Ronald Reagan
415 pages
English

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415 pages
English

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Description

The point of departure for distinguished historian Richard C. Thornton’s insightful new assessment of the Reagan administration is Reagan’s overwhelming re-election in 1984. His first-term policies had placed the United States in the ascendancy over the Soviet Union, and he sought to capitalize on that success by bringing the Cold War to an end on favorable terms. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, proved increasingly unable to bear the costs of supporting its empire and client state and adopted a strategy of détente. Its new leader Mikhail Gorbachev personified the new stance, and his rise to power in 1985 galvanized the U.S. administration’s détente faction in renewed opposition to Reagan’s strategy and advocacy of accommodation with Moscow.

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Publié par
Date de parution 20 janvier 2020
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781680537987
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,2498€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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Ronald Reagan: Revolution Betrayed
Ronald Reagan: Revolution Betrayed

Richard C. Thornton

St. James s Studies in World Affairs
Academica Press
Washington~London
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Thornton, Richard C. (author)
Title: Ronald Reagan : revolution betrayed Richard C. Thornton
Description: Washington : Academica Press, 2021. Includes references.
Identifiers: LCCN 2021931249 ISBN 9781680539189 (hardcover) ISBN 9781680539202 (paperback) ISBN 9781680537987 (e-book)
Copyright 2021 Richard C. Thornton
Contents
Acknowledgements
Illustrations
Introduction
Part I: The Soviet Challenge
Chapter 1 Andropov s Gamble: Strategic Dominance and Missile Defense
Andropov Prepares His Challenge
Reagan s Dilemma
Soviet Leadership Dissension
Exploring the Postponement Alternative
Andropov s INF Gambit
Grappling with the Peace Question
Searching for a Way Forward
Reagan Stands by Kohl
Regaining the Public Relations Initiative
Moscow s Pre-election Quiescence: Sacrificing a Pawn?
Turning Point in Europe
Reagan s Counteroffensive
The Attempt to Harness Shultz
Star Wars Trumps Breakout
Intelligence Games
Chapter 2 Where Will the Missiles Go? Moscow s Analogous Threat
Analysis of the Analogous Threat
Evolution of US Caribbean Policy
Complementary Covert Action
Missiles to the Caribbean
Conflict Intensifies in Central America
Congress and the Contras
Reagan Prods Congress
Reagan and Andropov: The Pace Quickens
Suriname: Denial by Dissuasion
Eliminating All Possibilities but One
Grenada Signals and Soviet Diversions
Preparing for Crisis
Crisis Indicators and a Play by Shultz
Grenada and Moscow s Analogous Deployment
Bishop s Doubts
Maurice Bishop Visits Washington
Strategic Crisis Intensifies Factional Strife
A Summer of Carrots
Sticks in the Water
Shultz Attempts to Soften the Edge
The Heat of August
Chapter 3 How Close to Breakout? Krasnoyarsk and KAL 007
Intelligence Discovery
Reagan s Quandary
The National Security Origins of KAL Flight 007
Casey s Covert Probe
Midnight Mission from Anchorage
Over Kamchatka
Casey, Ogarkov and KAL 007
Where was Andropov?
Who Made the Decision to Attack KAL 007?
Foxhounds and Ravens over Sakhalin
Interception over Sakhalin
The Attack on KAL 007
Captain Chun s Decision
North to Kostromskoye
Co-pilot Son s Radio Transmissions
Washington Offers a Way Out
Moscow Rejects a Settlement
Washington: One Jump Ahead
Limiting Damage by Escalating the Rhetoric
Casey s Plan: Discovery and Cover-Up
No Resolution and No Agreement
A Necessary Mystery
Part II: Defeating Soviet Strategy
Chapter 4 Denial in the Caribbean: Pre-emptive Strike in Grenada
An Inexplicable Conciliatory Turn
Reagan s Woes
Prelude to Disaster in the Middle East
Shultz s Failure in the Middle East
Reagan s Attempt to Save Clark
Shultz Gains Added Power
Moscow Tightens the Screws
Reaffirmation of the Analogous Threat
A Hidden Move to the Brink
The Attempt to Capture Bishop
Bishop Insists on Collective Leadership
The Battle Is Joined
Death of a Revolution
Washington Prepares for Action
Outmaneuvering the Communists
Decision in Grenada; Diversion in Beirut
Providing Cover for Thatcher
The Invasion of Grenada
Denying Moscow the Analogous Option
Chapter 5 Deployment to West Germany: A Pershing Sword of Damocles
Arms Control Negotiations Endgame
Moscow Signals Hair-Trigger Alert
The Politics of Able Archer
Turnabout Is Fair Play
Desperate Last Cards
Moscow s Retreat from Analogous to Adequate
Dual Strategic Transitions
Policy Battle over Iran and Iraq
Syria, the Iran-Iraq War, and Moscow
Chapter 6 Preserving the Oil Fields: An Opening to Iran?
