The Forms Of Music
262 pages
English

The Forms Of Music

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262 pages
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61-24297781.5 *73*Tovey $1^5musicforms offhelibrarykansas publiccity 111will be issuedBooks onlycard,ofon librarypresentationandPlease lost cardsreportof residence promptly.changeforholders areCard responsibleall films,books, records, picturesmaterialsor other librarycards.checked out on theirueDonald Francis ToveyBorn in 1875, Donald Francis was a BritishTovey musicologistand He took classical honors with his B.A.composer. at Oxford in and became a1898, of the first hepianist rank, thoughnever a virtuoso career. Fromsought 1914 to 1940 he wasReid Professor of Music at He died inEdinburgh University.1940. His otherbooks include andFreedom inNormality Music,The Main Stream Aof Music, Musician inTalks, EssaysMusical and Beethoven.Analysis,ivxMeridian Books edition first October 1956publishedFirst printing 1956SeptemberSecond June 1957Third 1958printing JulyFourth 1959AprilFifth Decemberprinting 1959Reprinted by arrangement with PressOxford UniversityOriginally published 1944 as Musical Articles from theBritannicaEncyclopaediaLibrary of card number:Congress catalog 56-10015Manufactured in the United States of AmericaEDITORIAL PREFACEa ofto set downTHE desire paper comprehensive systemuponof forwas in the mind Donaldmusical education Toveypresentwrote inlife. In when he was heof his 21,the 1896,greater part"*a work on themeansa friend that hehada letter to greatbegunintoMusic" If ever I finish theof in thing,Expressiona ...

