Problems Confronting Contemporary Democracies
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What are the consequences of different paths toward democracy? How can religion support democratic diversity? And what ongoing dilemmas do democratic governments face in reining in the armed forces that once ruled? The original essays in Problems Confronting Contemporary Democracies investigate these and other questions, which Alfred Stepan addressed in his pioneering work as one of the most prominent comparative political scientists of the past four decades. The contributors, who came together at a conference in Stepan's honor at Columbia University in 2007, pay tribute to his work and illuminate some of the debates he launched, while advancing understanding of problems facing democracies around the world.

The essays in Problems Confronting Contemporary Democracies demonstrate the substantive, geographic, and methodological range of Stepan's work by building on many of his major scholarly contributions. Principal themes include authoritarianism, the breakdown of democratic regimes, transitions from authoritarianism to democracy, democratic consolidation, the role of the military in politics, and ways—including the varieties of federalism—to manage conflict democratically in societies that are divided by religious, ethnic, and national cleavages. The contributions range from Latin America to the post-Soviet regions, Iran, China, Turkey, Israel, Spain and Portugal, and the United States. This volume will appeal to students and scholars of political science, sociology, and international studies, particularly Latin American and Middle Eastern studies.

Contributors: Scott Mainwaring, Douglas Chalmers, J. Samuel Fitch, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Mark Ungar, László Bruszt, Robert M. Fishman, Mirjam Künkler, Ryan E. Carlin, Cecilia Martínez-Gallardo, Jonathan Hartlyn, Juan J. Linz, Thomas Jeffrey Miley, Ashley Esarey, Edward L. Gibson, Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff, Brian H. Smith, Murat Akan, Hanna Lerner



Publié par
Date de parution 30 septembre 2012
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780268086886
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 4 Mo