Reagan s January 16 Speech: The Turn?
Moscow s Turn
The Death of Andropov and Rise of Chernenko
Suspending the Syrian-Iranian Alliance?
Reagan s Riposte
From Deep Freeze to Fissures
The Soviet Union: State Supporter of International Terrorism
Crisis and Response
Part III: Entrapment of the President
Chapter 7 Strategy and its Discontents
The Reagan Victory Program
The Shift to the Strategic Defensive
Signaling Opposition to Moscow
The President, the King, and the Reagan Doctrine: Lynchpin of Victory
Shultz s Struggle with the President
Shultz and the Resistance Movements: Afghanistan
Chapter 8 The Origins of the Iran Initiative
The Strategic Issues in Dispute
Early Maneuvering over Iran
Reagan Prepares a Response
The Israeli Connection
Casey and the Saudi-Iranian Connection
Saudis, Iranians, and Israelis
Crisis and Opportunity in Washington
Ledeen s Trip and Its Aftermath
A New Draft NSDD and International Complications
Chapter 9 Crucible of Decision
The Strategy of Terror
TWA 847
Original Plan Gone Awry
Algiers Redux
An Intelligence Discovery
Assad and Berri Take Charge
Staking Out Negotiating Positions
Tension Increases-Worldwide
The Key Players Convene
Endgames
Aftermath
Reconstruction of Events
Chapter 10 Shultz and McFarlane Seize Control
Cutting Casey Out
Preempting Direct Contact by Cutting the Israelis In
Greed, Politics, and the New World Order Faction
McFarlane s Bait and Switch on Reagan
Reagan Says No; McFarlane Says Yes
McFarlane and the First Arms Shipment
Entangling Reagan in an Arms-for-Hostages Scheme
The Second Israeli Arms Delivery
Chapter 11 The Attempt to Shut Down the Iran Initiative
McFarlane s Hand-Off
The Hawk Deal in International Context
The Hawk Set-Up
The Hawk Entanglement
The Geneva Summit
The Arms-for-Hostages Trap
The CIA is Caught
Chapter 12 Israel Entangles the CIA
The Pollard Affair
The Israelis Prod Washington
Hook, Line, and Sinker
Reagan Turns the Tables
The Policy Scramble
The Issue Is Joined
Part IV Betrayal of Ronald Reagan
Chapter 13 Reagan s Iran Initiative
The Two Factions Collide
The New World Order Faction Blocks Action
Iran: The End and the Beginning
Qaddafi and State-Supported Terrorism
A Decision on Israel and Iran
A Decision on Libya
Taking Control of the Iran Initiative
Chapter 14 Moscow Enters the Game
Moscow s Shift on Iran
The Iranian Response to Washington
An Opening to Iran?
Tehran Plays a Delaying Game
Point at the Mulberry Bush to Curse the Locust Tree
Chapter 15 The President Stands Tough
Funding the Contras
Reagan Rips Off the Ayatollah
Consequences of the Air Strike on Libya
The Tehran Set-Up
Into Tehran
Chapter 16 On the Verge of Victory
Reagan in Command
Secret Contact with Iran
Jenco s Release and the New World Order Faction
Crises and Opportunity for the New World Order Faction
Contact with the Second Channel and its Repercussions
Washington and Frankfurt
Chapter 17 The Collapse of Reagan s Strategy
The No-Summit Summit at Reykjavik
The Second Meeting
The Experts All-Nighter
Day Two, the Games Begin
The Focal Point Is SDI
After Reykjavik
Forebodings of Failure
Iran s Calculus Changes
Meeting in Mainz, October 29
Chapter 18 The Struggle for Power
Exposure of the Iran Initiative
The Iranians Say No to Rapprochement
Battle Lines Are Drawn
Democrats Attack; Reagan Defends
Reagan Engages, Loses, and Switches
Shultz Marshals His Forces
Chapter 19 The Defeat and Survival of Ronald Reagan
Reagan s Action Plan
Meese s Investigation
Discovery of the Diversion Memorandum
Last Chance
Reagan Surrenders Policy Control
Springing the Diversion
Survival of the President
Epilogue
Illustration Credits
Index
Acknowledgements
Ronald Reagan was among the most consequential of American presidents and thus a close examination of his strategy and policies is mandatory. Fortunately, a great deal of data is available, and I have attempted to avail myself of it. This book is based on the work of a generation of diligent print journalists, now mostly gone, who were the first chroniclers of the events of the Reagan years. It was they who uncovered the mysteries, plots, and conspiracies that swirled constantly around international politics in those days and this book could not have been possible without their efforts. I am also indebted to the many members of the Reagan administration who wrote of their experiences, as well as countless scholars who have tried their hand at interpreting the events. I want to express my sincere thanks to Soumyadev Bose and Sophie Judge for their thorough and thoughtful editing, and to Christopher Johnson for compiling the index.. My deepest appreciation and gratitude, however, I reserve for my wife, Joanne, whose meticulous organizational and research contributions have made this two-volume revision of my original four-volume study

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