How to enhance Walking and Cycling instead of shorter car trips and to  make these modes safer
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How to enhance Walking and Cycling instead of shorter car trips and to make these modes safer

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WALCYNGContract No: UR-96-SC.099 Project Coordinator: Partners:Date: 15.1.1999Chalmers University of Technology AB (Associated Contractor)Dutch Pedestrian Association "De Voetgangersvereniging"TransportTechnologie-Consult Karlsruhe GmbHInstituto de Tráfico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS), University of ValenciaDepartment of Psychology, University of HelsinkiInstitute of Transport EconomicsCity of Helsinki, City Planning OfficeFranco Gnavi and Carlo BonanniFACTUM Chaloupka, Praschl & Risser OHG Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering, University of Lund, SwedenPublicse modes safer e and to make thter car trips r instead of shoHow to enhance WALking and CYcliNGDeliverable D64RTD PROGRAMME OF THE FRAMEWORK PROGRAMMEthCOMMISSION UNDER THE TRANSPORTPROJECT FUNDED BY THE EUROPEANHydén, C., Nilsson, A. & Risser, R.Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering,University of Lund, Sweden &FACTUM Chaloupka, Praschl & Risser OHG,Vienna, AustriaPublicse modes safer e and to make thter car trips r instead of shoHow to enhance WALking and CYcliNGWALCYNGDeliverable D66. 7. , 8. Transport Technologie-Consult Karlsruhe GmbH (former Verkehrs-Consult Karlsruhe), 9. 10. Road and Traffic Planning Department, Chalmers University of Technology AB, Sweden Gunnarsson,Olof The Netherlands Willem Vermeulen, De Voetgangersvereniging,Germany Rainer Schneider,Beatriz Martín, Spain University of Valencia, Enrique J. Carbonell Vayá, ...

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WALCYNG
Contract No: UR-96-SC.099
Project Coordinator:
Partners:
Date: 15.1.1999
Chalmers University of Technology AB (Associated Contractor)
Dutch Pedestrian Association "De Voetgangersvereniging"
TransportTechnologie-Consult Karlsruhe GmbH
Instituto de Tráfico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS), University of Valencia
Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki
Institute of Transport Economics
City of Helsinki, City Planning Office
Franco Gnavi and Carlo Bonanni
FACTUM Chaloupka, Praschl & Risser OHG
Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering, University of Lund, Sweden
Public
se modes safer e and to make th
ter car trips r instead of sho
How to enhance WALking and CYcliNG
Deliverable D64
RTD PROGRAMME OF THE
FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME
th
COMMISSION UNDER THE TRANSPORT
PROJECT FUNDED BY THE EUROPEANHydén, C., Nilsson, A. & Risser, R.
Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering,
University of Lund, Sweden &
FACTUM Chaloupka, Praschl & Risser OHG,
Vienna, Austria
Public
se modes safer e and to make th
ter car trips r instead of sho
How to enhance WALking and CYcliNG
WALCYNG
Deliverable D66.
7. ,
8. Transport Technologie-Consult Karlsruhe GmbH (former Verkehrs-Consult Karlsruhe),

9.
10. Road and Traffic Planning Department, Chalmers University of Technology AB,

Sweden Gunnarsson,
Olof
The Netherlands Willem Vermeulen, De Voetgangersvereniging,
Germany Rainer Schneider,
Beatriz Martín, Spain University of Valencia, Enrique J. Carbonell Vayá, INTRAS
Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist, Finland3
26
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1
CONTENTS
................................ ................................ ................................ ..
................................ ................................ ................................ ........
................................ ................................ ................................ .................
2.1 T ................................ .........................
2.2 ................................ .................
................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
CAR TRIPS AND TRIPS BY WALKING AND
................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
4.1 IM ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
4.2 P ................................ ..........
4.3 T ................................ ........
4.4 P ................................ ................................ .............
4.5 ................................ ...
4.6 ................................ ................................ ...................
4.7 P - ................................ ...........................
4.8 T , ................................ ...........................
4.9 T ................................
4.10 T ................................ .....
4.11 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
4.12 I S ................................ ....................
..................
