Urban Sustainability, Orientation Theory and Adult Education Infrastructure in the District : a Common Approach in the Case of the Berlin District Centres of Adult Education [[Elektronische Ressource]] / Anastasia Zefkili. Betreuer: Elke Pahl-Weber

Urban Sustainability, Orientation Theory and Adult Education Infrastructure in the District : a Common Approach in the Case of the Berlin District Centres of Adult Education [[Elektronische Ressource]] / Anastasia Zefkili. Betreuer: Elke Pahl-Weber

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Urban Sustainability, Orientation Theory and Adult Education Infrastructure inthe District – A Common Approach in the Case of the Berlin District Centres ofAdult Educationvorgelegt vonFrau Dipl.-Ing. Anastasia Zefkilivon der Fakultät VI Planen Bauen Umweltder Technischen Universität Berlinzur Erlangung des akademischen GradesDoktor der Ingenieurwissenschaft-Dr.-Ing. –genehmigte DissertationPromotionsausschuss:Vorsitzender: Prof. HenckelBerichter: Prof. Pahl-WeberBerichter: Dr. DienelTag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 10.09.2010Berlin 2011D 83Acknowledgements The present work would not be possible without the support of a number of people with whom I had the pleasure to cooperate. I would like to express my gratitude to the experts and to the employees of the Berlin Volkshochschule, who dedicated their time and shared their knowledge and experience for the purpose of the current research. I would also like to thank my supervisors, Prof. Elke Pahl-Weber and Dr. Hans-Liudger Dienel, for their support, as well as Prof. Hartmut Bossel for his comments on my work. Furthermore, I am grateful to the Bakala Foundation for the financing of my studies and to the Women's Affairs Office for the Central University Administration for their support towards the conclusion of my thesis. In particular, I would like to thank Dr. Marcello Barisonzi, who supported me with technical advice and read my thesis. Contents1 Introduction 11.

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Ajouté le 01 janvier 2011
Nombre de lectures 23
Langue English
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Urban Sustainability, Orientation Theory and Adult Education Infrastructure in
the District – A Common Approach in the Case of the Berlin District Centres of
Adult Education
vorgelegt von
Frau Dipl.-Ing. Anastasia Zefkili
von der Fakultät VI Planen Bauen Umwelt
der Technischen Universität Berlin
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaft
-Dr.-Ing. –
genehmigte Dissertation
Promotionsausschuss:
Vorsitzender: Prof. Henckel
Berichter: Prof. Pahl-Weber
Berichter: Dr. Dienel
Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 10.09.2010
Berlin 2011
D 83Acknowledgements


The present work would not be possible without the support of a number of people
with whom I had the pleasure to cooperate.
I would like to express my gratitude to the experts and to the employees of the Berlin
Volkshochschule, who dedicated their time and shared their knowledge and
experience for the purpose of the current research.
I would also like to thank my supervisors, Prof. Elke Pahl-Weber and Dr. Hans-
Liudger Dienel, for their support, as well as Prof. Hartmut Bossel for his comments on
my work.
Furthermore, I am grateful to the Bakala Foundation for the financing of my studies
and to the Women's Affairs Office for the Central University Administration for their
support towards the conclusion of my thesis.
In particular, I would like to thank Dr. Marcello Barisonzi, who supported me with
technical advice and read my thesis.

