Bassoon Reed Making
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Bassoon Reed Making

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136 pages
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Description

Withheld by leading pedagogues in an effort to control competition, the art of reed making in the early 20th century has been shrouded in secrecy, producing a generation of performers without reed making fluency. While tenets of past decades remain in modern pedagogy, Christin Schillinger details the historical pedagogical trends of bassoon reed making to examine the impact different methods have had on the practice of reed making and performance today. Schillinger traces the pedagogy of reed making from the earliest known publication addressing bassoon pedagogy in 1687 through the publication of Julius Weissenborn's Praktische Fagott-Schule and concludes with an in-depth look at contemporary methodologies developed by Louis Skinner, Don Christlieb, Norman Herzberg, and Lewis Hugh Cooper. Aimed at practitioners and pedagogues of the bassoon, this book provides a deeper understanding of the history and technique surrounding reed-making craft and instruction.


Introduction
Part I: The History of Bassoon Pedagogy
1. Pedagogic Methods 1687-1803
An Oral Tradition
The Performer/Author: Cugnier and Ozi
The Founding of the Paris Conservatoire
2. Pedagogic Methods 1803-1887
Ozi's Nouvelle méthode de basson (1803) and Fröhlich's Vollständige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (1811)
Almenraeder's Die Kunst des Fagottblasens, oder, Vollständige theoretische praktische, Fagottschule (1843) and Jancourt's Méthode théorique et pratique pour le basson (1845)
Weissenborn's Praktische Fagott-Schule (1887)
Part II: The History of Bassoon Reed Making
3. Instrument Maker/Reed Maker
The Era of Long Lasting Reeds
Changing Demands: The Performer/Reed Maker Emerges
4. Performer/Reed Maker
Etienne Ozi: Transitional Figure
The Standardization of the Bassoon
Part III: The History of Bassoon Reed-Making Pedagogy
5. Pedagogic Methods 1687-1787
A Lineage
Cugnier's "Le Basson" (1780) and Ozi's Méthode nouvelle et raisonnée pour le bassoon (1787)
6. The Birth of Reed-Making Pedagogy
Ozi's Nouvelle méthode (1803)
7. Pedagogic Methods 1803-1843
Fröhlich's Vollständige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (1811)
Almenraeder's Die Kunst des Fagottblasens oder Vollständige theoretisch praktische Fagottschule (1843)
8. Pedagogic Methods 1844-1887
Willent-Bordogni's Méthode complète pour le bassoon (1844) and Jancourt's Méthode theorique et pratique pour le basson (1847)
International Pedagogies
Weissenborn's Praktische Fagott-Schule (1887)
Part IV: Bassoon Reed-Making Pedagogy in Twentieth Century America
9. The Modern Era: The Secrecy of Reed Making
10. Researcher/Pedagogue: Louis Skinner
11. Reed Maker/Innovator: Don Christlieb
12. Artist/Scholar I: Norman Herzberg
13: Artist/Scholar II: Lewis Hugh Cooper
Conclusion
Appendix 1. Reed Notes: Don Christlieb (1945)
Appendix 2. Herzberg Bassoon Reed Exam
Appendix 3. Cooper's Reed Contribution System
Appendix 4. Timeline of Relevant Publications and Events in the History of Bassoon Reed Making Pedagogy
Bibliography
Notes
Index

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Date de parution 14 décembre 2015
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780253018236
Langue English
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Exrait

6. The Birth of Reed-Making Pedagogy
Ozi's Nouvelle méthode (1803)
7. Pedagogic Methods 1803-1843
Fröhlich's Vollständige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (1811)
Almenraeder's Die Kunst des Fagottblasens oder Vollständige theoretisch praktische Fagottschule (1843)
8. Pedagogic Methods 1844-1887
Willent-Bordogni's Méthode complète pour le bassoon (1844) and Jancourt's Méthode theorique et pratique pour le basson (1847)
International Pedagogies
Weissenborn's Praktische Fagott-Schule (1887)
Part IV: Bassoon Reed-Making Pedagogy in Twentieth Century America
9. The Modern Era: The Secrecy of Reed Making
10. Researcher/Pedagogue: Louis Skinner
11. Reed Maker/Innovator: Don Christlieb
12. Artist/Scholar I: Norman Herzberg
13: Artist/Scholar II: Lewis Hugh Cooper
Conclusion
Appendix 1. Reed Notes: Don Christlieb (1945)
Appendix 2. Herzberg Bassoon Reed Exam
Appendix 3. Cooper's Reed Contribution System
Appendix 4. Timeline of Relevant Publications and Events in the History of Bassoon Reed Making Pedagogy
Bibliography
Notes
Index

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BASSOON REED MAKING
BASSOON REED MAKING
A Pedagogic History
Christin Schillinger
This book is a publication of
Indiana University Press
Office of Scholarly Publishing
Herman B Wells Library 350
1320 East 10th Street
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 USA
iupress.indiana.edu
2016 by Christin Schillinger
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. The Association of American University Presses Resolution on Permissions constitutes the only exception to this prohibition.
The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992.
Manufactured in the United States of America
Cataloging information is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN 978-0-253-01815-1 (cloth)
ISBN 978-0-253-01823-6 (ebook)
1 2 3 4 5 21 20 19 18 17 16
. . . to my students .
