German Painting
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220 pages

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In a country only unified since 1871, German culture and art is derived from ancient tradition. Studying German painting requires viewing it on a different scale, larger than the current geographical frontiers. From the Middle Ages through to the New Objectivity of the 20th century, we introduce you to the German artists who have marked history: Albrecht Dürer, the Romantic Caspar David Friedrich, and the Expressionist Otto Dix. Original in its themes, German painting always seeks harmony whilst remaining inquisitive.



Publié par
Date de parution 04 juillet 2023
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9781783107933
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0800€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Klaus H. Carl
With detailed text citations from:
Dr Dorothea Eimert, Art and Architecture of the 20 th Century

Baseline Co. Ltd
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© Confidential Concepts, worldwide, USA
© Parkstone Press International, New York, USA

© Erich Heckel Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Max Pechstein Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Gabriele Münter Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Heinrich Nauen Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Paul Klee Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Max Ernst Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris
© George Grosz Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Otto Dix Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
© Conrad Felix Müller Estate, Artists Right Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn

All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or adapted without the permission of the copyright holder, throughout the world. Unless otherwise specified, copyright on the works reproduced lies with the respective photographers, artists, heirs or estates. Despite intensive research, it has not always been possible to establish copyright ownership. Where this is the case, we would appreciate notification.

ISBN: 978-1-78310-793-3
Klaus H. Carl


Art of the Middle Ages
From the Beginning to the Romanesque
The Romanesque
Illuminated Manuscripts
Stained Glass
Wall Painting
Panel Painting
Gothic Style
Stained Glass
Panel Painting
Wilhelm of Cologne and the Cologne School of Painting
Stephan Lochner
Art of the Early Modern Period
The Renaissance
From the Late Gothic to the Early Renaissance
Michael Wolgemut
Martin Schongauer
The High Renaissance
Albrecht D ü rer
Hans Leonhard ächäufelin and Hans Süß von Kulmbach
Albrecht Altdorfer
Matthias Grünewald
Hans Baldung Grien
Hans Holbein the Elder
Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Burgkmair the Elder
Christoph Amberger
Bernhard Strigel
Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Younger
Baroque and Rococo
Adam Elsheimer
Joachim von Sandrart
Johann Heinrich Roos
The Rococo
Daniel Nikolaus Chodowiecki
Anton Raphael Mengs
Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein
Asmus Jacob Carstens
Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann
Friedrich Preller the Elder
Caspar David Friedrich
Philipp Otto Runge
Johann Wilhelm Schirmer
The Nazarene Movement
Peter von Cornelius
Johann Friedrich Overbeck
Philipp Veit
Edward Ritter von Steinle
Adrian Ludwig Richter
Carl Spitzweg
Wilhelm von Kaulbach
Georg Friedrich Kersting
Carl Blechen
Adolph Menzel
Anton von Werner
Arthur Kampf
Carl Theodor von Piloty
Franz von Lenbach
Wilhelm Leibl
Hans Thoma
Hugo von Habermann
Historicism of the 19 th Century
Max Klinger
Anselm Feuerbach
Hans von Marées
Art of Modern Times
The End of the 19 th Century
Käthe Kollwitz
Heinrich Zille
Max Liebermann
Franz Skarbina
Max Slevogt
Ludwig von Hofmann
Walter Leistikov
Lovis Corinth
Fritz von Uhde
Franz von Stuck
The Munich Draughtsmen
Taking a Look at Europe
The Art in Worpswede
Paula Modersohn-Becker
The Futurists
The Dissolution of Shape through Colour
Die Brücke (The Bridge)
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Erich Heckel
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
Max Pechstein
Otto Mueller
Emil Nolde
Christian Rohlfs
Ludwig Meidner
Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider)
Karl Hofer - From the NKVM to Der Blaue Reiter
Franz Marc
Wassily Kandinsky
Alexej von Jawlensky
Marianne von Werefkin
Gabriele Münter
Rhenish Expressionism
The Exhibition Rhenish Expressionists
August Macke
Heinrich Campendonck
The ‘ Degenerate ’
The Exhibition Degenerate Art
Max Beckmann
New Objectivity
George Grosz
Otto Dix
Conrad Felixmüller
Christ in Majesty , 1120. Fresco.
Apse, Church of Sts Peter and Paul,