5.1 IM ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
5.2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
5.3 ................................ ................................ ................................
................................ ................................ ................................ .......
................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
Road and infrastructure ................................ ................................ ..............................
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
5.4 ................................ ................................ .............
................................ ................................ ................................ .......
................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
Road and infrastructure ................................ ................................ ..............................
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
5.5 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
5.6 I S ................................ ....................
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS
Society
Vehicle products
Personal products
ETAILED RESULTS AND COMMENTS D
Society
Vehicle products
Personal products
VERVIEW OF RESULTS O
ETHODS M
A
TS FOR PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS PRODUCTS AND EFFOR
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS
HE POTENTIAL FOR WALKING AND CYCLING IS CONSIDERABLE
RIP CHAINS CANNOT EXPLAIN THE USE OF CARS FOR SHORT TRIPS
THE MORE PEOPLE WALK HE LARGER THE CITY
TIME MAKE MOST TRIPS EOPLE WORKING PART
OMEN WALK MORE THAN MEN W
ALKING AND CYCLING IS OFTEN DONE AS A PURPOSE IN ITSELF W
EOPLE MAKE THREE TRIPS PER DAY
HERE IS A LIMIT TO HOW FAR PEOPLE WILL WALK OR CYCLE
ROBLEMS COMPARING DATA FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
A
CYCLING
PORTIONS OF SHORT
THE CONCEPT
? HICH GROUPS ARE WE ADDRESSING WITH OUR WORK W
HE MARKETING MODEL THAT WE HAVE SELECTED
THE SCOPE
INTRODUCTION
I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
NOTATIONS



TABLE OF 7
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33
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8
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28
35
34
GENERAL PROBLEMS O ............................
6.1 IM ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
6.2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
6.3 . ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
6.4 ................................ ................................ ................................ .
................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
Comfort ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
Safety ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
Mobility ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
Financial Advantage ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
6.5 S ................................ ................................ .....
................................ ................................ ................................ ....
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
The Elderly ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
The Functionally disabled ................................ ................................ ...........................
6.6 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
6.7 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
6.8 I S ................................ ....................
................................ ................................ ...............................
7.1 IM ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
7.2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
7.3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
Theme 1: Rare events are dangerous. ................................ ................................ ..........
Theme 2: It must be accepted that pedestrians do make mistakes ................................ .
Theme 3: Car drivers are not afraid of cyclists. ................................ ...........................
7.4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
7.5 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
7.6 I S ................................ ....................
................................ ............
8.1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
8.2 AR ................................ ................................ .............................
................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
8.3 OMEN ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
8.4 ................................ ................................ ................................ .....
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
................................ ................................ ..............................
................................ ................................ ................................ ..
8.5 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
8.6 I S ................................ ....................
..................
9.1 T ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
WP6 HE PURPOSE OF
DE ANALYSES, STATED PREFERENCES INTERVIEWS, ATTITU
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS
Functionally disabled
Children and youngsters
Elderly
EGULAR WALCERS R
Main barriers
W
Main barriers
RIVERS D C ABITUAL H
BJECTIVES O
OF PRODUCTS AND STRATEGIES TYPOLOGIES
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS
ECOMMENDATIONS R
ESULTS R
ETHOD M
A
SAFETY PROBLEMS
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS
ONCLUSIONS C
Women
Habitual car drivers
PECIAL PROBLEMS OF SOME SUBGROUPS
Aesthetics
Weather
Health
Social Values
IMENSIONS D UALITY Q
ATA ANALYSIS D
ETHOD M
A
F PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS62
74
60
73
64
72
54
72
10
71
65
71
56
71
62
49
60
12
54
69
55
69
65
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11
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63
52
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67
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67
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57
52
66
65
9.2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
9.3 ................................ ................................ .............
9.4 ................................ ................................ ..
9.5 T ................................ ................................ .....
9.6 ................................ ................................ ........
9.7 ................................ .......
9.8 I ................................ ..................
9.9 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
9.10 I S ................................ ....................
................................ .......................