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Part I. The History of Bassoon Pedagogy
1 Pedagogic Methods, 1697-1803
An Oral Tradition
The Performer/Author: Cugnier and Ozi
The Founding of the Paris Conservatoire
2 Pedagogic Methods, 1803-1887
Ozi s Nouvelle m thode de basson (1803) and Fr hlich s Vollst ndige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (1811)
Almenraeder s Die Kunst des Fagottblasens oder Vollst ndige theoretische praktische, Fagottschule (1843) and Jancourt s M thode th orique et pratique pour le basson (1845)
Weissenborn s Praktische Fagott-Schule (1887)
Part II. The History of Bassoon Reed Making
3 Instrument Maker/Reed Maker
The Era of Long-Lasting Reeds
Changing Demands: The Performer/Reed Maker Emerges
4 Performer/Reed Maker
Etienne Ozi: Transitional Figure
The Standardization of the Bassoon
Part III. The History of Bassoon Reed-Making Pedagogy
5 Pedagogic Methods, 1697-1787
A Lineage
Cugnier s Le Basson (1780) and Ozi s M thode nouvelle et raisonn e pour le basson (1787)
6 The Birth of Reed-Making Pedagogy
Ozi s Nouvelle m thode (1803)
Ozi s Reed-Making Pedagogy
7 Pedagogic Methods, 1803-1843
Fr hlich s Vollst ndige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (1811)
Almenraeder s Die Kunst des Fagottblasens oder Vollst ndige theoretisch praktische Fagottschule (1843)
8 Pedagogic Methods, 1844-1887
Willent-Bordogni s M thode compl te pour le basson (1844) and Jancourt s M thode theorique et pratique pour le basson (1847)
International Pedagogies
Weissenborn s Praktische Fagott-Schule (1887)
Part IV. Bassoon Reed-Making Pedagogy in Twentieth-Century America
9 The Modern Era
The Turn of the Century: 1900-1930
The Secrecy of Reed Making
10 Researcher/Pedagogue: Louis Skinner
11 Reed Maker/Innovator: Don Christlieb
12 Artist/Scholar I: Norman Herzberg
13 Artist/Scholar II: Lewis Hugh Cooper
Conclusion
Appendix 1. Reed Notes: Don Christlieb (1945)
Appendix 2. Herzberg Bassoon Reed Exam (August 16, 1991)
Appendix 3. Cooper s Reed Contribution System
Appendix 4. Timeline of Relevant Publications and Events in the History of Bassoon Reed-Making Pedagogy
Notes
Select Bibliography
Index
Preface
I STUDIED WITH an array of teachers. Because each performed on a different reed design with a different instrument model, I had the opportunity to observe tone concept as it relates to reed and instrument pairing. Each mentor provided a distinctive reed pedagogy. Their pedagogical differences instigated my initial interest in this field. It was when my reed making solidified that my performance abilities took shape.
Understanding the relationship of acoustics, physics, and botany as they relate to reed making provided me the impetus needed for self-reflection and adjustment in my personal reed design. With each improvement in my reeds, there followed a corresponding improvement in my performance.
Poor reeds foster bad habits. Errors in reed making require compensation in air, embouchure, support, articulation, and a variety of other means. As a pedagogue, the stronger my reed-making pedagogy, the stronger my bassoon students. Each student requires concise, comprehensive, yet personalized instruction. The research included in this book represents three hundred years of bassoonists searching for the best reeds and bassoon pedagogues investigating the best way to teach their construction.
Acknowledgments
I AM INDEBTED to many for their assistance with this book. Foremost, I appreciate the guidance and instruction of Robert Barris, Barrick Stees, Michael Kroth, Jeffrey Lyman, and Albie Micklich. Also, my students endured constant experimentation during my research for this book, and I appreciate their enthusiasm and intellectual curiosity.
Bassoon Reed Making owes much to the archived publications of the International Double Reed Society, which represent an amalgamation of the greatest minds in our field. This resource is the single greatest tool a double reed scholar could have.
The artwork is in great part due to Kristin Kieffer. I appreciate her dedication to the project.
The importance of primary sources cannot be overstated. Often translations prove inaccurate, contradictory, or incomplete. I owe gratitude to J. M. Fuzeau Editions for their facsimile reprints of historic methods and treatises. Moreover, I am grateful to the many contacts in the field who shared stories and research, read chapters, and talked reeds.
Finally, for their support in the publication of Bassoon Reed Making , I am thankful to Indiana University Press.
BASSOON REED MAKING
Introduction
R EED MAKING IS inextricably linked with modern bassoon pedagogy; however, this parameter of teaching proves exceedingly complex. In the earliest known in-depth discussion of reeds, Pierre Cugnier stresses that no scientific proportions serve as a perfect model producing consistent reeds every time. Instead, general principles exist that, with great exceptions, produce consistent reeds most of the time. Viewing reed making as an imperfect art paired with a methodical process assists in understanding the difficulty of reed-making pedagogy. How, historically, have professional bassoonists taught students such an inexact science? How have successful reed makers instructed amateurs to master a craft that may or may not yield working reeds? 1
The inconsistency of reeds first and foremost arises from their organic origin. They are made of cane: what was once living, affected by soil, water, sunshine, humidity, and barometric pressure, now affects pitch, response, timbre, and tone quality. Every piece of wood is different. The gouge that produced the perfect consistency for one reed will prove too close to the bark for the next one, providing the performer too much resistance. Acknowledgment that even a professional can never truly master reed making is a requirement on the path to becoming an excellent pedagogue.
