Zingiber officinaleacts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

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/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) ( Zingiberaceae ) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl 4 . Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity.

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Publié le 01 janvier 2011
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Motawiet al.Nutrition & Metabolism2011,8:40 http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/8/1/40
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Zingiber officinaleacts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis 1 2* 3 4 2 Tarek K Motawi , Manal A Hamed , Manal H Shabana , Reem M Hashem and Asmaa F Aboul Naser
Abstract Background/objective:Zingiber officinaleRoscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results:The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose6phosphatase (G6Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5 nucleotidase (5NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G6Pase, AP and 5NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions:Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. Keywords:Zingiber officinale, liver fibrosis, enzymes, antioxidants, histology
1. Background Liver plays a pivotal role in regulating various physiolo gical processes in the body such as metabolism, secre tion and storage. It has great capacity to detoxicate toxic substances and synthesize useful principles. There fore, damage on the liver inflicted by hepatotoxic agents is of grave consequences [1]. Evidences developed over the last years have suggested that various forms of liver injuries may be caused by free radical formation and subsequent oxidative stress. It is believed that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide may injure cell membranes through lipid peroxi dation [2]. Apparently ROS modify or damage biomole cules, i.e., proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA [3]. Oxidative stress lead to the formation of glycoxidation products, including advanced glycation end products
* Correspondence: manal_hamed@yahoo.com 2 Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, ElTahrir St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311, Egypt Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
(AGEs  among themNε(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) is best known), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). The receptor for advanced glycation end pro ducts (RAGE) is a signal transduction receptor that binds both AGEs and AOPPs. RAGE is expressed by hepatic stellate cells and myofibroblasts, which are the relevant cells for fibrogenesis of chronic liver disease. Both AGEs and AOPPs trigger the inflammatory responseviainteraction with RAGE and by causing acti vation of nuclear factor NFB [4]. Since advanced oxi dation protein products are not only markers of oxidative stress but also act as inflammatory mediators [5], the knowledge of AOPPs pathophysiology in chronic liver disease could provide valuable information with respect to the relationship between oxidative stress and the inflammatory response related to liver fibrosis [6]. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), as a xenobiotic, caused oxidative stress and may injuries hepatic cells [7]. Many studies have established the fact that CCl4is metabo lized in the liver into a highly reactive substance,
© 2011 Motawi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.