eurostat
ASYLUM-SEEKERS AND REFUGEES
A STATISTICAL REPORT
Volume 1 : EC Member States eurostat
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Um Benutzern die Datensuche zu
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erleichtern, hat Eurostat Themenkreise, Y. Franchet
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Y. Franchet Y. Franchet
Generaldirektor Directeur général ASYLUM-SEEKERS AND REFUGEES
A STATISTICAL REPORT
Volume 1 : EC Member States
This report was compiled by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)
on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities.
Theme
Population and social conditions
Series
Studies and analyses
STATISTICAL DOCUMENT
Printed on recycled paper Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1994
ISBN 92-826-7623-4
© ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1994
Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium PREFACE
At the beginning of 1992, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) launched a call
for tender for an exploratory study on the statistics on asylum-seekers and refugees for the EC countries.
The Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI) was chosen to carry out this work. This
study was extended by the EFTA secretariat, in accordance wint Eurostat, to include also the EFTA
countries.
The aims of this study are the following:
1. To create an inventory of available data in EC and EFTA countries on asylum-seekers and refugees.
For this purpose, the data collected by Eurostat are used as a first choice. However, in order to fill
any gaps, other sources are used as a supplement (e.g. United Nations organizations and national
sources).
2. To analyze the relationship between statistics on asylum-seekers/refugees and statistics on interna­
tional migration. The focus is on the degree of overlap between the different sources. Available
inventories of data are used, such as the Eurostat study on the availability and quality of migration
statistics in the EC and EFTA countries.
3. To analyze the legislative backgrounds regarding asylum-seekers and refugees, concerning:
• distinctions between refugees invited directly by governments (at the request of the United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees) versus those applying independently for asylum;
• rules and regulations for admitting asylum-seekers and refugees;
• duration of asylum procedures;
• rules and regulations for reception of asylum-seekers and refugees after admission;
• procedures applied if asylum is not granted;
• possibilities for appeal.
4. To analyze the major trends in EC and EFTA countries with respect to asylum-seekers and refugees,
given the degree of comparability of the data and data sources. This analysis includes a discussion
of the backgrounds and consequences of the trends, as well as the role of policies and policy changes.
Volume one contains the results of this study for the EC countries, volume two for the EFTA countries.
Various organizations and persons have contributed to the study.
Firstly, I gratefully acknowledge the various national experts for responding the questionnaires and for
their comments on the draft country reports.
Furthermore, special thanks are due to Thana Chrissanthaki (Eurostat), Luise Drüke and Jan C.
Henneman (both UNHCR), Jonas Widgren (Informal Consultations), and, last but not least, my colleague
Jeannette Schoorl.
Finally, I would like to thank Jolande Siebenga (NIDI) for assisting me in finding appropriate literature,
and Angie Pleit-Kuiper (NIDI) for the English editing.
Rob van der Erf
The Hague, June 1993. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Freface 3
List of tables 7
List of figures 11
1 Introduction3
2 International fora5
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Council of Europe
2.3 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 1
2.4 International Labour Organization (ILO) 16
2.5l Organization for Migration (IOM)
2.6 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
2.7 Informal Consultations
2.8 European Community7
2.9 Schengen Group 1
2.10 European Free Trade Association
2.11 Other inter-governmental fora8
2.12 Non-governmental fora
3 Resettlement of refugees9
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Evolution of postwar UNHCR resettlement activities 1
3.3 Quotas in the EC countries 20
4 Legislative backgrounds to the asylum procedure3
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Similarities and differences within the EC4
4.3 Information per country8
4.3.1 Belgium 2
4.3.2 Denmark 30
4.3.3 Germany1
4.3.4 Greece2
4.3.5 Spain3
4.3.6 France4
4.3.7 Ireland5
4.3.8 Italy
4.3.9 Luxembourg6
4.3.10 Netherlands
4.3.11 Portugal 37
4.3.12 United Kingdom8 5 Statistics 41
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Overview of the availability, quality, and comparability of the statistics in the EC ... 42
5.3 Relation between statistics on asylum and migration statistics 50
6 Recent developments 53
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Overview of recent developments in the EC 5
6.3 Information per country8
6.3.1 Belgium
6.3.2 Denmark 62
