Diffusion of Good Government
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152 pages
English

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One of the most fundamental questions for social scientists involves diffusion events; simply put, how do ideas spread and why do people embrace them? In Diffusion of Good Government: Social Sector Reforms in Brazil, Natasha Borges Sugiyama examines why innovations spread across political territories and what motivates politicians to adopt them.

Sugiyama does so from the vantage point of Brazilian politics, a home to innovative social sector reforms intended to provide the poor with access to state resources. Since the late 1980s, the country has undergone major policy transformations as local governments have gained political, fiscal, and administrative autonomy. For the poor and other vulnerable groups, local politics holds special importance: municipal authorities provide essential basic services necessary for their survival, including social assistance, education, and health care. Brazil, with over 5,000 municipalities with a wide variety of political cultures and degrees of poverty, thus provides ample opportunities to examine the spread of innovative programs to assist such groups.

Sugiyama delves into the politics of social sector reforms by examining the motivations for emulating well-regarded programs. To uncover the mechanisms of diffusion, her analysis contrasts three paradigmatic models for how individuals choose to allocate resources: by advancing political self-interest to gain electoral victories; by pursuing their ideological commitments for social justice; or by seeking to demonstrate adherence to the professional norms of their fields. Drawing on a mixed-method approach that includes extensive field research and statistical analysis on the spread of model programs in education (especially Bolsa Escola, a school grant program) and health (Programa Saúde da Família, a family health program), she concludes that ideological convictions and professional norms were the main reasons why mayors adopted these programs, with electoral incentives playing a negligible role.