Players are as unique as the reeds they make. The physiological sculpting of bassoonists oral cavities differs from a slight to a great degree. This results in variances in pitch center and basic sound from player to player. Consequently, a teacher s standard proportions of gouge, length, shape, profile, and wire placement may, but will probably not, be the proportions suitable for a given student. Furthermore, multiple students mean multiple proportions. A successful pedagogy of reed making, then, must be a model of flexibility and situational adaptation.
Although many articles exist on bassoon pedagogy and the science of reed making as separate entities, few have studied the pedagogy of reed making. Those that do discuss the teaching of reed making from a late twentieth-century perspective. By studying historical pedagogical trends in reed making, we, as modern pedagogues, can better assess our approach to the topic.
This book is partially derived from a synthesis of two related fields-the history of bassoon pedagogy and the history of bassoon reed making. It is therefore necessary to explore these fields before discussing the pedagogic history of reed making. Each field could, and in some cases has, generated complete tomes; however, both part I and part II of this book are intentionally cursory. The basis of Bassoon Reed Making lies in comparing how varying primary sources address reeds and reed making. Parts I and II place these sources in context. It is easier for the flow of information to provide that context in the beginning so as to not interrupt the discussion of reed-making pedagogy in parts III and IV .
Each change in the course of reed making demands a significant change in the course of reed-making pedagogy. This is discussed in depth in part III . For example, it is necessary to stress that a definitive pedagogy among performers did not exist prior to 1780, not because it had not evolved but because instrument makers manufacture of reeds made it unnecessary. The historical component of the current study traces the pedagogy of reed making from the earliest known text addressing bassoon pedagogy through the publication of Julius Weissenborn s Praktische Fagott-Schule , a method still in popular use today. This encapsulates the two-century period between 1697 and 1887.
Part IV integrates historic reed-making pedagogy with the modern age. A prodigious amount of reed-making information exists from the twentieth century. Following an era of limited sources with insufficient directions, modern makers are overwhelmed with styles, methods, and approaches. Numerous pioneers introduced new directions to the field: K. David VanHoesen, Stephen Maxym, Christopher Weait, Mark Popkin, Loren Glickman, and others contributed to a growing trend in reed-making pedagogy. The methodologies of Louis Skinner, Don Christlieb, Norman Herzberg, and Lewis Hugh Cooper are explored in depth in part IV . Their contributions altered the landscape of contemporary pedagogy.
Bassoon Reed Making offers a comparison of pedagogic approaches and a discussion of reed-making techniques. The goal is a diagnostic, flexible, and tactile reed pedagogy for instructors; however, a self-assessment of the reader s reed-making technique is inevitable. In addition to exposing bassoonists to the origins of reed-making pedagogy, the book also stands as an overview of bassoon pedagogy and reed engineering. To the extent possible, all research is drawn from primary sources. The author encourages readers to seek out these sources and delve into their reed making more fully.
PART I
T HE H ISTORY OF B ASSOON P EDAGOGY
1 Pedagogic Methods, 1697-1803
An Oral Tradition
During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, bassoonists trained without the modern pedagogical aids of method books, tuners, and metronomes. Formal instruction included mimicry and personal interaction with musicians. Professional musicians and bassoonists wrote pedagogic exercises for their students, the most famous being the bassoon concerti of Antonio Vivaldi. These were not concert works but primarily study pieces for the female students of the Ospedale della Piet . 1
Most texts from this era are descriptive rather than instructive, focusing on character and range and neglecting pedagogic information. They include generalized descriptions of a bassoon s cosmetic appearance, simple tablatures, and brief summaries of use. The earliest known text directly addressing bassoon pedagogy dates from 1697. German Daniel Speer s Grund-richtige, Kurtz- Leicht- und N thiger jetzt Wol-vermehrter Unterricht der Musicalischen Kunst oder Vierfaches Musicalisches Kleeblatt Worinnen zu ersehen wie man f glich und in kurzer Zeit (Fundamental instructions in the art of music . . .) is a general instruction book for multiple instruments with a fingering chart devoted to the two-keyed dulzian. Speer mentions positioning and provides a few lessons, continuing a custom established in the first woodwind instruction book, a Dutch text on recorders published in 1654. After Speer, instructional books for instruments grew in number, if not in quality, particularly in England. Eighty-two were published between 1654 and 1750. Of these, eight were French; two, German; and the remainder, English. 2
The most influential instructional publications between Speer s in 1697 and Pierre Cugnier s in 1780 are Joseph Majer s Museum musicum theoretico practicum (1732), Johann Philipp Eisel s Musicus autodidaktos (1738), Johann J. Quantz s Versuch einer Anweisung die Fl te traversiere zu spielen (1752), Fran ois Garsault s Notionnaire, ou m morial raisonn (1761), Jacques Hotteterre s M thode pour apprendre jouer en tres peu de temps de la fl te traversi re (. . .) augement e (. . .) des tablatures de la clarinette et due basson (1765), and Compleat Instructions for the Bassoon . . . (1770) by an anonymous Englishman, which marks the first instructional book dedicated entirely to the bassoon.