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61-24297781.5 *73* Tovey $1^5 musicforms offhe librarykansas publiccity 111 will be issuedBooks only card,ofon library presentation andPlease lost cards report of residence promptly.change forholders areCard responsible all films,books, records, pictures materialsor other library cards.checked out on their ue Donald Francis Tovey Born in 1875, Donald Francis was a BritishTovey musicologist and He took classical honors with his B.A.composer. at Ox ford in and became a1898, of the first hepianist rank, though never a virtuoso career. Fromsought 1914 to 1940 he was Reid Professor of Music at He died inEdinburgh University. 1940. His otherbooks include andFreedom inNormality Music, The Main Stream Aof Music, Musician inTalks, Essays Musical and Beethoven.Analysis, ivx Meridian Books edition first October 1956published First printing 1956September Second June 1957 Third 1958printing July Fourth 1959April Fifth Decemberprinting 1959 Reprinted by arrangement with PressOxford University Originally published 1944 as Musical Articles from the BritannicaEncyclopaedia Library of card number:Congress catalog 56-10015 Manufactured in the United States of America EDITORIAL PREFACE a ofto set downTHE desire paper comprehensive systemupon of forwas in the mind Donaldmusical education Toveypresent wrote inlife. In when he was heof his 21,the 1896,greater part "* a work on themeansa friend that hehada letter to greatbegun intoMusic" If ever I finish theof in thing,Expression a serieshe was aboutit shall later, talkinggo. Thirty yearsprint into neither the oneon music. Butof four text-books print his ideas onwent: the final ofscheme nor the other expression itbe becausenever written. It never could written,music was discoverer in music.in the mind ofthat incessantwas never final of that ofNor was his method writing finality. in hiswhich ever reachedThe nearest to finality Toveypoint is to be found in thein musicof a formal philosophyexpression * he calledthemand aesthetics ofmusicarticles on (astechnique s whichto Whoin the list of his Who)himself writings supplied Britannica. Thoseto the articles,he contributed Encyclopaedia of thefor the eleventh editionfrom onwards Encywritten 1906 fourteenthalmost for therevised rewritten,and again,clopaedia, form ofin thewere castedition in imposednecessarily1929, Yet coalescetreatises under very firmlyword-headings. they text-book ofalmost into aand coherentinto a clear testament, theLike the toin its widestthe art of music Glossarymeaning. are thethe entries unconnected,in Musical Analysis,Essays notand while completeness,whole attemptingcomprehensive, a fullermusical anda wider ofafford the reader thoughtrange the exhaustive andthan most ofdiscussion oftechnical problems laborious theses now available. formedthese articles.himself set store Theygreat byTovey of his at thefor him the basis University Edinburgh.teaching ^of ofmusicalto those fuller considerationsare theThey background It was hisin Musicalwhich are his Essays Analysis.compositions intothat these articles should beown gathered togetherproposal as Meanstome asone an idea ago 1926.volume, longexpressed it wasof andwere then taken towards the end agreedpublishing, correcalterations orshould in hisowntimemakethat anyTovey Butnew method oftions for the manypresentation.necessary schemescameideas andother fresh andno doubtmoreimportant wasandinto that fertile brain, nothingwonderfullybubblingup moreof musical articles. Idone about the book say important hasnow beenithe was in life so fully occupied,because, though death.after the author sthese articlesfound to publishpossible thewrote forarticles whichThis book contains all the Tovey VI EDITORIAL PREFACE as now with theBritannica, there,Encyclopaedia they appear * of one on Modern Music and the Theexception biographies. bookwas set from andthus followsthetextup printed slips, finally and corrected the author. The musicalapproved by very long are in full. In book a few minor alteraform,examples printed tions have been in the of references,necessary, mostly excising and the of the s into line with that ofbringing printer style* s other books. An occasional in the musicalTovey slip examples has been corrected. We do not know what an inveterateTovey, of his own have done to these articlesimprover works, might had alive to read them in corrected :he beento-day, again proofs stand as he them forwe do know that they passed publication. order of the words after much conThe has,alphabetical key- retained. Those who that thebeensideration, argue general * * Music should be first asarticle will,printed can, many people out of order before the others. An index has been added.read it to these articles as stand has beenPermission reprint they the ofthe Britannica,by Encyclopaediakindly granted publishers thanks are due for the facilities towards theto whom also given ofthe book. The have beenread Dr. Ernestproofs bypreparation Mr. R. C. whose skilful assistance IWalker and Trevelyan, gratefully acknowledge. HUBERT FOSSJ. 1943 CONTENTS PAGE EDITORIAL PREFACE v ARIA i CANTATA 4 Music 6CHAMBER CHORALE 12 CONCERTO 14 CONTRAPUNTAL FORMS 19 COUNTERPOINT 30 FUGUE 36 HARMONY 44 INSTRUMENTATION 72 MADRIGAL 84 MASS 85 MELODY 91 MOTET 96 Music 101 OPERA 143 ORATORIO 156 OVERTURE 164 PROGRAMME Music 167 RHYTHM 175 RONDO 192 SCHERZO 200 SONATA 207 208 FORMS SUITE 233 POEMSYMPHONIC 236 SYMPHONY 238 VARIATIONS 240 INDEX 247 vu ARIA thea to air aARIA, term, ,equivalent English signifying melody from the but a musical forapart harmony, especially composition voice or with ana of othersingle instrument, accompaniment voices or instruments. The classical aria from the of adeveloped expansion single vocal on the lines ofwhat is known asmelody, generally binary form SONATA and SONATA while the (see FORMS). Accordingly, of aria form be traceable in advanced ofgerms may examples the aria as a definite art-form could not beforeexistfolk-song, of the seventeenththe middle because the ofcentury, polyphony leftthe sixteenth no room for the ofcentury development melody for s sake. When at the of the seventeenthmelody beginning the Monodists conceived the enorcentury (see HARMONY) dimly latentmous in their new art ofpossibilities accompanying single voices it was natural that for theinstruments,by many years mere and of their shouldsuggestiveness variety experiments without coherent to retain the attention of consuffice, forms, listeners. even at the the most novelBut, outset,temporary harmonies used with the most rhetoric were notpoignant enough in themselves to the sMonteverdisatisfy pioneers. Accordingly, lament offamous the deserted Ariadne is one of many early that to a sense of formexamples appeal rudimentary by making the last identical with the first.phrase As instrumental music and the classical sense ofgrew, key became and consistent the hands of Alessandro Scarstrong (in were driven to to that sense of har latti), composers appeal which had asserted itself in folk-musicmonically-solid melody thebefore ofharmonic music be said to havehistory may begun. Scarlatti s time it was established that an exBy thoroughly tended should modulate to the dominant aftermelody normally its own and that the modulationsestablishing key, subsequent should work other related back to the tonic. Introthrough keys * duce the voice an instrumental ritornello the ,by containing gist of the and in or in at fullmelody recurring, part whole, every aand have a form which can so asclose; you expand melody to both to the and to thegive ample scope singer accompanying The aria became the of the CONCERTOplayers. prototype (q.v.). The addition a middle section with a da results in theof capo universal da form ofaria. Theeighteenth-century capo possibili ties of are than thevariety greater description might suggest. voice enter with a different theme from that of theThe may in theritornello the ritornello be stated; ;may separate portions I ARIA2 instrusolo and tuttiown contrastbetweenhave itsritornellomay combine with itmaterial contrapuntally,the vocal mayments; B minor Mass andduets in Bach sAll the arias andand so on. and the differencesin theseOratorio differ matters,Christmas sense oftheoften subtly suggested bywell beingrepay analysis, no newcontributesmiddle sectionthe words. The generally whothe tonic. awaythat it avoids Gluck, sweptelement, except in theanti-dramatic, out,method as pointsthe whole inherently isthemiddlesectionto that generallyperfunctory,Akeste,preface the toda is to enableof the singerand that the sole capoobject the classicalornaments. Nevertheless, (or Neapolinewdisplay in a form whichof considerableis a length,aria compositiontan) and there is little causeandfail to be effective coherent;cannot it dominatedthe extent to which eighteenth-for wonder in music. century the differenceinfluencedaria forms are byThe profoundly Butof Bach and Handel.and thethe sonata stylebetween style an ariaand inthe form is small, operathe scale of inevitably any a tableau ratherwhich isin a situationis hardly possible except such difference betweenthere is noan action.than Consequently aria of Mozart and that of thethe form of the classical operatic Thesonata and suite music.as there is betweenHandelian type which wasfor the dahas become too large capo,scale, however, to ain musicin case too to survive designed intensifyany rigid attention from it. Theof to distractdramatic situation instead untilachievedof was so that,successfullychange stylenecessary music that movedin absolutely parisucceeded devisingWagner the central formalthe aria remained aswith his drama,passu in artistic evolutionand fewin dramatic music; thingsprinciple which Mozart sthan the extent toare more predecesinteresting essentialthedramatic reformerthe Gluck, profited bysor, great he had notthe aria whenresources of his aversion onlystyle,pet ideas of ritor-had become theit of what stereotypedpurged it the new sense ofbut animatednellos and vocal byflouris
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