The Pianist s Dictionary, Second Edition
252 pages
English

The Pianist's Dictionary, Second Edition

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252 pages
English
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Description

The Pianist's Dictionary is a handy and practical reference dictionary aimed specifically at pianists, teachers, students, and concertgoers. Prepared by Maurice Hinson and Wesley Roberts, this revised and expanded edition is a compendium of information gleaned from a combined century of piano teaching. Users will find helpful and clear definitions of musical and pianistic terms, performance directions, composers, pianists, famous piano pieces, and piano makers. The authors' succinct entries make The Pianist's Dictionary the perfect reference for compiling program and liner notes, studying scores, and learning and teaching the instrument.


Preface to the Second Edition



Preface to the First Edition



List of Abbreviations



The Entries



Bibliography

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 03 mars 2020
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9780253047359
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0042€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

THE
Pianist’s
Dictionary

Second EditionTHE
Pianist’s
Dictionary

Second Edition
Maurice Hinson and
Wesley Roberts
Assisted by Sida Hodoroabă-Roberts
Indiana University PressTis book is a publication of
Indiana University Press
Ofce of Scholarly Publishing
Herman B Wells Library 350
1320 East 10th Street
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 USA
iupress.indiana.edu
© 2020 by Margaret Hume Hinson and Wesley Roberts
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying and recording, or by any information storage
and retrieval system, without permission in writing from
the publisher. Te paper used in this publication meets the
minimum requirements of the American National Standard
for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed
Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992.
Manufactured in the United States of America
Cataloging information is available from the Library of
Congress.
ISBN 978-0-253-04731-1 (hdbk)
ISBN 978-0-253-04732-8 (pbk)
ISBN 978-0-253-04735-9 (web PDF)
1 2 3 4 5 25 24 23 22 21 20In Memoriam
Maurice Hinson
(1930–2015)Contents