Joseph Friedrich Bernhard Caspar Majer s Museum musicum (The study of music) published in 1732 with a second edition in 1741, and Eisel s Musicus autodidaktos (Musician s method) from 1738, offer a window into eighteenth-century instruments, performance practice, and pedagogy. Museum musicum is divided into two sections: musica theoretica (Music theory) and musica practica (Music application). First, Majer discusses music fundamentals, including clef reading, notation, meter, rhythm, and symbology. Second, he surveys multiple instruments. Beginning with vocal studies, relevant to all musical disciplines, Majer then delves into the wind family. His treatment of the bassoon (a three-keyed instrument), including a fingering chart and illustration, is the same treatment he gives to the zink, the flageolet, and the two-keyed clarinet. He completes this section with a discussion of the string family. An appendix includes a comprehensive dictionary of musical terms, a twin to Walther s Musicalisches Lexicon (Musical dictionary) published in the same year. Walther freely borrows from Niedt s Musicalische Handleitung (Musical guide), which had been revised by Mattheson a decade prior. 3
Musicus autodidaktos (1738), written by Johann Philip Eisel, is another general instructional text for multiple instruments. For the bassoon, Eisel discusses tone production but goes no further in instruction or description of the instrument. His work is noteworthy because of its inclusion of so many instruments of the time. Like Museum musicum , the brief articles and fingering charts in Musicus autodidaktos give insight into instrument construction in 1738. Eisel presents his text as a series of questions he then answers. His accessible layout references the historical philosophers. 4
Johann Joachim Quantz s Versuch einer Anweisung die Fl te traversiere zu spielen (On playing the flute) was first published in both German and French in 1752. His flute method is widely accepted as a major resource for understanding eighteenth-century pedagogy and performance practice. It is improbable that the founding fathers of bassoon pedagogy would be unfamiliar with his pedagogical techniques and practices. Although titled On Playing the Flute, Quantz s text is broad-based, accessible, and relevant to all musicians. Quantz says of his pedagogical aims, . . . I am endeavoring to train a skilled and intelligent musician, and not just a mechanical flute player; I must try not only to educate his lips, tongue, and fingers, but must also try to form his taste, and sharpen his discernment. 5 This tutor advances far beyond the others. The depth with which it addresses topics is groundbreaking in the field of teaching. A supplement to chapter 6 , Of the Use of the Tongue in Blowing upon the Flute, discusses the oboe and the bassoon. Entitled Several Remarks for the Use of the Oboe and Bassoon, it details commonalities with the flute: tonguing, double tonguing, reed quality, embouchure, and posture. In a mere six paragraphs, Quantz addresses the bassoon more fully and with more deliberation than anyone had before to then. According to Judith Schwartz, The book affords a glimpse of a man whose opinions were based on wide experience, intelligent observation, and a keen practical sense . . . the qualities of a great teacher, musician, and human being thoroughly dedicated to his art. 6
Garsault s Notionnaire, ou m morial raisonn (1761) (Encyclopedia of reason) offers an all-encompassing discussion of mythology, math, religion, and music. Its treatment of the bassoon is purely descriptive, but touches on multiple subjects-for example, the role of the bassoon in an orchestra and its construction, assembly, and range. He also includes a cursory description of reed construction. 7
The 1765 Bailleux edition of Jacques le Romain Hotteterre s M thode pour apprendre jouer en tres peu de temps de la fl te traversi re (. . .) augement e (. . .) des tablatures de la clarinette et due bassoon , (Method for Playing Flute, Recorder, and Oboe. Includes Tablatures for Clarinet and Bassoon) includes a fingering chart and general instructions for the bassoon. Although Jacques, the most celebrated of the famed Hotteterre family, was primarily a flutist, his inclusion in bassoon pedagogy stems from the importance of the Hotteterre family in instrument making during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. To have instructions and tablature from a maker is invaluable in tracing pedagogical lineage. Hotteterre s pedagogical approach to the flute lasted as a model into the twentieth century; however, his name is scarcely associated with bassoon pedagogy. 8
The English publishing firm Longman, Lukey and Co. released the first tutor devoted entirely to the bassoon in 1770. The author of Compleat Instructions for the Bassoon or Fagotto Containing a perfect Drawing of that Instrument a modern Scale of all the Notes is unknown; however, it is notable that before Pierre Cugnier s seminal Le Basson in 1780 there was a tutor for bassoonists and their craft. Compleat Instructions is referenced by multiple twentieth-century bassoon scholars as the first tutor specifically and wholly for the bassoon; however, the treatise itself is lost. 9
The instructional texts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries illustrate that oral training was then the premier pedagogical approach. Primarily, method books were descriptive rather than instructive, generalized rather than directed, theoretical rather than pedagogical. Although the number of publications on the bassoon was rising, constituting a definite advancement in pedagogy, they were still lacking in quality.
The Performer/Author: Cugnier and Ozi
Like woodwind pedagogues (such as Johann Quantz) before them, bassoonists in the last decades of the eighteenth century began writing comprehensive treatises and methods directed at amateurs. With the exception of the anonymous English tutor of 1770, earlier works were tablatures within universal music texts; bassoonists were not involved in their authorship. The performer/author model of the latter decades ensures a deeper pedagogical approach with a broader overall scope.
