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A review of European Foundation Studies 1977-1984

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176 pages
European Foundation for the Improvement of El Living and Working Conditions A Review of European Foundation Studies 1977 - 1984 Implications for Women Loughlinstown House Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland G J A Review of European Foundation Studies 1977 -1984 Implications for Women European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland. Tel: (01) 826888 Telex: 30726 EURF El This publication is also available in the following languages: FR ISBN 92-825-6414-2 Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1986 ISBN 92-825-6413-2 Catalogue Number SY-46-86-727-EN-C Designed & Printed by the European Foundation © Copyright: THE EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS, 1986. For rights of translation or reproduction, application should be made to the Director, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, County Dublin, Ireland. PREFACE During its early years of activity, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has not, strictly speaking, carried out research on specific categories of European citizens. This does not mean, however, that women have been left out of the reckoning.
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European Foundation
for the Improvement of El
Living and Working Conditions
A Review of
European Foundation Studies
1977 - 1984
Implications for Women
Loughlinstown House
Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland G
J
A Review of
European Foundation Studies
1977 -1984
Implications for Women
European Foundation
for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland. Tel: (01) 826888 Telex: 30726 EURF El This publication is also available in the following languages:
FR ISBN 92-825-6414-2
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities,
1986
ISBN 92-825-6413-2
Catalogue Number SY-46-86-727-EN-C
Designed & Printed by the European Foundation
© Copyright: THE EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF LIVING AND WORKING
CONDITIONS, 1986. For rights of translation or reproduction, application should be made to the Director,
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill,
County Dublin, Ireland. PREFACE
During its early years of activity, the European Foundation for the
Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has not, strictly
speaking, carried out research on specific categories of European
citizens.
This does not mean, however, that women have been left out of the
reckoning.
In fact, although women as such have never been at the centre of
research projects, women — especially working women — have
been considered frequently and quite separately in the investigations
of researchers.
In order to emphasise the specific implications for women of its
research, the Foundation decided, at the end of 1984, to review the
studies so far undertaken (since 1977).
While all project managers in the Foundation participated in this
exercise, it was co-ordinated by Margaret Kelleher.
Margret Fine-Davis, of the Department of Psychology in the
University of Dublin (Trinity College), was commissioned to complete
the project. She has surveyed the findings of 37 studies by the
Foundation, collected in 126 research reports, and grouped them
under six main headings:
- New technology;
- New forms of work organisation;
- Shiftwork;
- Physical and psychological constraints on working;
- Transport between home and work;
- Working time and leisure time. In each of these chapters, the reference studies are clearly
indicated.
The busy reader will find a summary of the main findings in the
"summary and conclusions" chapter.
All studies have their limitations; the limits to the present study are
set by the fact that the research projects of the European
Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
rarely set out to deal specifically with questions relating to women.
At the conclusion of her report, the author proposes that the
Foundation's researches should in future take specific account of the
differences between men and women, and suggests some more
specific subjects of research. DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
TRINITY COLLEGE
DUBLIN 2, IRELAND
A REVIEW OF EUROPEAN FOUNDATION STUDIES 1977-1984:
IMPLICATIONS FOR WOMEN
by
Margret Fine-Davis, Ph.D.
with the assistance of
J.J. McCarron
Dublin, Ireland
September, 1985
Contract Number: 84-ΙΙ-3θ3θ/26-4θ3θ/22 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgements ii
List of European Foundation Studies Reviewed ii
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. NEW TECHNOLOGY 5
A. Visual Display Units
B. Technological Revolution in the Office 23
C. Sectoral Studies 27
D. Stress 40
E. Telework5
III. NEW FORMS OF WORK ORGANISATION9
IV. SHIFTWORK 5
A. The Incidence of Shiftworking Among Women 57
B. Other Characteristics of Shiftworkers 61
C. Physical Effects of Shiftwork2
D. Effects of Shiftwork on Social and Family Life4
E. Case Studies of Innovations
F. Protective Legislation 68
V. PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS AT WORK 70
A. Physical and Psychological Stress at Work
B. Safety and Health at the Workplace5
VI. COMMUTING 7 9
VII. WORKING TIME AND LEISURE TIME 89
A. Survey of Research on Working Time and Leisure Time 8
B. The Impact of Retirement on the Living Conditions of
Retired Workers 95
C. An Investigation of Activities for the Unemployed 100
VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 107
References 132
APPENDIX: Suggestions for Further Research 141 11
ACKNOWLED GEMENTS
The author wishes to express her appreciation to Ms. Margaret Kelleher,
Project Manager, for her advice and suggestions throughout the course
of the project and for her valuable comments on earlier drafts of the
report. She also wishes to thank the other Project Managers for their
helpful suggestions and critical comments on various aspects of the
report.
Special appreciation is expressed to Ms. Julia McGeough who typed the
manuscript, cheerfully and expertly, through several stages of revision,
and to Ms Ros Willoughby, Ms Ruth Mercier and Ms Emmy Klaassen, who
graciously assisted in this task. The author also wishes to thank
Ms Rachel Thompson for assisting in the review of the studies.