Comparative research on international migration and international migration policy
104 pages
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Comparative research on international migration and international migration policy


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104 pages


Migration from the Maghreb and Turkey to the European Union, and from Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador to the United States
Social policy



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 22
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 3 Mo


Migration from the Maghreb and Turkey to the European
Union, and from Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador
to the United States
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• •

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ON COMMISSI This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Commission. The opinions expressed
by the authors do not necessarily reflect the position of the European Commission.
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998
ISBN 92-828-3225-2
© European Communities, 1998
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium European Commission
Migration from the Maghreb and Turkey
to the European Union, and from Mexico, Guatemala
and El Salvador to the United States
carried out by
Philip J. Muus and Eisbeth W. van Dam
Centre for Migration Research
Department of Human Geography
University of Amsterdam
Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130
1018 VZ Amsterdam
June 1996
Document Dr Philip J. Muus is currently a senior researcher at the
European Centre on Migration and Ethnic relations (Ercomer)
Faculty of Social Sciences
Utrecht University
2 3584 CS Utrecht
Mrs Elsbeth van Dam is currently a researcher at the
Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)
Lange Houtstraat 19, Box 11650
2502 AR The Hague
Netherlands CONTENTS
3.1 History of migration
3.1.1 The colonial start: migration between the Maghreb and
3.1.2 Migration of labour, from recruitment until the oil crisis 7
3.1.3 1973-1995 Continued migration: The arrival of family
members, asylum seekers and illegals 9
3.2 Factors influencing emigration from the Maghreb and Turkey 11
3.2.1 Demographic growth and employment 1
3.2.2 (Temporary) Labour migration policies3
3.2.3 Respect for human rights in emigration countries
3.3 Factors influencing immigration in Europeans4
3.3.1 Introduction 1
3.3.2 Admission policies for non-EU foreign labour, non-EU
family reunification, and asylum policy 15 Introduction France3 The Netherlands8 Germany 20 5 Sweden2
3.3.3 Immigration to Spain and Italy4 Spain Italy6
3.3.4 Chain migration and .the presence of immigrant communities .. 2
3.3.5 Regularizations and policies combatting illegality 29
3.3.6 Alternative policies: the influence of aid, trade and
investments on migration 31 Introduction2 Influence of development co-operation on economic
conditions in the sending countries 32 Development co-operation aimed at reducing
3.4 Summary and general conclusions8
4.1 Introduction 4
4.2 Legal and illegal immigration1
4.2.1 Legaln4.2.2 Undocumented immigration 45
4.2.3 Net outflow of Mexican labour migrants8
4.2.4 Summary
4.3 United States factors influencing immigration9
4.3.1 Labour market situation
4.3.2 Political and human rights situation 51
4.3.3 Policies with respect to refugees and asylum seekers 53
4.3.4 Migration policies 54
4.4 Mexican, Guatemalan and Salvadoran factors influencing migration ... 58
4.4.1 Labour market situation and demographic developments 6
4.4.2 Political and human rights situation 65
4.4.3 Absence of policy; remittances instead of emigration policy ... 66
4.4.4 Maquiladoras, NAFTA and foreign aid8
4.4.5 Conclusion 71
4.5 Immigrant communities in the United States
4.5.1 Culture of outmigration2
4.5.2 Immigrant communities in California
4.5.3 Size of immigrant communities3
4.5.4 Resident undocumented population4
4.5.5 Economic characteristics of immigrant communities 75
4.5.6 Summary8
4.6 Summary and general conclusions
Scheme 2.1 Scheme of analysis of international migration 3 e 2.2 Types of migrants 4
Table 3.1 France: Algerians, Moroccans and Tunisians, total and active
population according to census data for 1968-1990, in thousands .... 7
Table 3.2 Development of immigrant populations in France 1964-1974 8
Table 3.3 Maghrebian and Turkish residents in selected European countries (1
January 1993), in thousands 9
Table 3.4 Asylum requests in Germany, Turkish and total, 1979-1992 11
Table 3.5 Estimated population (millions) in Maghreb countries and Turkey
1960-2025 1
Table 3.6 Division of labour force per sector, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and
Turkey, 1965 and 1990-92 (%)2
Table 3.7 Labour supply and employment in Turkey, 1990 (in thousands) 1
Table 3.8 Immigration of family members in France 1970-1989, by nationality . . 17
Table 3.9 Breakdown of regularizations share (%) of Moroccans, Algerians,
Tunisians and Turks in total number of regularizations 30
Table 3.10 GNP, ODA and remittances in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and
Turkey, 1991 33 Table 3.11 Remittances through the French banking system to Morocco.
Algeria and Tunisia, 1970-1990 (in millions of current French
francs) 34
Table 3.12 Transfers from Germany to Turkey, 1970-1990 (in millions of DM) .. 3
Table 3.13 External debt and export-import ratio in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
and Turkey, 1991
Table 3.14 Trade of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia with the 12 member-states
of the European Union, 1989 (in million ECU's) 35
Table 3.15 Share of France and the EEC in the foreign trade of the Maghreb,
1987 (%)6
Table 3.16 Aid provided by the Member-states of the European Union to the
Maghreb, yearly average 1985-1988 37
Table 4.1 Legal immigration by country of last residence Mexico, El Salvador and
other Central America, for decades, 1901-1990 42
Table 4.2 Legaln by country of birth Mexico, El Salvador and
Guatemala, 1982-1992 44
Table 4.3 Admissions under family and employment preferences, FY 1992 .... 45
Table 4.4 Mexican undocumented workers apprehended and considered
'deportable' and authorized Border Patrol agents, 1970-1993 46
Table 4.5 Number of asylum applications, individuals granted asylum and
refugee arrivals by nationality, FY 1986-1992 52
Table 4.6 Per capita annual growth rate of GNP in Mexico, Guatemala, El
Salvador and the United States, 1965-19928
Table 4.7 Annual rate of inflation in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and the