In 1780, Jean-Benjamin Laborde published his four-volume Essai sur la musique ( Essay on music ) . Contained in this work is the first major all-encompassing source of instruction for the bassoon, Le Basson, by Pierre Cugnier. The impact of Le Basson spread throughout France and had been translated into German by 1790. It differs from earlier works both in scope and depth. Cugnier addresses posture, tone production, embouchure, articulation, fingering (including trills), reeds, reed making, bassoon construction, and the instrument s use within a larger context. Beyond mere description, he offers instruction on improving general proficiency and understanding of the bassoon. 10
The depth and scope of Cugnier s prose represent an astonishing leap from all earlier methods as well as a new beginning in bassoon pedagogy. Le Basson marks the first work by an experienced professional bassoonist: Cugnier performed with the Paris Opera from 1764 until 1780. His text signals a shift in bassoon pedagogy: master and oral instructor becomes author.
Seven years after Cugnier s seminal work, another famous Parisian bassoonist, Etienne Ozi, published a method directly aimed at improving bassoon proficiency in amateurs. M thode nouvelle et raisonn e pour le basson (New method and understanding for bassoon) (1787) includes in-depth discussions of the same topics found in Essai sur la musique s Le Basson but adds applicable lessons and exercises composed by Ozi. This augmentation of Cugnier s work is decisive in loosening one more binding tie to oral instruction. Students no longer depended on teachers for music pertinent to their training. A notable aspect of Ozi s M thode that varies from Cugnier s Le Basson is its construction. Ozi s work is more accessible, with well-organized articles, subheadings, and a table of contents. Also, it is self-sufficient, not just one part of a larger tome. Like Cugnier s work before it, Ozi s M thode nouvelle et raisonn e pour le basson had multiple French editions as well as a German translation. 11
Although new directions in bassoon pedagogy were beginning in France and quickly moving to Germany, England remained tied to the past. English publications contemporary with Laborde s Essai sur la musique and Ozi s M thode nouvelle et raisonn e continued to discuss the bassoon in general terms as a part of universal wind tutors. A typical example, Joseph Gehot s Complete Instructions for Bassoon (1784), was published as one of a set of complete instructions for every musical instrument. Gehot toured France and Germany as a violinist, composer, and pedagogue, so he could have been exposed to the French instructional trends of the late eighteenth century. One can conclude that it was his choice that Complete Instruction is descriptive rather than instructive. 12
The Founding of the Paris Conservatoire
The emergence of leading pedagogic treatises from Paris foreshadows the city s importance as the birthplace of modern bassoon pedagogy. At the close the eighteenth century, Paris was the unrivaled musical capital of Europe. As musicians flooded the Parisian music scene, the city quickly became the indisputable center of woodwind musicianship. The excellency of French woodwind playing was internationally accepted in the West as late as 1850. 13
For wind players, the progression from verbal instruction to formalized training happened quite suddenly. Ironically, it was during a time of grave social inequity and injustice that the foundation of future music pedagogy was laid. In the last decade of the eighteenth century, Paris was in the chaos of the French Revolution. The middle class formed the Garde Nationale under the command of General Le Marquis de Lafayette to maintain order. Bernard Sarrette, in command of 150 soldiers in the French National Guard s Filles-Saint-Thomas district, founded La Musique de la Garde Nationale, an ensemble of 44 musicians who played songs of French patriotism. When the National Assembly, separate from the king, emerged as the new governing body in June of 1789, Sarrette s band continued. On July 14, as the Bastille was stormed, Sarrette offered it in an official capacity to the military. Within a year, La Musique de la Garde Nationale was appearing throughout the Parisian metropolitan area, whose theatres and opera houses had been closed by the revolution, and it was attracting the primary wind talent of the time. 14
In 1792, musicians began advocating for a school for wind music. Though initially rejected by the city of Paris, a music school was permitted by the new national government (the Legislative Assembly) to house 120 sons of men serving in the French National Guard. Offering free instruction, it opened with standards already in place. Prospective students endured an entrance examination proctored by their primary professor and the music master. Those accepted supplied their own instrument, music paper, and uniform. Because this was a training ground for military bands of superior quality, only wind instruments were taught, by instructors who were members of Sarrette s band. This training institution for French National Guard bands was given the name Ecole Gratuite de Musique de la Garde Nationale Parisienne (Free School of Music of the Parisian National Guard) and served as an important stepping-stone to the current conservatory and university models of today. Although sanctioned by the national government, the school had been advocated for and was created by musicians themselves. 15
Sarrette, quickly realizing the advantages of an institution supported by the government, lobbied to have the school become a part of the Republic s educational system. By late 1793, the Ecole de Musique and the Ecole Royale de Chant (its counterpart for vocal music) joined to become the Institut National de Musique. Plagued by financial and organizational problems, the institut was reorganized and enlarged under a plan developed by Sarrette and Fran ois Gossec, becoming the Paris Conservatoire in 1795. 16