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Adult Education in Sustainable District Development . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Urban Issues at the District Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Trends in Adult Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3.1 Educational Infrastructure in the District . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.2 Spatial Effects of Educational Infrastructure . . . . . . . . 16
1.4 Adult Education in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.4.1 District Centres of Adult Education: Volkshochschule . . . 22
1.4.2 The Case of the Berlin Volkshochschule . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5 Monitoring Urban Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.5.1 The Contribution of Orientation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.6 Aim and Course of Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.6.1 Detailed Research Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.6.2 Methodology and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2 Orientation Theory as a New Approach of Urban Sustainability 39
2.1 Defining Sustainability in Systemic Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.1.1 Development of Indicator Sets with Orientation Theory . . 42
2.2 The City as a System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.1 The Subsystem of Adult Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.3 The Berlin Volkshochschule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.3.1 Educational and Socio-political Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.3.2 External and Internal Organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.3.3 Present Stand and Future Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.3.4 Quality Monitoring in the VHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.4 Implementation of Orientation Theory to the
Volkshochschule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.4.1 The Model of the Volkshochschule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.4.2 The Environment of the V . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.4.3 From the Basic Orientors to an Indicator Set . . . . . . . . 84
iCONTENTS
2.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3 Empirical Research 98
3.1 Qualitative Methods in Urban Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.1.1 The Expert Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.2 Planning the Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.2.1 The Experts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.2.2 Guidelines and Evaluation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.3 Analysis of the Transcripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.3.1 The Interview Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.3.2 The Position of the Experts towards the Volkshochschule . 119
3.3.3 The Volkshochschule in Urban District Development . . . 146
3.4 Expert Approach and Orientation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
3.4.1 A Comparison of Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
3.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
4 Examples from the Berlin Volkshochschule 172
4.1 Aim and Method of the Field Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.1.1 The Volkshochschule under Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
4.2 Pankow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
4.2.1 Urban Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
4.2.2 Borough Pankow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
4.2.3 Volkshochschule Pankow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
4.2.4 Structure and Key Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
4.2.5 Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
4.2.6 Evaluation of the Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
4.3 Steglitz-Zehlendorf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
4.3.1 Urban Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
4.3.2 Borough Steglitz-Zehlendorf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
4.3.3 Victor-Gollancz-Volkshochschule Steglitz-Zehlendorf . . . 245
4.3.4 Structure and Key Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
4.3.5 Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
4.3.6 Evaluation of the Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
4.4 Sustainability Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
4.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
5 Research Results 288
5.1 Perspectives for the Volkshochschule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
5.1.1 Potentials in Sustainable District Development . . . . . . . 289
5.1.2 Prerequisites for the Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
iiCONTENTS
5.2 Insight gained through Orientation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
6 Conclusions 297
6.1 Sustainability, Social Infrastructure and District Development . . 297
6.2 Orientation Theory in Urban Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
6.3 Lessons from Berlin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Bibliography 305
Appendix A 328
iiiList of Tables
1.1 Age distribution of the population in Germany (2006) - Official prog-
noses (2030). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1 Environmental properties and environment-determined basic orientors. 44
2.2 System-determined basic orientors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.3 Guidelines for the development of an indicator set. . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.4 Development and composition of the VHS personnel (2004-2007). . . . 61
2.5 VHS educational offers (2004-2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.6 Distribution of VHS courses (2004-2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.7 of VHS events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.8 Distribution of VHS income (2004-2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.9 of VHS expenditures (2004-2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.10 Sector System ”Government and Administration”. . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.11 Sector ”Infrastructure”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.12 Sector System ”Economic System”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.13 Sector ”Social System”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.14 Sector System ”Individual Development”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.15 Sector ”Environment and Resources”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.1 Population distribution and mobility in Pankow (2007). . . . . . . . . . 185
4.2 Demographic change of the population in Pankow (1995, 2007). . . . . 186
4.3 Age distribution of the population in Pankow (2003-2005). . . . . . . . 186