United States, 1970-1992 59
Table 4.8 Total external debt, Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador, 1980 and
Table 4.9 Labour force in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and the United
States, 1970-2000
Table 4.10 Division of labour force per sector in percentages, Mexico,
Guatemala, El Salvador and the United States, 1965 and 1990-92 .... 60
Table 4.11 Annual growth rate of earnings per employee, Mexico, Guatemala,
El Salvador, the United States, 1970-1990 60
Table 4.12 Open unemployment in Mexico and the United States and
underemployment in Mexico, 1987-19931
Table 4.13 Population of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and the United
States, in millions, 1950-20252
Table 4.14 Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and
the United States, 1950-2000 6
Table 4.15 Maquila industry in Mexico: plants, employees, hourly wage and
value added, 1970-19925
Table 4.16 Family remittances and average amount (in $) per document, 1989-
1991 67
Table 4.17 Estimated total remittances by type of transfer in millions of dollars,
1980, 1985, 1990
Table 4.18 Estimation of the Mexican origin population residing in the United
States, 1940-1990, in thousands 74
Table 4.19 Economic characteristics by country of birth, United States, Mexico
and Central America, 19905 Table 4.20 Occupational distribution of Mexican-origin workers by nativity and
gender, 1960-1980, in percentages 77 INTRODUCTION
The member states of the European Union (EU) as well as the United States of America
(USA) have seen considerable migration from their immediate South. This study concerns
comparative research of migration from Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador to the USA
and from the Maghreb and Turkey towards the EU.
The terms of reference are the following:
The analysis should compare and contrast the two groups of migration with reference to
the lessons to be learnt from policy experience, and examine linkages between the two
groups on the basis of both documented and undocumented migration. Further
comparative analysis should revolve around the following variables:
1. admission policies and practices directed towards labour migrants, refugees and
asylum seekers and family members of both categories;
2. the effects of regularization practices;
3. the occurrence of chain migration and its controllability;
4. the relationship between international migration and the existence of freedom of
movement, free exchange of goods, and free international money flows.
Comparative analysis of migration between two groups of states needs limitation for
analytical and practical purposes, both in the choice of countries studied and in the factors
that are supposed to influence international migration. The choice to study migration from
selected countries immediately south of the EU and the USA is one of these limitations.
In varying degrees both groups of countries show political and economic linkages. The
effects of geographical proximity have been evident in times of labour shortages in
present-day EU states or the USA. The immediate South plays and played an important
role as supplier of low- or unskilled labour, often of a temporary character. Labour
migration, documented or undocumented, is not the only type of migration taking place
within the two selected groups of countries. The numbers of refugees and asylum seekers,
and moreover family members of immigrants who have settled before, have grown. In
both destination areas regularization practices have taken place, affecting important
numbers of undocumented immigrants from the selected countries of origin. Chain
migration occurs once migrants have settled and formed migrant communities.
Controllability of chain migration has become part of migration policies.
The two groups of countries differ also in some important points. The attitude towards
immigration is perhaps the most distinctive one. While the USA is a self-declared n country, none of the present day EU member states would describe itself as
such. With the exception of France, no EU member state has ever explicitly carried out a
population policy by way of immigration. In the USA immigration has played a crucial
role in the building up of the nation, and consequentlyn is to a lesser extent a
question of 'if, and more of 'how much' and 'from where'. In EU member states
1 immigration of third country nationals from the South is seen as a not always desired
outcome of former colonial domination, (former) economic needs and human rights issues
(the arrival of refugees and asylum seekers, but also family reunification).
Another difference related to migration policy is the fact that there is one national
immigration - or admission policy for the whole of the USA, while the admission policy
for the EU is carried out on the national level of its member states.
The questions posed in the terms of reference of this study relate to a large degree to
migration policies and its effects on controlling international migration. In order to
understand the role of migration policies and their effects on migration we need to d the process ofn first. We need insight in the actual migration process
and its major causes, in order to connect it to the relevant policies and their effects upon
The relationship between migration and migration policies is not an easy one. Actual
migration cannot be separated from migration policies. Causes of migration and migration
policies both affect migration. Some policies will influence migration more than others.
Comparative research is a possible way to show the effects of policies.
The set-up of the study is as follows:
In section 2 a macro-level scheme of analysis of international migration is presented.
With the help of this scheme we limit the factors studied at one macro-level of analysis
which are supposed to influence migration. A typology of migrants helps us to clarify
which types of migrants are studied and which are not. To sum up, the study is limited in
the number of emigration countries in relation to two immigration areas, the number of
factors influencing migration at the macro-level, and finally in the number of types of
In section 3 and 4 international migration within the two groups of countries is
extensively analyzed, section 3 is dealing with migration towards the EU, section 4 deals
with migration to the USA. Section 5 concludes the study by comparisons and final

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