Mary, Music, and Meditation
369 pages

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Making music in Marian cults of early modern Milan

Burdened by famine, the plague, and economic hardship in the 1500s, the troubled citizens of Milan, mindful of their mortality, turned toward the veneration of the Virgin Mary and the creation of evangelical groups in her name. By 1594 the diversity of these lay religious organizations reflected in microcosm the varied expressions of Marian devotion in the Italian peninsula. Using archival documents, meditation and music books, and iconographical sources, Christine Getz examines the role of music in these Marian cults and confraternities in order to better understand the Church's efforts at using music to evangelize outside the confines of court and cathedral through its most popular saint. Getz reveals how the private music making within these cults, particularly among women, became the primary mode through which the Catholic Church propagated its ideals of femininity and motherhood.

1. Venerating the Veil: The Madonna Of Miracles at Santa Maria presso San Celso
2. The Art of Lamenting: The Cult of the Madonna Addolorata at Santa Maria dei Servi
History of the Cult of the Madonna Addolorata
3. Singing before a Madonna on the Pilaster: The Society of the Ave Maria in Duomo
4. Invoking the Mulier Fortis: The Confraternity of The Rosary
5. Clothed in the Sun and Standing on the Moon: Meditating Motherhood in the Cult of the Madonna del Parto
Epilogue: The Case of Santa Maria Segreta
Appendix A: Documents
Appendix B: Pay records for the singers of the Ave Maria in Duomo
Appendix C: Contents of Selected Collections by Milanese Composers
Appendix D: Musical Examples



Publié par
Date de parution 08 juillet 2013
Nombre de lectures 14
EAN13 9780253007964
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 14 Mo

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Music and the Early Modern Imagination
Massimo Ossi, editor
Sacred Conversations
in Post-Tridentine
Christine Getz
Indiana University Press
Bloomington and Indianapolis
This book is a publication of Manufactured in the
United States of America
Indiana University Press
Offce of Scholarly Publishing
Herman B Wells Library 350 Library of Congress
1320 East 10th Street Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 USA
Getz, Christine Suzanne, [date]. Mary, music, and meditation :
sacred conversations in post-
Telephone orders 800-842-6796 Tridentine Milan / Christine Getz.
Fax orders 812-855-7931 p. cm. — (Music and
the early modern imagination)
© 2013 by Christine Getz Includes bibliographical references
and index.
All rights reserved 978-0-253-00787-2 (cloth :
alk. paper)No part of this book may be reproduced
978-0-253-00796-4 (ebook)or utilized in any form or by any means,
1. Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint— electronic or mechanical, including
Devotion to—Italy—Milan. photocopying and recording, or by any
2. Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint— information storage and retrieval system,
Songs and music—History and without permission in writing from the
criticism. 3. Church music— publisher. The Association of American
Catholic Church—16th century. University Presses’ Resolution on
4. Church music—Italy—Milan— Permissions constitutes the only excep-
16th century. I. Title. tion to this prohibition.
ML3033.8.M54 G48 2013
• The paper used in this publication 781.71/20094521109031
meets the minimum requirements of 2012036072
the American National Standard for
Information Sciences-Permanence of
Paper for Printed Library Materials,
ANSI Z39.48-1992. 1 2 3 4 5 18 17 16 15 14 13
Acknowledgments ix
Marian Devotion and Meditation
in Post-Tridentine Milan 1
chapter 1
Venerating the Veil: The Madonna of Miracles
at Santa Maria presso San Celso 17
chapter 2
The Art of Lamenting: The Cult of the
Madonna Addolorata at Santa Maria dei Servi 46
chapter 3
Singing Before a Madonna on the Pilaster:
The Society of the Ave Maria in Duomo 69
chapter 4
Invoking the Mulier Fortis:
The Confraternity of the Rosary 82
chapter 5
Clothed in the Sun and Standing on the Moon:
Meditating Motherhood in the Cult of the
Madonna del Parto 108
The Case of Santa Maria Segreta 143viii Contents
Appendix A: Documents 149
Appendix B: Pay Records for the Singers
of the Ave Maria in Duomo 165
Appendix C: Contents of Selected Collections
by Milanese Composers 172
Appendix D: Musical Examples 186
Notes 297
Bibliography 333
Index 345
This project is the result of a long-standing love affair with the city
of Milan that began in 1989 when I spent the year there as a Rotary
Foundation Scholar, and was partially driven by the opportunity to
participate in the biennial international conference La musica e il
sacro sponsored by the A.M.I.S.-Como and the Società Italiana di
Musicologia between the years 2001 and 2009. The feedback I received
from my fellow conference participants, and especially conference
organizer Maurizio Padoan, was invaluable in shaping this project. The
archival work for this project was graciously supported by a
fellowship that accompanied my University of Iowa Dean’s Scholar Award, a
2007 Career Development Award from the University of Iowa, a 2009
University of Iowa International Programs Summer Fellowship, and
Iowa Arts and Humanities Grants for the years 2005, 2007, and 2009.
I am especially indebted to Padre Silvano Danieli of the Pontifcia
Facoltà Teologica “Marianum” in Rome, Roberto Fighetti of the
Archivio della Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo in Milan, Lucia Aiello
of the Archivio dei Luoghi Pii Elemosinieri (A.S.P. “Golgi-Redaelli)
in Milan, Giordano Monzio-Copagnoni of the Pontifcio Istituto
Ambrosiano di Musica Sacra in Milan, and Monsignor Bruno Bosatra
and Fabrizio Pagani of the Archivio Storico Diocesano in Milan, as well
as the archivists and staff of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, the Biblioteca
dei Servi di Maria, the Archivio di Stato, the Biblioteca Nazionale
Braidense, the Archivio Storico Civico e Biblioteca Trivulziana, the
Biblioteca Communale Sormani, the Biblioteca del Conservatorio
“Giuseppe Verdi,” the Civica Raccolta delle Stampe “Achille Bertarelli,”
and the Biblioteca d’Arte-Castello Sforzesco in Milan, the Biblioteca
Provinciale dei Frati Minori Cappuccini del Piemonte in Torino, the
Biblioteca Capitolare in Vercelli, the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale in
Florence, and the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emmanuele
and Biblioteca Casanatense in Rome for their assistance in gaining
access to the rare sources necessary for this project, as well as for their
advice on various matters along the way. I wish to thank the Sibley x Acknowledgments
Library of the Eastman School of Music, the Biblioteca Nacional in
Madrid, the Biblioteca Malatestiana in Cesena, and the Civico Museo
Bibliografco Musicale in Bologna for providing microflms or
photocopies of rare musical sources used for this project, as well as Robert
Kendrick for sharing his copy of the Pratum musicum (1634) with
me. I further wish to thank the editorial staff and readers at Indiana
University Press, and especially Massimo Ossi, whose insightful
suggestions and careful attention to detail were instrumental in bringing
this project to completion, as well as the University of Iowa and the
Lloyd Hibberd Endowment of the American Musicological Society for
their generous support in defraying certain costs of publication. Finally,
these acknowledgements would not be complete without mentioning
the graduate students, faculty, and staff of the School of Music at the
University of Iowa. They are a constant source of inspiration and it is
a privilege to work with them.