10.1 I ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
10.2 P ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
10.3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
10.4 ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
10.5 ................................ ................................ ........................
Facilities for the use of WALCYNG ................................ ................................ .............
................................ ...
Incentives to promote WALCYNG at the local, regional, national and European levels,
................................ ................................ ..................
10.6 ................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
10.7 ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
10.8 T ................................ ................................ .................
................................ ................................ ......................
11.1 I ................................ ................................ ......................
11.2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
11.3 ................................ ................................ .....................
................................ ................................ ................................ .......
................................ ...................
Why should enterprises want to change the travel behaviour of their staff? .................
11.4 OCUS ROUP I ................................ ................................ ..........................
................................ ................................ ................................ ......
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
11.5 S - ................................ ................................ ...
................................ ................................ .........................
Effective incentive strategies ................................ ................................ .......................
11.6 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
11.7 I S ................................ ....................
COMMUNICATION STR ................................ ................................ ........
12.1 IM ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
12.2 P ................................ ................................ ........
12.3 ................................ ..............................
................................ ................................ .......................
................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
................................ ................................ ..
Possibilities for a communication strategy
Expert meetings
Communication programmes
OMMUNICATION AS A MODIFYING STRATEGY C
RECONDITIONS FOR COMMUNICATION
A
ATEGIES
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS
Results of the open answers
STANDARDISED EXPERT INTERVIEWS EMI
Results
Aim and procedure
NTERVIEWS G F
Case study "Giesinger & Kopf – wrapping industry"
The "bike busters"
ESULTS LITERATURE STUDIES R
ETHODS M
WALCYNG NCENTIVES AND
IES INCENTIVE STRATEG
WQS HE PRESENTATION OF THE
WQS SE OF THE U
RITERIA C
both positive as well as negative
Communication (target community). How, What and to Whom.
ERIVATION OF STANDARDS D
ONSIDERATIONS C
ETHOD M
URPOSE
NTRODUCTION
RECOMMENDATION OF NEW PRODUCTS
POSITIVE PRODUCT ASPECTS AND IDENTIFICATION OF
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS
? S IT POSSIBLE TO CHANGE SHORT TRIP MODE CHOICE
EASURES TO IMPROVE WALKING AND CYCLING CONDITIONS M
ARRIERS FOR WALKING AND CYCLING B
HE BENEFITS OF WALKING AND CYCLING
CCESS TO TRANSPORT AND USE OF MODES A
ESPONDENT SOCIODEMOGRAPHICS R
ETHODS M78
78
83
16
77
100
77
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78
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98
87
98
85
75
84
97
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78
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102
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85
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85
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14
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80
90
77
75
78
13
78
90
89
88
12.4 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
12.5 I S ................................ ....................
................................ ................................ ................................ .........
13.1 I ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
13.2 ................................ ................................ .........
13.3 ................................ ................................
13.4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
Literature studies - state of the art ................................ ................................ ...............
................................ ................................ ..............................
................................ ................................ ................................ .........
................................ ................................ ................................ .....
................................ ................................ ...........
13.5 S ................................ ................................ ................
13.6 I S ................................ ....................
LOBBYING ................................ ................................ ........
14.1 I ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
14.2 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
14.3 ................................ ................................ ..........................
14.4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
14.5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
14.6 I S ................................ ....................
................................ .........
15.1 IM ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
15.2 P ROCEDURE ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
................................ ................................ ................................ ............
15.3 ................................ ............
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
Belgium ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
England ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
................................ ................................ ................................ ................
................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
Spain ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
15.4 S ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
................................ .................
Effects of taken measures ................................ ................................ ............................
Measures for citizens/employees to influence behaviour on an individual level ...........
Discussion of the main results ................................ ................................ ...................
THE SYNTHESIS - D
................................ ................................ ................................ .....
FOR WALCYNG
EVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CONDITIONS
What measures have been taken to promote walcyng?
