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Symmetric functional modeling in life cycle assessment [Elektronische Ressource] / Ioannis-Stefan Kougoulis

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195 pages
Symmetric functional modeling in Life Cycle Assessment vorgelegt von M.Sc. Dipl.-Chem. Ioannis-Stefan Kougoulis aus Thessaloniki von der Fakultät III – Prozesswissenschaften der Technischen Universität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften -Dr.-Ing.- genehmigte Dissertation Promotionsausschuss: Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr-Ing. Jörg Steinbach Berichter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Günter Fleischer Prof. Dr. Walter Klöpffer Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 20. Dezember 2007 Berlin 2008 D 83 Berichte aus der Umweltwissenschaft Ioannis-Stefan Kougoulis Symmetric functional modeling in Life Cycle Assessment Gedruckt mit Unterstützung des Deutschen Akademischen Austauschdienstes. D 83 (Diss. TU Berlin) Shaker Verlag Aachen 2008 Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de. Zugl.: Berlin, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2007 Copyright Shaker Verlag 2008 All rights reserved.
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Symmetric functional modeling in Life Cycle Assessment




vorgelegt von
M.Sc. Dipl.-Chem.
Ioannis-Stefan Kougoulis
aus Thessaloniki


von der Fakultät III – Prozesswissenschaften
der Technischen Universität Berlin
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades

Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften
-Dr.-Ing.-

genehmigte Dissertation



Promotionsausschuss:
Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr-Ing. Jörg Steinbach
Berichter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Günter Fleischer Prof. Dr. Walter Klöpffer

Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 20. Dezember 2007


Berlin 2008
D 83









Berichte aus der Umweltwissenschaft





Ioannis-Stefan Kougoulis




Symmetric functional modeling
in Life Cycle Assessment
























Gedruckt mit Unterstützung des Deutschen Akademischen Austauschdienstes.



D 83 (Diss. TU Berlin)



Shaker Verlag
Aachen 2008













Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche
Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet
at http://dnb.d-nb.de.


Zugl.: Berlin, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2007































Copyright Shaker Verlag 2008
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission
of the publishers.

Printed in Germany.



ISBN 978-3-8322-7249-4
ISSN 0946-7173



Shaker Verlag GmbH • P.O. BOX 101818 • D-52018 Aachen
Phone: 0049/2407/9596-0 • Telefax: 0049/2407/9596-9
Internet: www.shaker.de • e-mail: info@shaker.de
Acknowledgement


My warmest thanks go to Professor Dr. Walter Klöpffer who introduced me in Life Cycle
Assessment and guided me all the way. His invaluable support and his brilliant scientific
thinking brought many fruitful discussions which were always inspiring.

I would like to express my gratitude to Professor Dr-Ing. G. Fleischer for providing me the
opportunity to work in this exciting field of Life Cycle Assessment in the department of
Environmental Systems Engineering, in the Technical University of Berlin. I have been
privileged to benefit from his expertise. His full backing in difficult periods will always be very
much appreciated.

I would like to thank the Vice President of Technical University of Berlin Professor Dr-Ing.
Jörg Steinbach for his valuable remarks and for acting as a chairman in the examination
board.

Many thanks also go to Dr.-Ing Robert Ackermann for his lively methodological discussions
on the implementation of life cycle approaches in the initial stages of this work. Not forgetting
Andre, Liliana, Franziska, Jae Moon and all the other colleagues of Environmental Systems
Engineering department for providing a nice working atmosphere, I say thanks to all of you.

Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude to a friend and colleague of mine, Antonio
Konstantas who provided great support and advice for a major part of this thesis during
longer methodological discussions. I would like to express my thanks also to Gerard who was
always there to support and advice me when needed. Special thanks also to Paul and Manos
for their important finishing touches in the final draft. I would like to express my warmest
thanks to Stella for her consistent invaluable support and encouragement in every way. I
would like to give my deepest thanks to Milena for her awesome encouragement and
invaluable support in all aspects.