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Publié par
Date de parution 15 décembre 2012
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780268092825
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,175€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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DIFFUSION OF GOOD GOVERNMENT
Social Sector Reforms in Brazil
NATASHA BORGES SUGIYAMA
University of Notre Dame Press
Notre Dame, Indiana
Copyright © 2012 by University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 www.undpress.nd.edu -->
All Rights Reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sugiyama, Natasha Borges. Diffusion of good government : social sector reforms in Brazil / Natasha Borges Sugiyama. pages cm. — (From the Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-268-04142-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-268-04142-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) — EISBN 978-0-268-09282-5 1. Brazil—Social conditions—20th century. 2. Brazil—Social conditions—21st century. 3. Brazil—Social policy. I. Title. HN283.5.S84 2012 306.098109'04—dc23 2012037026 ∞ The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. -->
E-ISBN 978-0-268-09282-5
This e-Book was converted from the original source file by a third-party vendor. Readers who notice any formatting, textual, or readability issues are encouraged to contact the publisher at ebooks@nd.edu
To my parents,
Maria Lúcia Borges Sugiyama and Iutaka Sugiyama,
and my husband, Greg Carter.
CONTENTS
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abbreviations
Acknowledgments
CHAPTER ONE The Politics of Social Sector Reforms, Subnational Governance, and the Prospects for Policy Diffusion
CHAPTER TWO Theoretical Debates on Policy Diffusion: A Motivations Approach
CHAPTER THREE Diffusion Trends in Education and Health Policy Reforms
CHAPTER FOUR Education Reform: A Simple Idea Catches On
CHAPTER FIVE Health Reform: A Complex Idea Spreads
CHAPTER SIX Conclusion: Ideology and Social Networks
Appendixes
Notes
References Index -->
TABLES
Table 1.1. Adoption of Bolsa Escola/Renda Miníma and PSF by Local Government and Administration
Table 1.2. Local Government Partisan and Ideological Divide
Table 3.1. Electoral Competition and Bolsa Escola Adoption (1998)
Table 3.2. Electoral Competition and PSF Adoption (1998)
Table 3.3. Ideology and Bolsa Escola Adoption (1998)
Table 3.4. Ideology and PSF Adoption (1998)
Table 3.5. The Gestão Pública Network and Bolsa Escola Adoption (1998)
Table 3.6. Region and Bolsa Escola Adoption (1998)
Table 3.7. Summary of Dichotomous Variables in Bolsa Escola Dataset (1998)
Table 3.8. Summary of Dichotomous Variables in PSF Dataset (1998)
Table 3.9. The Determinants of Social Policy Diffusion: Bolsa Escola and PSF
Table 4.1. Structure of the Brazilian Education System
Table 4.2. Characteristics of the Municipal Bolsa Escola and Renda Mínima Programs
Table 4.3. Case Studies: Bolsa Escola/Renda Miníma Adoption and Nonadoption
Table 5.1. Case Studies: PSF Adoption and Nonadoption
Table A.1. Cities Included in Survey of Municipal Managers of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs
Table B.1. PSF Coverage of Regions’ Population over Time (%)
Table B.2. Percentage of Municipalities Adopting PSF by State and Region (1998–2008)
Table B.3. Number of Municipalities Adopting PSF by State and Region (1998–2008)
Table D.1. Adoption of Federal/National CCT Models in the Americas
FIGURES
Figure 2.1. Multiple Directions of Diffusion Effects
Figure 3.1. Cumulative Adoption of Bolsa Escola in the Sample
Figure 3.2. Cumulative Adoption of Programa Saúde da Família in the Sample
Figure 3.3. Annual Predicted Probability of Bolsa Escola Adoption for Modal City
Figure 3.4. Annual Predicted Probability of PSF Adoption for Modal City
Figure 6.1. Explaining Social Policy Diffusion: A Motivational Approach
Figure B.1. National Cumulative Adoption of Programa Saúde da Família
ABBREVIATIONS
ABRASCO
Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
ACS
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde
ACM
Antônio Carlos Magalhães
CCTs
Conditional Cash Transfer Programs
CONASEMS
Conselho Nacional de Secretários Municipais de Saúde
CONSED
Conselho Nacional de Secretários de Educação
CEBES
Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde
CFEMEA
Centro Feminista de Estudos e Assesoria
FGV-SP
Fundação Getúlio Vargas–São Paulo
FNDE
Fundo Nacional do Desenvolvimento da Educação
FUNDEF
Fundo de Manutenção e Desenvolvimento do Ensino Fundamental e de Valorização do Magistério
INAMPS
Instituto Nacional de Assistência Médica da Previdência Social
ILO
International Labour Organisation
IPEA
Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada
MDS
Minisério de Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome
MEC
Ministério da Educação e Cultura
MS
Ministério da Saúde
NGO
Nongovernmental organization
NOB
Norma Operacional Básica
PACS
Programa de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde
PAHO
Pan-American Health Organization
PAS
Plano de Atendimento à Saúde–São Paulo
PAS
Programa de Agentes de Saúde–Ceará
PETI
Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil
PGRM
Programa de Garantia de Renda Mínima
PIASS
Programa de Interiorização das Ações de Saúde e Saneamento
PMF
Programa Médico de Família
PSF
Programa Saúde da Família
QUALIS
Qualidade Integral à Saúde (São Paulo State)
SAS
Secretaria de Assistência da Saúde, Ministério da Saúde
SUS
Sistema Único de Saúde
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization
UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund
UNDIME
União Nacional dos Dirigentes Municipais de Educação
WHO
World Health Organization
Political Parties
Left Parties
PC do B
Partido Comunista do Brasil (Brazilian Comunist Party)
PDT
Partido Democrático Trabalhista (Democratic Labor Party)
PMN
Partido da Mobilização Nacional (Party of National Mobilization)
PPS
Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party)
PSB
Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party)
PT
Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers’ Party)
PV
Partido Verde (Green Party)
Center Parties
PMDB
Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement)
PSDB
Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (Party of Brazilian Social Democracy)
PTB
Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party)
Right Parties
DEM
Democratas (Democrats)
PDS
Partido Democrático Social (Democratic Social Party)
PFL
Partido da Frente Liberal (Liberal Front Party)
PL
Partido Liberal (Liberal Party)
PPB
Partido Progressista Brasileiro (Brazilian Progressive Party)
PPR
Partido Progressista Reformador (Reformist Progressive Party)
PRONA
Partido da Reedificaç

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