The logic of reason, universal and eternal

The logic of reason, universal and eternal

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! REESE LIBRARY . UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. . /.s\yl7AV. ^/idy - - -s : v ,-\ ra "-',-'"' --^.'- i '.'-,- -.v. ,',':, ;"v: m .-..-:-: m i THE LOGIC OF REASON, UNIVERSAL AND ETERNAL. BY LAURENS P. D. LL. D.HICKOK, D., BOSTON: LEE AND PUBLISHERS.SHEPARD, NEW YORK: SHEPARD AND DILLINGHAM.LEE, 1875. in theto Act of year 1874,Entered, according Congress, BY L. P. HICKOK, atIn the Office of the Librarian of Washington.Congress, at the Boston Foundry,Stereotyped Stereotype No. 19 Lane.Spring PREFACE. PHYSICAL SCIENCE and areSpeculative Philosophy fast to the that cannot beforcing result, knowledge made so as to sincerepositive wholly displace scepti- cism modes of or dialectic hithertoby any logic ap- all an assumedplied. Through past ages knowledge has been able to find some on which to main-ground tain its own but never with so clear aconvictions, title that has not its honestscepticism interposed doubt of Inentire the the ul-validity. present age, timate sources for both conviction and doubt are so that the crisis inseemsexamined,closely approaching which the two cannot stand on commontogether and the to butground, longer dispute right possession, one or the other will attain an exclu-acknowledged sive The admission must ere beownership.

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!
REESE LIBRARY
.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
. /.s\yl7AV.
^/idy
-
- -s : v ,-\
ra "-',-'"'
--^.'-
i '.'-,- -.v. ,',':,;"v:
m
.-..-:-:
m iTHE LOGIC OF REASON,
UNIVERSAL AND ETERNAL.
BY
LAURENS P. D. LL. D.HICKOK, D.,
BOSTON:
LEE AND PUBLISHERS.SHEPARD,
NEW YORK:
SHEPARD AND DILLINGHAM.LEE,
1875.in theto Act of year 1874,Entered, according Congress,
BY L. P. HICKOK,
atIn the Office of the Librarian of Washington.Congress,
at the Boston Foundry,Stereotyped Stereotype
No. 19 Lane.SpringPREFACE.
PHYSICAL SCIENCE and areSpeculative Philosophy
fast to the that cannot beforcing result, knowledge
made so as to sincerepositive wholly displace scepti-
cism modes of or dialectic hithertoby any logic ap-
all an assumedplied. Through past ages knowledge
has been able to find some on which to main-ground
tain its own but never with so clear aconvictions,
title that has not its honestscepticism interposed
doubt of Inentire the the ul-validity. present age,
timate sources for both conviction and doubt are so
that the crisis inseemsexamined,closely approaching
which the two cannot stand on commontogether
and the to butground, longer dispute right possession,
one or the other will attain an exclu-acknowledged
sive The admission must ere beownership. long
the humanthat can be knownmade, nothing truly by
and is but athat consciousness itselfmind, seeming,
as in hallucination or a or that we do knowdream,
some truths universal and eternal and;absolutely
exclusion of all in the case must comesuch question
the use of our own for even revela-intelligence,by
tion cannot us till it shall be onhelp put ground
34 PEEFACE.
which our intellectual faculties can and unan-reach,
test the of itsswerably validity authority.
A conviction that modes of atstrong logic present
used can never attain to absolute butknowledge,
must short in confirmed an im-stop scepticism, puts
us to seek out a better whichuponperative logic, by
known truths be held forever sure. And al-may
now see that such betterfew,though comparatively,
is the to anlogic only way escape all-pervading scep-
full that is not farthe belief theticism, yet period
when this must become adistant conviction,general
a and better be a wide-feltand new want,logic lays
an additional claim us to do what we notupon may,
to hasten on this certain but also to doissue,only
what we can to meet this want. Whethercoming
more or less shall be contributed to suchthereby
these considerations haveresults,hopeful precisely
to the present undertaking.pressed
1874.AMHEEST, MASS.,CONTENTS.
PAGE
INTRODUCTION 13
Facts ofmatter and facts of mind to be determinedconnectively
in One This universal is in andPhilosophy. Philosophy Reason,
hence the of an ultimate rule, allnecessity logical comprehending
in conditions. Abstractions fromexperience pre-requisite experience
cannot law to and a ofgive experience, only by comprehension
in the concrete can we attain its law. And thisexperience requires
:Two Parts I. That we . note the forms ofprominent Abstract
II. That we attain a universal.Logic. Logic concretely
PART I.
PROMINENT FORMS OP ABSTRACT LOGIC.
I.
LOGIC OF MATHEMATICS 20
Mathematic is mensuration of This has" :twoQuantity. parts
of known and unknown a unit ofEquation magnitudes by applying
and the Calculus of value a numericalmeasure, by computation.
Rational Mathematic has one of which includespure diagrams, any
the universal of the same kind. The and the ArithmeticAlgebraic
Calculus. The Transcendental The error is thatgrandAnalysis.
anMathematic is made Abstract Science. Cannot be both Abstract
the latter it itsand ofwhich must be. It hasUniversal, necessary
in itself and its exclusions from but itsrestrictions philosophy;
constructions stand the first in concrete and thuspure very logic,
of Mathematics is essential forthe logic philosophy.
56 CONTENTS.
II.
THE SYLLOGISTIC LOGIC 25
Abstraction and Generalization convenient for andclassifying,
a mental exercise hence the of Aristotle'spleasant ; production
an abstract from and never reach-Logic. Altogether experience,
1.the reason. Its Elements 2.ing are, Conceptions. Judg-
Laws of 4.ments. 3. Inductive isThought. Syllogisms. Logic
to the whole determined fixed abstrac-subsidiary Deductive, by
tions from Its is and allexperience. ruling rigidly immutable,
or motion in one and the same is inconceivable.change thing
Its laws exclude chemical conversions of makecombination^ Force,
matter and illimitable and Tune unknown. Scienceinert, Space
and have it.gonephilosophy beyond
III.
TRANSCENDENTAL LOGIC 36
Not the determines the but the deter-object thought, thought
mines the Outline of Kant's of moreobject. Logic; Fichte's;
of as Absolute from hisfully Hegel's. Taking thought-activity
and abstract with its Naught,Phenomenology, Being, counterpart
from the Old has for his Science ofLogic, Hegel preparation Logic.
into his Science of NatureThis, produced externality, gives ; and,
returned to his Science of Mind. Hisinternality, gives Logic
: 1.shown to be deficient in the It is not self-following points
but is an 2. Its attained Reasondeveloped, empirical outgrowth.
is 3. It can no ultimate 4. Canmoral Rule. admitambiguous. give
no in human of a commonof communication norexperience, Space
and Time. 5. Has no other Force than the thought-activity.
When Aristotle's and are 1. TheLogic Hegel's compared,
former cannot the latter cannot rest. 2. Neither can deter-move,
mine universal 3. Both buttogether determine,experience. might
neither can transcend 4. The Transcendentalexperience. depends
the Old 5. The certitude to which either arrive.upon Logic. may