I would also like to express my deep appreciation to my parents, Christos and Marion and my
brother, Periklis for being there for me all the way and for their loving support. This thesis is
dedicated to them.

Last but not least, I would also like to express my special thanks to Volly, Ojiambo, Markela,
Lars, Michi, Kalle, Ania, Georg, Hauke and all my international friends, I met during my stay
in Berlin. Their contribution by providing the much needed enjoying intervals which were full
of cultural exchange and trying to understand the world from a different point of view during
stressful periods will always be remembered.

Special thanks go to the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for their important
role in my study through their provision of the needed financial support.













to the people I love
J.-S. Kougoulis Contents
Contents
Page
Contents i
Abbreviations and Symbols ix
Glossary xi

I Introduction
I-1 Appointing the problem 1
I-2 Goal of the dissertation 3

II Theoretical Fundamentals 5
II-1 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 5
II-2 LCI-System 5
II-3 System elements 7
II-4 System elements flows classification and allocation 9
II-5 Interrelation of the system element flows 11
II-6 System element data 13
II-7 Cut-off criteria in life cycle inventory 15
II-8 Modeling the LCI-system using cut-off criteria 17
II-8.1 “Inside-to-outside” and “outside-to-inside” LCI-system modeling 19
approaches
II-8.2 System elements co-equality in the application of cut-off criteria 20
II-9 Calculation methods for the LCI-system flows 21
II-10 Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) 24

III. Symmetric functional modeling development 27
III-1 Data symmetry and symmetric modeling 27
III-1.1 Data symmetry with respect to data collection 28
III-1.2 Data symmetry the system element’s flow determination 30
III-1.3 Data symmetry with respect to system boundaries determination 31
III-2 Symmetric modeling importance and its role in comparative LCAs 32
III-3 System related cut-off criteria 33
III-3.1 Process related cut-off criterion 35
III-3.2 System related cut-off criteria 36
III-3.2.1 System related cut-off criteria based on product flow data 37
III-3.2.2 System related cut-off criterelementary flow data 38
III-3.2.2.1 Elementary cut-off criterion (cut-off criterion 4a and 4b) 39
i Symmetric functional modeling in LCA J.-S. Kougoulis Contents
III-3.2.2.2 Environmental impact cut-off criteria (cut-off criteria 5, 6 42
and 7)
III-4 Cut-off criteria comparison in terms of reliability 48
III-5 Symmetric modeling of the LCI-system 53
III-5.1 Symmetric modeling of single LCI-systems 53
III-5.2 Symmetric modeling of the LCI-system in the context of more than one 58
LCI-system
III-6 Multifunctional modules development 63
III-6.1 Defining relevance 65
III-6.2 Relevance measurement 65
III-6.2.1 System element relevance and cut-off criterion function 66
III-6.3 Relevance unit normalization modeling 67
III-6.3.1 Relevance unit normalization modeling and module relevance 67
III-6.3.2 System element relevance and substance relevance models 69
III-6.3.3 Relevance unit normalization application on a system element 73
III-6.3.4 System element relevance and cut-off criterion limit 75
III-6.3.5 Hierarchy of system elements 75
III-6.3.6 Module relevance and cut-off limit 78
III-6.3.7 Analogy formula derivation 81
III-6.3.7.1 Interrelation of system element relevance values ri and r ΄i 83
when module is in the databank and in the LCI-system
III-6.3.7.2 Cut-off limit and derivation of analogy equation 90
III-6.3.7.3 Analogy formula validity range 93
III-6.3.8 Module symmetric adjustment algorithm 94

IV Multifunctional module performance in a case-study 99
IV-1 Case-study selection 99
IV-2 Developing the multifunctional energy production modules 100
IV-2.1 Development of the e-module subsystem 100
IV-2.2 Employment of RUN models 103
IV-3 Multifunctional modules performance. 111
IV-4 Symmetric adjustment algorithm 113
IV-5 Results comparison 113
IV-6 Results and discussion 118

V Conclusions 125

Symmetric functional modeling in LCA ii