4.4 Teaching hours realised in VHS Pankow facilities (2007). . . . . . . . . 217
4.5 VHS Pankow offers hosted in public schools (2007). . . . . . . . . . . . 217
4.6 VHS offers hosted in other borough institutes (2007). . . . . . 218
4.7 VHS Pankow offers hosted in facilities of third partners (2007). . . . . . 219
4.8 VHS offers realised in natural areas (2007). . . . . . . . . . . . 220
4.9 Distribution of VHS Pankow teaching hours (2007). . . . . . . . . . . . 220
4.10 of VHS hours (2004/05-2006/07). . . . . 221
4.11 VHS Pankow: infrastructure provision (1999, 2003, 2008). . . . . . . . . 221
4.12 VHS evaluation of the infrastructure (2005). . . . . . . . . . . 222
ivLIST OF TABLES
4.13 Capacity utilisation of the VHS Pankow facilities (2003, 2008). . . . . . 224
4.14 of the VHS (2004/05-2006/07). . . 225
4.15 Influence degree of VHS Pankow on infrastructure issues. . . . . . . . 228
4.16 VHS Pankow: innovation rate per semester (II04-II08). . . . . . . . . . 233
4.17 VHS offers realised in cooperation with partners (2007). . . . . 233
4.18 VHS Pankow: distribution of offers in cooperation with associations
(2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
4.19 VHS Pankow: distribution of offers in cooperation with other institutes
(2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
4.20 VHS Pankow: distribution of offers in cooperation with partners (2008). 235
4.21 Offers under request/contract provided by the VHS Pankow (2004-2007).236
4.22 Population distribution and mobility in Steglitz-Zehlendorf (2007, 2008). 237
4.23 Demographic change of the population in (1995,
2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
4.24 Age distribution of the population in Steglitz-Zehlendorf (2003-2005). . 238
4.25 VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf facilities (2007, 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
4.26 Teaching hours realised in VHS facilities (2007, 2008).263
4.27 VHS offers hosted in public schools (2007, 2008). . . 264
4.28 VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf offers hosted in other public facilities (2007,
2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
4.29 VHS offers hosted in facilities of third partners (2007,
2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
4.30 VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf offers in other locations (2007, 2008). . . . . . 266
4.31 Distribution of VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf teaching hours (2007, 2008). . . 267
4.32 VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf: infrastructure provision (1999, 2000, 2007, 2008).267
4.33 VHS evaluation of the infrastructure (2005). . . . . 268
4.34 Capacity utilisation of the VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf Adult Education
House (2007, 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
4.35 Capacity utilisation of the VHS House (2007, 2008). 272
4.36 of the VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf Teaching Facility
(2007, 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
4.37 Offers of the VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf under request/financed by third
partners (2007, 2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
4.38 Offers under request/contract provided by the VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf
(2004-2007). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
4.39 Evaluation of the basic orientors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
6.1 Age distribution of the population in Athens (2001). . . . . . . . . . . . 301
6.2 Distribution of unemployment in Greece (2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
vLIST OF TABLES
6.3 Distribution of participation in adult education in Greece (2007). . . . . 302
6.4 Education and employment status between people with migration back-
ground in Greece (2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
viList of Figures
1.1 A scheme of integrated social and educational infrastructure in
the district. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2 The Berlin VHS and its environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.1 The system and its environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.2 Main concepts of orientation theory: General environmental prop-
erties and the basic orientors derived from them. . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.3 Societal system: Hyper-systems and their sector systems. . . . . . 48
2.4 A systemic description of the LQW: Main elements, processes
and parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.5 The VHS-Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.6 A proposed indicators set for the evaluation of the VHS infras-
tructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.1 The boroughs of Berlin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
4.2 VHS offers: provision and response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
4.3 Adult education provision - Key figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
4.4 VHS offers per programme sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
4.5 VHS resources: distribution of the personnel (number of employ-
ees). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
4.6 VHS resources: distribution of income sources (?). . . . . . . . . . 181
4.7 Distribution of VHS expenses (?). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
4.8 Investments and expenses through the VHS - Key figures (?). . . 183
4.9 Degree of covering the VHS expenses - Key figures (?). . . . . . . 184
4.10 Local districts in Pankow borough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
4.11 Organisation of the borough Pankow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
4.12 Location of VHS Pankow offers (I). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
4.13 of VHS offers (II). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
4.14 VHS Pankow: Distribution of expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
4.15 VHS of income sources. . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.16 VHS Pankow: Change of expenses in relation to the median. . . . 231
viiLIST OF FIGURES
4.17 Local districts in Steglitz-Zehlendorf borough. . . . . . . . . . . . 241
4.18 Organisation of the borough Steglitz-Zehlendorf. . . . . . . . . . . 244
4.19 Location of VHS offers (I). . . . . . . . . . . . 261
4.20 of VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf offers (II). . . . . . . . . . . . 262
4.21 VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf: Distribution of expenses. . . . . . . . . . 268
4.22 VHS of income sources. . . . . . 274
4.23 VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf: Change of expenses in relation to the
median. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
4.24 Orientation Star: Area of satisfaction for the basic orientors and
position of VHS Pankow and VHS Steglitz-Zehlendorf. . . . . . . 284
viii