6.3.3 Germany6
6.3.4 Greece 70
6.3.5 Spain1
6.3.6 France4
6.3.7 Ireland 8
6.3.8 Italy
6.3.9 Luxembourg3
6.3.10 Netherlands5
6.3.11 Portugal8
6.3.12 United Kingdom 89
7 Summary and conclusions 9
8 Literature
9 Appendices 10
9.1 Questionnaire on asylum-seekers and refugees 103
9.2e ons and international migration statistics 111
9.3 Tables per country 115
9.3.1 Belgium '
9.3.2 Denmark 121
9.3.3 Germany
9.3.4 Greece9
9.3.5 Spain 13
9.3.6 France
9.3.7 Ireland 140
9.3.8 Italy1
9.3.9 Luxembourg5
9.3.10 Netherlands7
9.3.11 Portugal 15
9.3.12 United Kingdom3 LIST OF TABLES
Resettlement quotas 20
Characteristics of asylum procedures6
Outcome of asylum procedures in Belgium by year of application 3
Definition of applicant for asylum 42
Available statistics on asylum4
Definition of refugee
Available statistics on refugees7
Definition of recognition percentage/rate9
Migration statistics and asylum-seekers 51
Asylum applications in the major asylum countries of the EC
Asylums by main country of nationality in the major asylum
countries of the EC.19926
Percentage distribution of the asylum applications by continent of nationality in
the major asylum countries of the EC, 19927
Recognition percentage/rate according to national practices in the major asylum
countries of the EC, 1992
Asylum applications in Belgium by main country of nationality 59
Decisions on asylum applications in Belgium per year of application, by country of nationality 61
Asylum applications in Denmark by country of nationality (*1,000) 64
Asylums in Germany by country of origin (*1,000)8
Asylum applications in Spain by country of nationality (* 1,000) 72
Asylums in France by country ofy (*1,000)6
Decisions on asylum applications in France by country of nationality
Sex, family relationship, and age of applicants for asylum in France by country
of nationality, 1990 (percentages) 79
Asylum applications in the Netherlands by country of nationality (* 1,000) 8
Asylums in the United Kingdom by country of nationality (* 1,000) 91
Asylum applications in Belgium, absolute and per 10,000 of the population 115
Asylums in Belgium by place of application 11
Asylum applications in Belgium by country of nationality6
Decisions on asylum applications in Belgium by year of application7 s on asylums in Belgium by country of nationality and year of application 11
Decisions on admitted asylum applications in Belgium by year of application 118 s on admitted asylums in Belgium by year of decision
Decisions on admitted asylum applications in Belgium by country of nationality
and year of decision, 1990 119
Advices of CGRA pertaining to'urgent requests for review' 120
Pending asylum procedures in Belgium per calendar year (ultimo)Asylum applications in Denmark, absolute and per 10,000 of the population 121
Positive decisions on asylum applications in Denmark, granted embassy
applications, and invited refugees 12
Asylum applications in Denmark by country of nationality2
Positive decisions in Denmark by country ofy3
Family reunification of recognized refugees in Denmark
Asylum applications outside Denmark by country of nationality 124
Asylum-seekers rejected at the border of Denmark and cases sent to the
Danish Refugee Council
Asylum applications in Germany, absolute and per 10,000 of the population5
Manifestly unfounded asylum-seekers in Germany, per year of application
Decisions on asylum applications at first instance in Germany, per year of decision 12
Asylum applications in Germany by country of origin 126
Decisions on asylum applications at first instance in Germany, by country
of nationality, 1990 127
Pending first instance cases and appeals in Germany at the end of the year8
'Aussiedler'to Germany by country of origin
Asylum applications in Greece, absolute and per 10,000 of the population 129
Resettled persons from Greece by country of resettlement
Decisions on asylum applications in Greece by country of nationality, 1990 130
Asylum applications in Spain, absolute ar,d per 10,000 of the population1
Asylum procedure decisions in Spain . 13
Asylum applications in Spain by country of nationality2
Asylum procedure decisions in Spain by country of nationality (persons), 1990 133
Asylumes in Spain by country ofy (cases)4
Asylum applications in France, absolute and per 10,000 of the population5
Asylums and decisions in France
Asylum applications in France by country of nationality6
Decisions on asylum applications in France, by country of nationality 137
Asylum applications in France by sex, age, and family relationship for
some nationalities,1990 138
Composition of the applicants for asylum in France for various nationalities, 1990,
percentages9
Asylum applications in Ireland, absolute and per 10,000 of the population 140
Asylums in Italy, absolute and per 10,000 of the population1
Asylum applications in Italy by main country of nationality 14
Distribution by sex of the admitted 1991 applicants for asylum in Italy,
by country of nationality 142
Asylum procedure decisions in Italy3
Asylumes in Italy by country of nationality
Asylum procedure decisions in Italy by age, 19924
Asylum applications in Luxembourg, absolute and per 10,000 of the population 145