage for adjustment purposes is a question which has arisen in
relatively new terms since the oil crisis, with technical problems which
are more difficult than they were before. Fossil fuels or their widely
used energy derivatives are converted to secondary energy (electricity
and heat) in power stations or furnaces, the investment costs of which do
not bear too heavily on the price of energy. This cannot be said of
nuclear energy, in which the investment costs represent the major part
of the cost of the secondary energy. The credit arising out of storage
is due to the difference in cost between the peak equipment and basic
equipment for the production of secondary energy and, in some cases, its
transmission or distribution. In the case of reactors which would yield
those
only heat, as / conceived in France, the question of storage arises in
relatively simple terms inasmuch as adjustment can affect only heat which
is stored either for short periods in buildings or for a longer period
and in larger quantities in a central point of the network.