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The rise of new nations. The relations of races in South America. The two Americas and the relation of South America to Europe. The conditions of political life in Spanish America. Some reflections and forecasts

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178 pages
THE RISE UP^ NEW NATIONS THE REEAIIONS OF RACES IN SOUTH A^lERICA ANDTHE TWO AMERICAS THE RE- LATION OF SOUTH AMERICA TO EUROI'E THE CONDITIONS OF POLIi'iCAL LIFE IN SPANTSIi AMERICA ' SOME REFLECTIONS AND FOREC.'-STo '-^i'f.!A"l':S BP '-SuU'IHFl\ F. CilAPTE'C- 1{KPUINTK?> FI50M AmEUICA " -Obsekvatk :• am> Jmpr£;ss''Xs THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1916 All reservedrights EXCHANGE THE RISE OF NEW NATIONS INTHE RELATIONS OF RACES AMERICASOUTH AMERICAS AND THE RE-THE TWO LATION OF SOUTH AMERICA TO EUROPE POLITICALTHE CONDITIONS OF AMERICALIFE IN SPANISH REFLECTIONS ANDSOME FORECASTS BY JAMES BRYCE " America :Five Chapters reprinted from South and Impressions"Observations THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1916 reservedAll rights EXCHANGE BT ThB CoMPANTMaCMILLANCOPTKIGHT, 1912, Norigooti ^rtsa —Berwick dc SmithJ. B. Go. Co.Onsbing U.S.A.Masa.,Norwood, CHAPTER XII THE RISE OF NEW NATIONS In a.d. when the true Lib-1808, Napoleon Bonaparte, erator of moved his armies intoSpanish America, Spain, the dominions of the Crown stretched southSpanish thousand milesfromthe ofSan Francisco to theeight bay TheStraits of that was scatteredMagellan. population wasover that vast nativeregionthinly mostly Indian, but there have been a million ofmay possibly pure stock and times that number of mixedSpanish many and Indian blood.
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THE RISE UP^ NEW NATIONS
THE REEAIIONS OF RACES IN
SOUTH A^lERICA
ANDTHE TWO AMERICAS THE RE-
LATION OF SOUTH AMERICA
TO EUROI'E
THE CONDITIONS OF POLIi'iCAL
LIFE IN SPANTSIi AMERICA
'
SOME REFLECTIONS AND
FOREC.'-STo
'-^i'f.!A"l':S BP
'-SuU'IHFl\ F. CilAPTE'C- 1{KPUINTK?> FI50M AmEUICA
"
-Obsekvatk :• am> Jmpr£;ss''Xs
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1916
All reservedrightsEXCHANGETHE RISE OF NEW NATIONS
INTHE RELATIONS OF RACES
AMERICASOUTH
AMERICAS AND THE RE-THE TWO
LATION OF SOUTH AMERICA
TO EUROPE
POLITICALTHE CONDITIONS OF
AMERICALIFE IN SPANISH
REFLECTIONS ANDSOME
FORECASTS
BY
JAMES BRYCE
" America :Five Chapters reprinted from South
and Impressions"Observations
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1916
reservedAll rightsEXCHANGE
BT ThB CoMPANTMaCMILLANCOPTKIGHT, 1912,
Norigooti ^rtsa
—Berwick dc SmithJ. B. Go. Co.Onsbing
U.S.A.Masa.,Norwood,CHAPTER XII
THE RISE OF NEW NATIONS
In a.d. when the true Lib-1808, Napoleon Bonaparte,
erator of moved his armies intoSpanish America, Spain,
the dominions of the Crown stretched southSpanish
thousand milesfromthe ofSan Francisco to theeight bay
TheStraits of that was scatteredMagellan. population
wasover that vast nativeregionthinly mostly Indian,
but there have been a million ofmay possibly pure
stock and times that number of mixedSpanish many
and Indian blood. All the Indians except
all the wild heathen tribesspoke Spanish; except
were Roman and the white men were ortho-Catholics,
dox with imiversal and horror ofCatholics, genuine
All who were of or of mixedheresy. pure European
blood followed customs and held ideas generally similar;
all had been ruled sent from underby governors Spain
laws and an administrative drawn and carriedsystem up
out on similar Hues. In the Romanevery region
Church was andmonasteriesabounded. Therepowerful
were no local distinctions this andsharp among Spanish
Intercolonial trade was in-Indo-Spanish population.
deed and to travel from oneforbidden, permission
to another had to be obtained. But as all werecolony
of one and one theremembers ofsubjects king Church,
was no that which was in-political separation beyond
422THE RISE OF NEW NATIONS 423
volved in the existence of various local jurisdictions.
A native of Mexico was not a on the banksstranger
of the Orinoco or the Parana more than the Bos-any
FrankUn had atonian been when heBenjamin stranger
incame to settle could bePhiladelphia. They hardly
said to form one for had no nationalnation, they
but all alike to the sameorganization, they belonged
Hispano-American nationality.
In A.D. 1908 there were in the same but now be-area,
tween the Rio Grande Del Norte and HornCape (the
territories now known as and NewCalifornia, Arizona,
Mexico this time become annexed to thehaving by
United sixteen all ofwhichStates) independentrepublics,^
had freed themselves from the Crown betweenSpanish
inwhen the first took Mexicoplace1810, risings
and and when the of wasArgentina, 1826, flag Spain
the lastlowered on the fortress offinally Callao, strong-
hold on the American mainland of the successor of
Charles the Fifth. That which had been one widely
scattered and connected had becomeloosely people
divided into distinct each with itsmany communities,
own its historical itsgovernment, separate traditions,
local and local its more or lessprides antagonisms,
definite and national consciousness. Fromsharp-cut
to ofthe mass of so speak,amorphous protoplasm,
similar toeach of which was1808, part generally every
1 would make a but it was in 1808 aBrazil posses-seventeenth,
sion of The three island and Santorepublics, Cuba,Hayti,Portugal.
Americanthe total number of Latin-bringup independentDomingo,
states to twenty.
'
!^j>6456ti*24 SOUTH AMERICA
other there had sixteenpart, emerged separate organ-
some different and no two al-isms, markedly alike,
those distinctive features which make na-though up
hadtional character become much more fully developed
in others. That is tosome than in there are nowsay,
instead of sixteen new nations.one people
But can we describe these sixteen as Na-repubUcs
tions ?
What is a Nation ?
It is to offer a definition which notdangerous may
to for is the true mastercorrespond usage, usage only
and of words and is in this case looseinterpreter ; usage
and But it be not farwide of the markvarying. might
to that while a is a heldsay nationality population
certain for andties, as,together by example, language
and in such wiseliterature, ideas, customs, traditions,
feel itself a coherentas to distinct from otherunity,
held like ties ofpopulations similarly together by
a Nation is a or a subdivisiontheir own, nationality,
of a which has itself into anationality, organized
either or to bepolitical body, independent desiring
This would encounter someindependent. description
doubtful cases. The Athenians in and theantiquity
Florentines in the Middle wereAges hardly nations,
were for werethough they independent states, they
of a wider Greek and Italian Theparts people. Swiss,
Alemannian Germans to intobegin with, grew slowly
a and were so to beforebe describednation, scarcely
A.D. 1648. threeNow, though they speak languages
and from at least threespring nationalities, they