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Problems Confronting Contemporary Democracies
Scott Mainwaring,series editor
The University of Notre Dame Press gratefully thanks the Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies for its support in the publication of titles in this series.
Jodi S. Finkel Judicial Reform as Political Insurance: Argentina, Peru, and Mexico in the 1990s(2008) Robert H. Wilson, Peter M. Ward, Peter K. Spink, and Victoria E. Rodríguez Governance in the Americas: Decentralization, Democracy, and Subnational Government in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA(2008) Brian S. McBeth Dictatorship and Politics: Intrigue, Betrayal, and Survival in Venezuela, 1908–1935(2008) Pablo Policzer The Rise and Fall of Repression in Chile(2009) Frances Hagopian, ed. Religious Pluralism, Democracy, and the Catholic Church in Latin America(2009) Marcelo Bergman and Laurence Whitehead, eds. Criminality, Public Security, and the Challenge to Democracy in Latin America(2009) Matthew R. Cleary The Sources of Democratic Responsiveness in Mexico(2010) Leah Anne Carroll Violent Democratization: Social Movements, Elites, and Politics in Colombia’s Rural War Zones, 1984–2008(2011) Timothy J. Power and Matthew M. Taylor, eds. Corruption and Democracy in Brazil: The Struggle for Accountability(2011) Ana María Bejarano Precarious Democracies: Understanding Regime Stability and Change in Colombia and Venezuela(2011) Carlos Guevara Mann Political Careers, Corruption, and Impunity: Panama's Assembly, 1984–2009(2011) Gabriela Ippolito-O’Donnell The Right to the City: Popular Contention in Contemporary Buenos Aires(2012) Barry S. Levitt Power in the Balance: Presidents, Parties, and Legislatures in Peru and Beyond(2012)
For a complete list of titles from the Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies, see
P r o b l e m s C O N F R O N T I N G C o n t e m p o r a r y D E M O C R A C I E S
Essays in Honor of Alfred Stepan
Edited by Douglas Chalmers and Scott Mainwaring
University of Notre Dame Press Notre Dame, Indiana
Copyright © 2012 by University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 All Rights Reserved
Manufactured in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Problems confronting contemporary democracies : essays in honor of Alfred Stepan / edited by Douglas Chalmers and Scott Mainwaring. p. cm. — (From the Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-268-02372-0 (cloth) — ISBN 978-0-268-08688-6 (web pdf)1. Democracy —History —20th century. 2. Stepan, Alfred C. I. Stepan, Alfred C. II. Chalmers, Douglas A. III. Mainwaring, Scott, 1954– JC421.P764 2012 321.8 —dc23 2012024902
The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources.
C o n t e n t s
Preface and Acknowledgments ix Introduction: Alfred Stepan and the Study of Democratic Regimes 1 Scott Mainwaring with Douglas Chalmers
P a r t I .D e m o c r a c ya n d P o l i c e , Fo r c e s , A r m e d T h e
1The Armed Forces and Society in Latin America: Change and Continuity 25 J. Samuel Fitch
2Reconciling the Brazilian Military with Democracy: The Power of Alfred Stepan’s Ideas 67 Fernando Henrique Cardoso
3Managing Citizen Security in Latin America’s Changing States and Societies 82 Mark Ungar
P a r t I I .D e m o c r a c yS t a t e a n d T h e
4The State of the Market: The Market Reform Debate and Postcommunist Diversity 111 László Bruszt
vi| Contents
P a r t I I I .D e m o c r a t i c R e g i m e sD e m o c r a t i c a n d Tr a n s i t i o n s
5139Revisiting “Paths toward Redemocratization” Robert M. Fishman
6Electoral Victory, Political Defeat: A Failed Democratic Transition in Iran 166 Mirjam Künkler
7Executive Approval under Alternative Democratic Regime Types 203 Ryan E. Carlin, Cecilia Martínez-Gallardo, and Jonathan Hartlyn
8Cautionary and Unorthodox Thoughts about Democracy Today 227 Juan J. Linz in collaboration with Thomas Jerey Miley
P a r t I V.D e m o c r a c ya n d Fe d e r a l i s m
9Holding China Together: Democratic Solutions for Resolving Ethnic Conflict 255 Ashley Esarey
1 0Of Swords and Shields: Federalism and Territorial Democratization in the United States 273 Edward L. Gibson
1 1Oil and the Corporate Reintegration of Russia: The Role of Federal Oil Companies in Russia’s Center-Periphery Relations 299 Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeye
P a r t V.a n d D e m o c r a c yR e l i g i o n , To l e r a n c e ,
Contents |vii
1 2Religion, Politics, and the State in a Stepanesque Perspective: Inseparable but Craftable 339 Brian H. Smith
1 3Twin Tolerations or Siamese Twins? Kemalist Laicism and Political Islam in Turkey 381 Murat Akan
1 4Consociationalism versus Twin Tolerations: Religion and State in Israel 424 Hanna Lerner
List of Contributors 450 Index 456
P r e f a c e a n d A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s
We celebrate Alfred Stepan’s career with these essays from among those presented at a conference in his honor at Columbia University in 2007. Many colleagues came from all parts of the world to discuss his work and demonstrate the fecundity of his contributions. These essays rep-resent a sample, a window on the manifold influences of his work. Yet this is not a fulsome treatment. We aim to advance scholarship on some of the debates that Stepan launched and advanced about major chal-lenges facing contemporary democracies. Stepan is one of the few individuals who are members of both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the British Academy. He was one of fifteen outstanding comparative political scientists inter-1 viewed in Munck and Snyder (2007: 392 – 455). In 2002 the Brazilian government awarded Stepan the Ordem do Rio Branco, which recog-nizes honorable accomplishments and civic virtues. In 2009 he received the Kalman Silvert Award for lifetime contributions to Latin American 2 studies, and he was on a 2007 list of the four hundred most cited po-3 litical scientists who teach in the United States. Anyone who knows Al Stepan is aware of the vortex of energy he represents, generating his own ideas and organizing research projects but also freely sharing his insights, intellectual challenges, skills, and en-ergy. He challenges colleagues and students alike; he sets forth tasks and puts new perspectives on facts and trends. He confronts conventional wisdom and forces people to reconceptualize problems in researchable ways. He makes an art form of collaboration, working with many schol-ars worldwide. He draws many students into his projects, often giving them an indispensable start on their own careers.
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