The formalization of musical training spearheaded by Bernard Sarrette allowed regular instruction on one s instrument as well as solfege, composition, and singing. It also provided a setting for instructors to focus on the art of teaching. Scholarly attention to pedagogy was exemplified by the commissioning of method books by the Paris Conservatoire. In May of 1801, a committee comprising professors Berton, J. Blasius, Cherubini, Delcambre, Duret, Gossec, Mehul, Martini, Ozi, Rogat, and Vellard was charged with creating a bassoon method. Ozi, selected to compose the method, produced his Nouvelle m thode de basson (New method for bassoon) (1803), which was adopted by the Conservatoire as its formal bassoon curriculum. Nouvelle m thode de bassoon (1803) remained the Conservatoire s bassoon tutor until 1847. 17
2 Pedagogic Methods, 1803-1887
Ozi s Nouvelle m thode de basson (1803) and Fr hlich s Vollst ndige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (1811)
The selection of Etienne Ozi to write the commissioned bassoon method for the Paris Conservatoire was the anticipated choice. Ozi, the most popular bassoonist in Paris, appeared regularly with Parisian orchestras and was a frequent soloist with the Concert Spirtuel, performing 23 concerti within six years during the 1780s. When Sarrette began the Ecole de Musique, Ozi was an obvious choice for professor of bassoon, a position that continued as the school grew into the Paris Conservatoire. Although Sarrette and Gossec s initial proposal for the Conservatoire called for as many as eighteen bassoon professors (and one contrabassoon), Professor Etienne Ozi s pedagogy had the greatest impact on future generations. His Nouvelle m thode de basson (New method for bassoon) (1803) remains his most influential writing, but he contributed at least three other bassoon methods, as well as a serpent method and a flute tutor. 1
Prior method books by Ozi, dated 1787 and 1788, prove he was experienced in pedagogy by the mid-1780s. This is important because his method books before Nouvelle m thode de basson were the most comprehensive to date and far exceeded anything earlier save Cugnier s article published in Laborde s Essai sur la musique . 2
Ozi s Nouvelle m thode de basson is considered by scholars to be a revision of his own M thode nouvelle et raison e pour le basson (New method and understanding for bassoon) (1787), and, indeed, the similarities are striking enough to make this claim. The differences, however, show not only Ozi s pedagogical growth during his association with the Paris Conservatoire and its predecessors but also the reasons for the latter method s impact. Both texts comprise articles on the problems of bassoon playing. The earlier method s five articles detail how to hold the instrument, embouchure, reed quality, and sound formation. In comparison, the 1803 Nouvelle m thode contains eleven articles detailing again, but at greater length, how to hold the instrument, sound formation, embouchure, and reed quality, adding fingering, articulation and nuances, vocal embellishments, phrasing and breathing, style in both adagio and allegro playing, and the general character of the bassoon. The newer method also includes the first extensive instructions on reed making, including diagrams and measurements-a topic that is addressed in later chapters.
Both methods include originally composed lessons and assignments for students in solo and duet form, but the Nouvelle m thode (1803) provides twenty-five more duets than its predecessor, as well as six petites sonatas, six grandes sonatas, thirty scalar exercises in major and minor keys, and forty-two caprices extending through all major and minor keys. Not a single composition from the 1787 M thode nouvelle is repeated in the later method commissioned by the Paris Conservatoire. Ozi merely uses the former as a model of pedagogical standards to be taught to aspiring bassoonists.
The pedagogical impact of Nouvelle m thode was enormous. For the first time, the supposed intuitive instinct of virtuoso bassoonists was recorded in an easy-to-follow and easy-to-teach methodology for amateurs. As the French conservatory model spread across Europe, Ozi s bassoon method spread with it. Nouvelle m thode was published in Italy and used at the Conservatory of Milan and at the School of the Royal Institute of Music in Florence as late as 1887. When the Landes-Musikschule, the first state music school in Germany, was founded in W rzburg, administrator Joseph Fr hlich revised and adopted Ozi s method with passing acknowledgment of the Parisian Bassoon Tutor from which he so freely borrows. 3
The bassoon section of Fr hlich s inclusive Vollst ndige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule (1811) is indicative of a popular trend in turn-of-the-century Western Europe: academic piracy. Ozi s method was particularly susceptible to such plagiarism because no other method was so complete in its instruction. Still, Fr hlich s method is important to the history of bassoon pedagogy for multiple reasons. His text marks the first method in the German language to reach beyond the descriptive to the instructive for the Dresden bassoons. It brings the teachings of Etienne Ozi to the German bassoon population, and, because of Fr hlich s revisions, offers a comparison of French versus German pedagogical trends of the era. Finally, it combines the reed-making pedagogy of Ozi with the reed-making technology of Germany (to be discussed in part III ). For these reasons, Vollst ndige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule deserves ample discussion.
Fr hlich s method does not stand alone but is part of a larger instructional book for all instruments of the orchestra. Written during Fr hlich s time at the Landes-Musikschule, its entire title reads Vollst ndige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule f r alle beym Orchester gebr uchliche wichtigere Instrumente zum Gebrauch f r Musikdirectoren-Lehrer und Liebhaber (Complete method of theoretical and practical music for all the instruments used in the orchestra, for the use of music directors, professors and amateurs), and it is divided into four parts: fundamentals of music and singing, woodwinds, brass, and strings. Joseph Fr hlich began his professional career as a violinist only two years before Ozi published Nouvelle m thode . With violin, not bassoon, as his primary instrument and newly establishing himself in his field, it is understandable why Fr hlich sought to base his method on what was regarded as the premier pedagogic source for bassoon.