Preface to the Second Edition ix
Preface to the First Edition xi
List of Abbreviations xiii
THE ENTRIES 1
Bibliography 231Preface to the Second Edition
he task of today’s lexicographer is a daunting one when consi-dT ered in light of the sheer abundance of information available. Nowhere
else is this more true than for pianism, a domain now in its ffh century.
Early piano builders could have never imagined the developments - in manu
facturing, piano literature, performance, and audience enthusiasm that
have emerged in the centuries since that time. Te piano’s humbl-e begin
nings, emancipating from the action of the clavichord and embodying the
form of the harpsichord, opened new doors of musical expression that have
inspired composers, performers, and audiences throughout the ages, as they
continue to do today.
Tis second edition of Te Pianist’s Dictionary follows the trajectory
established in the frst edition. Its aim is to provide the reader w - ith a gen
eral reference guide to musical terms, selected compositions, composers,
performers, treatises, and manufacturers of the piano. No one book could
possibly contain all there is to be said, and readers are asked to b- e under
standing if a favorite composer or performer does not appear.
Tis book is the frst in Maurice Hinson’s immense series on the piano
to be published since his passing. It was my privilege to study piano with
Hinson in the late 1970s at the Southern Baptist Teological Seminary and
to serve as his student assistant. Tese were the early days in his editorship
of the Journal of the American Liszt Socie. Hty inson would occasionally send
me to the library to search for details related to Liszt, and occasionally I
managed to fnd information that had eluded him. I imagine this was one
of the reasons he entrusted me as coauthor of a new eTdie tiPoin ano of in
Chamber Ensemble (2006), the frst in what has become a series of c-ollabo
rations. Hinson was always interested in promoting music in the United
States: readers of his works will notice a stronger emphasis on American
composers and their music than is ofen found in other writings on piano
literature. Tis approach was instilled in him early on and manifested itself
in a series of three lecture-recitals he toured with early in his career tracing
the development of the piano and piano literature in America. Tat it spilled
over into his many publications should be no surprise.
ixAssisting me in the preparation of this volume has been my wife, Sida,
whose linguistic skill in several European languages aided me on many
occasions. For her assistance I am most grateful. Readers will fnd that some
foreign terms may be translated in multiple ways. I have taken e - very pre
caution to interpret these in a musical context. Any errors herein are my
responsibility. I am also thankful for the assistance of my colleague James
W. Moore, who digitized musical illustrations, and to Kay Alston, librarian,
and her staf at Campbellsville University’s Montgomery Library - for pro
viding materials in the preparation of this edition.
December 2018
Wesley Roberts
Campbellsville, Kentucky
x | Preface to the Second EditionPreface to the First Edition
his music dictionary aims to assist the pianist in all aspects of his T or her art. It is a practical guide that covers defnitions of t-erms, perfor
mance directions, names of well-known piano pieces, nicknames of pieces,
forms, and styles, plus brief biographies of leading pianists, composers of
piano music, and piano manufacturers as well as parts of the piano (action,
soundboard, etc.) and neglected repertoire the author feels is important.
I have also included the names of some college and university fa-culty mem
bers who are outstanding teachers, performers, or both, or who have made
some unusual contributions to the piano world by their writing or editing.
It is impossible to include some of the most interesting instructions from
composers: Satie suggested the pianist should play “like a nightingale with a
toothache”; Messiaen urged the performer to sound “like someon-e sharpen
ing a scythe.”
To be sure, there is more to interpretation than just recognizing the terms.
Te pianist has to know that allegro means a style as much as a tempo and
that a Brahms grazioso is quite diferent from a Mozart grazios-o. Tis dic
tionary aims to help with the other “part of the meaning” besides speed and
tempo.
How many times has a pianist worked so diligently on a passage or piece
only to realize there was a term or direction present all along that would have
steered him or her in the right direction if only they had been prop-erly under
stood? Tese words cannot be ignored, for they help bring a score to life.
I owe special thanks to Dr. Charles Timbrell for his assistance with death
dates and students of listed pianists, and to Suzie Collins and Linda Durkin
for typing the manuscript.
I have tried to keep the language as simple as possible as relates to the
topic. Te information contained covers the subject from around 1700 (the
beginning of the history of the piano) to the present day. Tis is information
I have worked with while teaching piano for almost sixty years.
Maurice Hinson
Louisville, Kentucky
xiAbbreviations
Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven
Brahms Johannes Brahms
BWV Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis
ca.Circa; approximately
Chopin Fryderyk (Frédéric) Chopin
Curtis Curtis Institute of Music
Debussy Claude Debussy
e.g. Exempli gratia (Latin); for example
Eng. English
Fr. French
Ger. German
Haydn Joseph Haydn
It. Italian
J. S. Bach Johann Sebastian Bach
Juilliard Te Juilliard School
K. Köchel (for Mozart) or Kirkpatrick (for Scarlatti)
L Lef
L.H. Lef hand
Lat . Latin
Liszt Franz Liszt
mm. Measure
mms. Measures
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
No. Number
Op. Opus
Peabody Peabody Conservatory of Te Johns Hopkins University
Pol. Polish
Port . Portuguese
xiiiR Right
R.H. Right hand
S. Searle catalog
Sp. Spanish
U.S. United States
WoO Work without opus
xiv | List of AbbreviationsTHE
Pianist’s
Dictionary

