X-ray and optical properties of X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei [Elektronische Ressource] / von Mirko Krumpe

X-ray and optical properties of X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei [Elektronische Ressource] / von Mirko Krumpe

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X-ray and OpticalProperties of X-ray LuminousActive Galactic NucleiMirko KrumpePotsdam 2007Dieses Werk ist unter einem Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag lizenziert: Namensnennung - Keine kommerzielle Nutzung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported Um die Lizenz anzusehen, gehen Sie bitte zu: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ Elektronisch veröffentlicht auf dem Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam: http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2008/1699/ urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-16993 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-16993] Astrophysikalisches Institut PotsdamArbeitsgruppe ”Galaxien und Quasare”X-ray and OpticalProperties of X-ray LuminousActive Galactic NucleiDissertationzur Erlangung des akademischen Grades”doctor rerum naturalium”(Dr. rer. nat.)in der Wissenschaftsdisziplin ”Astrophysik”der Universit¨at Potsdameingereicht an derMathematisch–Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakult¨atder Universit¨at PotsdamvonMirko KrumpePotsdam, den 03. Dezember 2007Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Matthias SteinmetzZweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Ru¨diger StaubertDrittgutachter: Prof. Dr. Ian McHardyViertgutachter: Prof. Dr. Gu¨nther HasingerContentsAllgemeinverst¨andliche Zusammenfassung xvAbstract xvi1 Introduction 11.1 X-rays – A physical characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.1 Interaction of X-rays and matter . . . . . . .

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X-ray and Optical
Properties of X-ray Luminous
Active Galactic Nuclei
Mirko Krumpe
Potsdam 2007Dieses Werk ist unter einem Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag lizenziert:
Namensnennung - Keine kommerzielle Nutzung - Weitergabe unter gleichen
Bedingungen 3.0 Unported
Um die Lizenz anzusehen, gehen Sie bitte zu:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/









