Marian Devotion and Meditation
in Post-Tridentine Milan
And while you are working to recover from the blows of
Divine Wrath, do not allow the arms to rust which you have
to this point employed, exercising them continually in the
frequency of the holy sacraments, in prayers, in heavenly
[thoughts], in alms, in processions, in visiting the churches and
altars, and, fnally, persevere in many other Christian activities
which, thanks to the Lord, you already have started well, in
order that you are able with these arms to fght valiantly.
—Nicolo Sfondrato Milanese,
1Bishop of Cremona to the City of Milan, 1578
The coincidence of the famine of 1570 and the plague of 1576 with
a sharp economic infation that peaked in 1581 left the citizens of
Post-Tridentine Milan feeling uneasy and prepared to engage with the
mysteries of life after death in much the same way that many in the
post-9/11 world were compelled to reengage with concepts of
spiritual2ity. The notion that God had sent the plague of 1576 as punishment
for the city’s wantonness and worldliness and that he would stay it as
a reward for appropriate demonstrations of spirituality had become
strongly entrenched in the Milanese psyche by 1578. The confdence
Milanese citizens of the era invested in devotional demonstrations
as protection against divinely wrought iniquities is perhaps no more
clearly seen than in Carlo Borromeo’s four civic processions with the
reliquary containing the sacred nail, public displays of faith intended to 2 Mary, Music, and Meditation
infuse the collective consciousness with remorse for its past frivolities
and spiritual malaise by inviting citizens to identify with the suffering
of Christ. The processions reportedly attracted participants from all
walks of Milanese society and were regarded as almost
singlehandedly responsible for eradicating the city of disease. Nearly every
manuscript and printed history of Milan surviving from the era recounts
how a barefoot Carlo Borromeo humbly bore the crucifx containing
the sacred nail at the head of the procession as it wound its way from
the Duomo to one of the city’s principal churches like a modern Christ
3winding his way up Mount Calvary.
Carlo Borromeo is, of course, best known today for his
participation in the fnal sessions of the Council of Trent and his subsequent
application of Tridentine reforms in the Diocese of Milan, effectively
transforming the city into a model of ecclesiastical effciency and
spiri4tual fervor second only to Rome. yet as many scholars have noted,
Borromeo did not entirely reinvent the wheel. Rather, he introduced
order to preexisting institutions by demanding proper record-keeping
with regard to the sacraments, closely supervising the activities of the
clergy and religious, and subordinating lay confraternities and
oratories to the parishes in which they were housed. His ecclesiastical
reforms were accom

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