Art of the Middle Ages

From the Beginning to the Romanesque

When the Romans conquered most of the country north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Germanic tribes, built fortified camps for their troops, and founded colonies – which frequently evolved to cities – to secure their reign, they did not meet any noticeable resistance against the introduction of their culture. The art of construction and sculpture was unknown to the Germanic people, even in their original forms. It is even likely that they felt that as warriors this refined cultural practice of art was unworthy.
Only when the Romans began to build bathrooms and buildings, shelters, road systems, water lines, and other things, the attitude of the Germans may have gradually changed. More and more they exercised the advantages given to them by the foreign culture of the conquerors, which they initially rejected. It was then likely that the impulse of imitation would soon awaken among them. The Romans felt so sure of their property that they would build magnificent country houses, in particular on the banks of the Rhine and its tributaries, which they decorated with the usual artistic decor of their native soil, especially with sculptures and mosaics.
However, the artists who had followed the conquering armies did not progress beyond a modest degree of technical ability, which became noticeable as the demand for works of art in the Roman settlements increased. Most often the sculptors were engaged in the creation of a great number of grave monuments and gravestones which still remain today. From this it can be deduced that the artists mainly stuck to down-to-earth, concrete reproductions, creating portraits of the dead in rough, realistic ways without any artistic refinement.
The contact with Rome gradually broke off. But even without this distance, Roman art would not have flourished on the Germanic soil without more new blood, as the ancient art had become, even in Rome, unimaginative and homespun. However, this austere, realist art may have developed nonetheless in the new homeland, had the storms of tribal migration not destroyed the Roman Empire and at the same time the Roman culture.
When new states emerged out of the chaos and withstood the test of time, taking care of the art was probably the last concern of the respective ruler, and if they did care about it, then it was an art that first benefited them. It satisfied their love of splendour and their need to keep servants, warriors, and vassals happy through generous gifts.
From grave finds, we have some evidence about the original Germanic practice of art. In particular, numerous clips, clothes pins, belt fittings, necklaces and hair jewellery of gold, silver, and other metals have been found in Frankish graves dating to around the 3 rd to the 8 th century. Even though they take their inspiration from Roman models, they show independent jewellery ornamentation, a wonderful play of tangled lines and braided, interwoven bands, ending in grotesque human and animal heads. This ornamentation has by no means disappeared from the formal repertoire of the Germanic people and would later emerge once more in the Romanesque art of the Middle Ages.
Although the Merovingian rulers completed extensive activity in church-building, none of their buildings have been preserved. From written records it is known, however, that their churches were based on early Christian basilicas and usually had cruciform shapes. The national element of art was represented at that time by miniature painting only, brought by the first preachers of the gospel in north-western Germany: Irish and Scottish monks.
In contrast to the Byzantine illuminated manuscripts, where the emphasis was placed on the illustrations not text, the Irish monks aspired to develop writing artistically. They carried it out with the utmost cleanliness and neatness, allowing the development of the calligraphy, to which they added rich adornments of ornate initials, borders, border decorations, and other decors. Without foreign influences, they brought along their own unique, ornamental style, which was so closely related to the ancient Germanic ornamentation in its basic forms, especially in the strong disposition for splendour and in the inexhaustible variety of play with grotesque animal forms, that it found understanding and willing reception.
This calligraphic feature of the miniature painting was applied by the Irish monks, whose manuscripts were spread all over Germany up to the Swiss town of St Gallen, and thus influenced the art of the 7 th and 8 th centuries significantly. The latter finally lost all connection to nature and could therefore not serve as a model for the Frankish and Anglo-Saxon scribes who had already progressed much more in the depiction of the human form, though still standing under the influence of the after-effects of their idols of ancient art. Most likely, the Irish ornamentation had been adapted by them, and even enhanced.
Initial page of the Book of Daniel:Daniel in the Lion ’ s Den,
folio 105 (recto), Major Prophets, Old Testament,
Latin Bible, Swabia (Weingarten), c. 1220.
Parchment, 479 x 335 cm (text 335 x 205 cm ).
Ada Gospels, Portrait of Matthew,
folio 15 (verso), c. 800. Parchment,
36.6 x 24.5 cm . Stadtbibliothek Trier, Trier.

The Romanesque

The painting was used to decorate either murals in churches or illuminated manuscripts. The themes and design features were the same for mural paintin

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