Fr hlich s revisions to Ozi s original text are important advances. The first shift from Nouvelle m thode is in the selection and arrangement of articles in Musikschule . Ozi begins with an explanation of posture and instructions on how to hold the instrument. Fr hlich opens with a rewrite of Ozi s closing article, On the Character of the Bassoon. This placement highlights Ozi and Fr hlich s different approaches. Ozi s perspective resembles an orchestration discussion. He touches on use of the instrument as a bass to the oboe and as support to the middle of the harmonic structure. An explanation of suitable keys and awkward motions for the bassoonist follows. The placement of this article after all others is logical in a sequence of learning. In contrast, Fr hlich s similarly titled opening article reads as an endorsement of the bassoon s singing tone quality, great range, technical versatility, and articulation variety. Such an opening presents the pupil with an idea of his potential with the instrument. 4
From this point, Fr hlich progresses to bassoon construction, a section omitted by Ozi. With the exception of a fingering chart for a Dresden bassoon, Fr hlich does not limit his discussion to German makes or models. That Ozi does not include an article on bassoon construction in his text is curious and moreover emphasizes a distinct pedagogic difference in the two authors. As the disparate openings of the two methods hint, Fr hlich s approach includes the descriptive with the instructive, whereas Ozi s is purely instructive. Although construction of one s instrument is of great interest and value, it is not a necessity in performance. The inclusion of this article by Fr hlich and its omission by Ozi are in adherence with their pedagogic styles. It should be noted that Ozi might omit a construction article for personal reasons: a French author writing to a French audience, Ozi performed on a German, Keller-made bassoon ( figure 2.1 ).

Figure 2.1. Etienne Ozi s Bassoon, 1787. Extract of the facsimiles edition Methods and Treatises, Bassoon, France 1600-1800, Anne Fuzeau Productions, www.annefuzeau.com .
Fr hlich s reasons for omitting sections of Ozi s work arose from the inclusion of Fr hlich s bassoon method within a universal instructional work. The sections excluded, On the manner of phrasing and of breathing, On the Adagio, and On the Allegro, are each generalized segments dissecting an issue common to either all wind players or all instrumentalists. Such articles are addressed in introductory chapters discussing performance practice at the turn of the nineteenth century.
The most deliberate separation of Ozi and Fr hlich s works comes in the latter s exclusion of lessons and exercises for students. Although Fr hlich explains this absence by advocating the use of contextual exercises from the operatic and classical repertoire, for the true beginning student this music was available only through a teacher. Like pedagogues before Ozi, Fr hlich shifts the reliance from student back to instructor. The defining difference between the teacher using Fr hlich s method and the one using, for example, Majer s, is the degree of dependence on a purely oral pedagogy. Because of Ozi s Nouvelle m thode in France and Italy and Joseph Fr hlich s Vollst ndige theoretisch-praktische Musikschule in Germany, a synergy between student, teacher, and published resource was now forming.
Almenraeder s Die Kunst des Fagottblasens oder Vollst ndige theoretisch praktische Fagottschule (1843) and Jancourt s M thode th orique et pratique pour le basson (1845)
Etienne Ozi s writings directly influenced the development of the modern bassoon and, subsequently the need for a widespread, universal pedagogy. Carl Almenraeder s Die Kunst des Fagottblasens oder Vollst ndige theoretisch praktische Fagottschule (The art of playing bassoon) of 1843 is paramount in the history of pedagogy for two important reasons: first, it was written by an instrument maker; second, it was intended for a newly redesigned bassoon, created by Almenraeder, that was quickly making all other method books tablatures archaic and was single-handedly pushing pedagogy forward ( figure 2.2 ).
The redesigned bassoon demanded a revised bassoon methodology. Its maker, Carl Almenraeder, understood the necessity of available forms of written pedagogy aligned with current instruments. Almenraeder was a self-taught bassoonist from adolescence. In addition to fathering the development of the modern German bassoon, he was an active performer and pedagogue. 5
Almenraeder s text was considered the largest and most complete German tutor of its era, in itself an influence toward the modified system of bassoons. It opens with a fingering chart of the Almenraeder bassoon and then moves to instructional and descriptive articles, lessons, and exercises. A primary difference between Almenraeder s method and both those before and after it is his incorporation of articles into the lessons and exercises. Instead of presenting all written material as a self-contained unit followed by musical tudes, Almenraeder interlaces his information with music to give his readers a more thorough comprehension.
Chapters 13 and 14 of Almenraeder s method are unprecedented. These articles, on practicing and repertoire, respectively, present subjects essential to a student s advancement. Chapter 13 , on practicing, offers varying approaches to mastering difficult passages. Almenraeder is the first to discuss techniques such as slow practicing, isolation of troubling intervals, and looping of musical segments in a printed bassoon method. In support of the isolation model, he includes an extensive unit on virtuosic articulation. Across all techniques, he warns against playing too fast in the learning stages and promotes an overall focus on tone quality as opposed to overblowing.