Elektronisch veröffentlicht auf dem
Publikationsserver der Universität Potsdam:
http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2008/1699/
urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-16993
[http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-16993] Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam
Arbeitsgruppe ”Galaxien und Quasare”
X-ray and Optical
Properties of X-ray Luminous
Active Galactic Nuclei
Dissertation
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
”doctor rerum naturalium”
(Dr. rer. nat.)
in der Wissenschaftsdisziplin ”Astrophysik”
der Universit¨at Potsdam
eingereicht an der
Mathematisch–Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakult¨at
der Universit¨at Potsdam
von
Mirko Krumpe
Potsdam, den 03. Dezember 2007Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Matthias Steinmetz
Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Ru¨diger Staubert
Drittgutachter: Prof. Dr. Ian McHardy
Viertgutachter: Prof. Dr. Gu¨nther HasingerContents
Allgemeinverst¨andliche Zusammenfassung xv
Abstract xvi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 X-rays – A physical characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 Interaction of X-rays and matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Continuum and characteristic X-ray radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 X-ray astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.1 History of X-ray astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2.2 The cosmic X-ray background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.3 Current and future X-ray missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.4 The origin of X-rays in astrophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.3 Active Galactic Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.3.1 The Zoo of Active Galactic Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.3.2 Unification Model of Active Galactic Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.3.3 The X-ray View of Active Galactic Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2 Aims & Approach 33
3 The XMM-Newton X-ray survey in the Marano field 35
3.1 Observations and data reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.1.1 XMM-Newton X-ray observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38vi CONTENTS
3.1.2 The optical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1.3 Target selection for optical spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.1.4 Spectroscopic observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.1.5 Spectroscopic data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.2 Spectroscopic classification of the X-ray counterparts . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.2.1 Discussion of spurious matches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3.2.2 Classification summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.3 Properties of a core sample of the XMM-Newton Marano survey . . . . . . 49
3.3.1 X-ray properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.3.2 Redshift distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.3.3 Observed rest-frame X-ray luminosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.3.4 N column densities and de-absorbed intrinsic X-ray luminosities . 54H
3.3.5 X-ray-to-optical flux ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.3.6 Optical-to-near-IR colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.4 Additional objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.5.1 Type I AGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.5.2 Type II AGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.5.3 X-ray bright optically normal galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.5.4 Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4 X-ray absorption in distant type II QSOs 65
4.1 The SSC XID programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.2 Definition of the type II QSO sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.3 Properties of the type II QSO candidate sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.4 XMM-Newton observations and extraction of X-ray spectra . . . . . . . . . 73
4.5 X-ray spectral analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.5.1 Defining the appropriate fit statistic and binning method . . . . . . 74
4.5.2 Modelling the X-ray spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77CONTENTS vii
4.5.3 Stacking of X-ray spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.6 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5 Conclusion 85
5.1 Conclusion for the XMM-Newton Marano field survey . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.2 Conclusion for the absorption of distant type II QSOs . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.3 Conclusions of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.4 Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
A X-ray source list of the XMM-Newton Marano field 93
B Table of optical properties of candidate counterparts of Marano
XMM-Newton X-ray sources 99
C Comments to individual objects in the Marano field 111
D Marginal X-ray source classification in the Marano field 115
E Optical & X-ray images and optical spectra of X-ray classifications
in the Marano field 117
F Table of additional optical objects in the Marano field 175
G Optical charts and spectra of additional optical classifications
in the Marano field 177
H Optical & X-ray spectra, confidence contours of type II objects 193
Bibliography 206
Acknowledgments 221
Publications 222
Curriculum Vitae 224viii Contents
Selbstst¨andigkeitserkl¨arung 226List of Figures
1.1 Cross section for photon scattering based on the Klein-Nishina-Equation . 3
1.2 Pb attenuation coefficient vs. photon energy diagram for the Compton-
effect, photo-electric effect, and pair production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Resulting attenuation coefficient for Pb with consideration of electron shell
effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Correlation of the most common units in X-ray astronomy . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5 Azimuthal distribution of X-rays during the rocket experiment in June 1962 9
1.6 Data from a rocket-borne X-ray detector flown in October 1967 . . . . . . 9
1.7 Spectral energy distribution of the diffuse cosmic X-ray background . . . . 10
1.8 Ray path for focusing X-ray telescopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.9 Background radiation spectrum of the universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.10 Effectofphoto-electricabsorptionandCompton-down-scatteringonthetyp-
ical AGN X-ray spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.11 AGN contribution to the spectral energy density of the CXRB . . . . . . . 13
1.12 Co-moving density of type I AGN (unabsorbed AGN) versus cosmic time . 14
1.13 Current status of the resolved fractions of the CXRB . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.14 Three basic spectral forms expected from astrophysical processes . . . . . . 17
1.15 Optical spectra for different AGN types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.16 Schematic diagram of the unification model for AGN . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.17 Geometric view of an AGN with a single clump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.18 Dust temperature on the surface of an optically thick cloud . . . . . . . . . 26
1.19 Different torus models for the unification scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27x LIST OF FIGURES
1.20 Different geometries for an accretion disk and the comptonising corona . . 29
1.21 νF X-ray spectrum of a Seyfert I galaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29ν
1.22 Reflected spectra for three different values of the ionisation parameter ξ . . 32
1.23 XMM-Newton spectra of RBS 1423 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.1 Distribution of well-known extragalactic X-ray surveys . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.2 Averaged MOS1 and MOS2 exposure map of the Marano field . . . . . . . 40
3.3 PN exposure map of the Marano field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4 X-ray flux histogram of the XMM-Newton detected X-ray sources in the
Marano field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5 Comparison between the ROSAT and XMM-Newton fluxes in the Marano
field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.6 WFI R-band magnitude histogram of sources detected in the Marano field 42
3.7 SOFI K-band magnitude histogram of sources detected in the Marano field 42
3.8 Number of identified X-ray counterparts vs. difference in X-ray and optical
position for the Marano field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.9 WFI R-band magnitude vs. difference in X-ray and optical position in the
Marano field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.10 WFI R-band magnitude histogram for the core sample in the Marano field 50
3.11 Likelihood vs. X-ray flux of the Marano core sample sources . . . . . . . . 50
3.12 X-ray hardness ratio diagram for the Marano core sample . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.13 Redshift distributions of AGN in the Marano field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.14 Observed rest-frame X-ray luminosity vs. redshift diagram of the Marano
core sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.15 Observed rest-frame X-ray luminosity vs. hardness ratio diagram in the
Marano core sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.16 CalculatedintrinsichydrogencolumndensityhistogramfortheMaranofield
core sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.17 Histograms of the absorbed, de-absorbed intrinsic X-ray luminosity, and de-
absorbed X-ray luminosity vs. hydrogen column density diagram for the
Marano field core sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.18 Observed X-ray flux vs. R-band magnitude in the Marano field (core sample) 58