YNTHESIS
Switzerland
Sweden
Norway
The Netherlands
Luxembourg
Ireland
Finland
Denmark
Austria
VERVIEW OF THE RESULTS IN THE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES O
Data treatment
A
VEY TO EUROPEAN CITIES QUESTIONNAIRE SUR
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
ESULTS R
ETHODS M
EFINITION AND FUNCTION D
BJECTIVES O
NTRODUCTION
OUTLINING FUTURE
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
ITUATIONS ORKING W IFFICULT D
Common arguments against walcyng
Case study analysis
Expert Interviews
Focus Group Interviews
ETHODS M
WALCYNG? OW IS THE CONCEPT USED IN H
EFINITION IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TERMS D
NTRODUCTION
INOCULATION
(WQS) CHEME UALITY Q ALCYNG W NPUT FOR THE
YNTHESIS104
108
108
106
17
109
107
106
108
108
107
106
104
102
109
106
106
107
16.1 I ................................ ................................ .......
16.2 T ................................ .................
16.3 E ................................ .............................
...............................
17.1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
................................ ..............
2. The function of research in the area ................................ ................................ ......
................................ ................................ ...............................
................................ ........
5. Segmentation of user groups ................................ ................................ .................
6. Evaluation ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
17.2 ................................ ................................ ...................
................................ ...............................
Information about WALCYNG has to be systematised ................................ ...............
................................ ................................ .............................
Validation of the WALCYNG Quality Scheme ................................ ............................
................................ ................................ ................................ .......
APPENDIX 2: THE WALCYNG QUALITY SCHEME
DISSEMINATION APPENDIX 1:
REFERENCES AND LITERATURE USED BY WALCYNG

Further lobbying
Demonstration projects
Management and implementation research
EED FOR FURTHER RESEARCH N
4. Differences between countries - back to context aspects
3. Who are "the users"
1. How to enhance walcyng instead of short car trips?
ONCLUSIONS C
EED FOR FURTHER RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS AND N
WQS XPECTED RESULTS OF THE USE OF THE
TILL AN INSTRUMENT FOR RESEARCHERS WQS: S HE
NSTRUCTION FOR EVALUATION WORKWALCYNG - How to enhance WALking and CYcliNG instead of shorter car trips and to
make these modes safer - is a project in the Programme Package Urban transport, DG VII
The use and the dependence of cars in everyday life is increasing. Even on short trips, the use
of a car is the most usual way to travel. A number of short trips by car can be replaced by
modes like walking and cycling. The purpose of WALCYNG is to sort out conditions and
measures which may contribute in replacing short car trips with walking and cycling.
WALCYNG applies a Marketing Model. The goal is to show how short car trips should be
1.
2.
3. Authorities and decision makers who can influence on modal split by changing frame co -
WALCYNG is divided into 13 different work packages (WP). Each of the work packages will
give important knowledge of the different parts of WALCYNG, like description of the cond -
tions for walking and cycling in different countries, the main problems for pedestrians and c -
clists, identification of measures and incentives to improve the conditions for walking and c -
the main advantages and the obstacles connected to walking and cycling. WALCYNG also
includes an assessment of safety problems of pedestrians and cyclists and an identification of
WALCYNG has a sister project, ADONIS. The results of the two projects are complementing
each other.
1. Co-ordinator: Department of Traffic Planning and Engineering, Institute of Tec -
2.
3.
4.
5.
Norway Institute of Transport Economics, Ingunn Stangeby,
City Planning Office, City of Helsinki, Eero Pasanen, Finland
Franco Gnavi and Carlo Bonanni, Italy
FACTUM, Ralf Risser, Karin Ausserer, Austria
nology, University of Lund, Christer Hydén, Annika Nilsson, Sweden
h Lund
Partners from eight different countries took part in WALCYNG:
relevant solutions.
cling, communication strategies and campaigns for implementing measures, information about
y
y
i
ditions.
n
employees.
Employers who could both support and benefit from the desired modal change among their
Road users who could replace their short car trips
The project outcome is aiming at three groups:
replaced by walking and cycling with the help of marketing instruments.
Transport RTD Programme in EU's Fourth Framework Programme.
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