Chapter 14 is similarly insightful, detailing the importance of chamber and solo repertoire in the training of orchestral musicians. Almenraeder lists appropriate pieces and composers and contextualizes them: playing music outside of the orchestral repertoire trains bassoonists in varying styles and genres. Interestingly, it is in the chapter on repertoire, not that on practicing, that Almenraeder details a practice routine: one must practice at home alone with no interruptions. 6

Figure 2.2. Carl Almenraeder s Bassoon, 1843
Eug ne Jancourt s contributions to the development of the bassoon and to bassoon pedagogy were similar to Almenraeder s, but occurred in reverse order. Jancourt was barely two years into his work on the improvement of what would become the French bassoon when his magnum opus, M thode th orique et pratique pour le basson (Theoretical and practical method for the bassoon) (1847) was published. In 1845, the director of the Paris Conservatoire, Daniel Auber, asked Jancourt to compose a new bassoon method. Many of Jancourt s Conservatoire predecessors also wrote tutors for the instrument, but his M thode th orique et pratique finally replaced Ozi s half-century-old Nouvelle m thode as part of the Conservatoire s syllabus. Jancourt cited the drastic shifts in contemporary instrumental music and the rapid style transformations of the nineteenth century as his rationale for writing a tutor to replace Ozi s. 7
Much of Jancourt s Grand m thode (1847), as it was known, was drawn directly from its Paris Conservatoire ancestor. It has many similarities not only to Ozi s but also to Fr hlich s work. Grand m thode s most noticeable link to Nouvelle m thode arises from its gradual methodology. Like its predecessor, Jancourt s method begins with articles addressing the fundamentals of bassoon playing, including holding the instrument, embouchure, articulation, and general breathing. None of Ozi s topics are omitted, and those added can be regarded as responding to the demands of the Romantic Era. Jancourt adds discussions on dynamics, vibrato, and rhythm while widening the treatment of trills, grace notes, and general style. Interestingly, he includes an article on orchestral etiquette.
The pedagogic growth from Ozi to Jancourt is astounding. Although there are evident similarities between the two, Jancourt addresses additional topics, begins at a more elementary level, and progresses further. Following Fr hlich s descriptive approach, Jancourt includes an article on bassoon construction. However, in a break from both Fr hlich and Ozi, he adds instructions on instrument assembly. Additional new topics include the historical background of the instrument, a brief discussion of the constitution required of a young player, and general performance requirements.
The groundbreaking difference between Jancourt and Ozi and Fr hlich was his assumption of prerequisite knowledge. Nearly a fifth of the written portion of Jancourt s method is devoted to basic principles of music: the staff, clefs, note reading, and basic rhythmic and metric structures. Moreover, Jancourt presumes no acquaintance with reading. This was not new (it can be found in the methods of Fr d ric Berr in 1836, Blumer in 1840, and Ozi in 1843), but as the newly adopted method of the Paris Conservatoire, written by one of the most famous bassoonists of the time, the Grand m thode was a particularly influential model.
In the second part of Jancourt s three-part method, he includes fifty melodies from the standard orchestral and operatic repertoire. These tudes, providing active exposure to the composers and compositions necessary for an aspiring bassoonist in a controlled setting, are drawn from the works of Mozart, Rossini, Donizetti, Weber, Beethoven, Haydn, Schubert, and so forth. The third section of the method, like Ozi s before it, comprises original compositions. Advanced in both technique and musicality, they offer students an aspirational goal.
Although Jancourt brought bassoon pedagogy firmly into the nineteenth century, aspects of his Grand m thode are nevertheless ineffective. Lessons quickly skip from introductory to advanced beginner. The first exercise demands mastery of ten different notes by seven different fingerings, with the remaining three notes manipulated by air and embouchure. Jancourt explains that students should master their scales before beginning lessons, but, again, this demands a mastery of the range of the bassoon. Wide intervallic leaps are also used in the first lesson that are a strain both on the ear and on developing technical coordination.
Reed making is completely bypassed in the Grande m thode (discussed further in part III ). From a pedagogic standpoint, the forward motion of Ozi s Nouvelle m thode is halted in this parameter. Finally, no method book to this point, including Jancourt s, discusses how much to practice. The art of practicing is still an oral tradition left to the teacher/student relationship.
Other significant German and Italian methods of the mid-nineteenth century were used in conjunction with an oral tradition and/or earlier publications. Theoretisch practische Anleitung zum Fagottspiel oder Allgemeine Fagottschule, Nebst einem einleitenden (Theoretical and practical instructions for the bassoon) (1840) by Wenzel W. Neukirchner was a contemporary of Almenraeder s Die Kunst des Fagottblasens (The art of playing bassoon). Neukirchner created his method for his own newly designed instrument, and it gained some popularity in Germany and Italy. However, as the popularity of the Neukirchner bassoon waned so did that of Neukirchner s method.
Metodo per fagotto (Method for bassoon) by Emmanuele Krakamp (1850) is a tutor only of musical lessons and exercises. Its lack of articles demands outside assistance with both general music and bassoon-specific fundamentals. However, Krakamp s work is still in modern use in conjunction with other pedagogic methods. 8
Weissenborn s Praktische Fagott-Schule (1887)
Part I closes with a discussion of Praktische Fagott-Schule (Practical bassoon school) published in 1887 by Julius Weissenborn. This comprehensive work completes the history of bassoon pedagogy because it remains the most widely adopted method in modern use. Julius Weissenborn was a leading German bassoonist, both as a performer and a pedagogue. He held the position of principal bassoon with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra and was on the faculty at the Leipzig Conservatory until his death in 1888. 9
Originally, Weissenborn sought to create an all-encompassing work including an instructional method, tudes and exercises, and finally solo works with piano accompaniment. Although this wide-ranging project never took shape, he wrote in its place a method for bassoon more extensive than anything that had come before. The solo works with piano accompaniment, intended for the extensive method, were published separately as individual pieces. 10
The differences between Weissenborn s Praktische Fagott-Schule and Almenraeder s Fagottschule , Jancourt s Grand m thode , and Ozi s Nouvelle m thode exist in three domains.

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