Second EditionA
A (It.), À (Fr.). At, in, to.
À deux (Fr.). For two (as a duet).
À deux mains (Fr.). For two hands.
À l’aise (Fr.). Comfortable; in a relaxed manner.
À la manière de (Fr.). In the style of.
À la mesure (Fr.). A tempo; in strict time.
À peine (Fr.). Slightly, scarcely.
A piacere (It.). At pleasure, as desired. Te pianist is to use his or he-r discre
tion as regards the rhythmic or dynamic nuance; play freely.
À quatre mains (Fr.). For four hands.
A tempo (It.). In the original speed, resume the original tempo afer having
made some deviation from it.
À temps (Fr.). In time.
À un temps (Fr.). In one beat.
À volonté (Fr.). At will, leisurely.
Ab Irato (In a Rage). Franz Liszt, S. 143, 1852. Tis piece frst appeared in
1842 as Morceau du salon. It was expanded and reappeared in 1852
with the new suggestive title. It is an efective octave and chord study
in a mainly violent mood.
ABA. Analysis term used to describe sections of a pie= fcer: sA t section,
followed by contrasting sect, fion olBlowed by repeat (sometimes
modifed) of A section.
Abegg Variations. Robert Schumann, Op. 1, 1829–30. A set of variations on
♭a theme based on the notes A-EB-G-G and dedicated to his friend
Meta Abegg.
Aber (Ger.). But.
1Abgestoßen (Ger.). Staccato, detached.
Abram, Jacques (1915–98). American pianist and teacher, he began p- er
forming in public at the age of six and studied at Curtis with David
Saperton and Juilliard with Ernest Hutcheson. He perform-ed litera
ture from Johann SebastiBaanc h through Béla Bartók and gave the
American première of Benjamin Britten’s Piano Concerto. He taught
at the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto and the University of
South Florida in Tampa. His course Issues in Music in Tampa was
immensely popular and usually closed out each semester with over
two hundred students from across campus.
Abridged Sonata Form/Modifed Sonata Form. A form based on sonata
form but not containing a development section.
Absolute music. Music without any attempt to relate to anything else. Te
opposite of programmatic music. Examples would include sonatas,
trios, and quartets.
Abstufungen (Ger.). Nuances.
Accarezzevole (It.). Caressingly.
Accelerando, Accel (It.), Accélerer (Fr.). Increasing the speed, accelerating,
becoming faster.
Accent. A stress or emphasis indicated b>y a sign. Other types of accents
are used by composers, in particular the ∧ sign, which gener-ally rep
resents greater punctuation.
Acciaccatura (It.). A type of grace note indicated by a small note with its
stem crossed through. It is a “crushed note,” to be played a split second
before the principal note and released at once.
Accidental. An indication to adjust a pitch in relation to its appea-rance ear
lier in a measure or to adjust the pitch diferently from the ke- y signa
♮ ♯ ♭ture. Accidentals are indicated by signs for n, ashtuarap l , and fat .
Accompaniment. Musical background for a principal part or parts.
Accusé (Fr.). With emphasis.
Action. Mechanism of the piano that causes a string to sound when a key
is depressed, especially, though not limited to, the movement of the
hammers.
Ad libitum (Lat.). At will, freely.
Adagietto (It.). Slightly faster tahdaag n io, of which term it is the dim -inu
tive.
Adagio (It.). At ease, leisurely; slowly with great expression. “To play an
adagio well, enter into a calm and almost melancholy mood” (Quantz
1966, p. 163).
2 | Te Pianist’s DictionaryAdagio non troppo (It.). Slow, but not too slow.
Adagissimo (It.). Extremely slow.
Adams, John (b. 1947). American composer of minimalistic ten-den
cies known for large-scale compositions. His small output for piano
includes China Gate as nd Phrygian Gates.
L’adieu valse (Farewell Waltz). Fryderyk Chopin, Waltz in A-Flat Major,
Op. 69, No. 1, 1835. Composed as a “farewell” present to Maria W -odzín
ska on the breakup of their romantic relationship.
Adieux, l’absence et le retour, Les (Fr.) (Te Farewell, Absence, and
Return), Das Lebewohl, Abwesenheit und Wiedersehn (Ger.).
Ludwig van Beethoven, Sonata in E-Flat Major, Op. 81a. Title given by
Beethoven’s publisher to this Sonate caractérist, diqu eedicated to the
Archduke Rudolph, who had to leave Vienna when it was under attack
by the French. Beethoven wrote Lebew(ofhla rewell) over the opening
phrase, and he referred to it as the Lebewohl Sonata.
“Aeolian Harp” Étude. Fryderyk Chopin, Étude in A-Flat Major, Op. 25,
No. 1, 1836. Perhaps this title came from a remark made by Robert
Schumann comparing Chopin’s playing to an Aeolian harp, a stringed
instrument that when placed outside or in a window makes vague,
eerie harmonies when the wind blows through it. Chopin is supposed
to have referred to this study as the “Shepherd Boy” Étude. S- ee “Shep
herd Boy” Étude.
Aérien (Fr.). Light, airy.
Afabile (It.). Afable, pleasing, politely, pleasantly, gentle.
Afettuoso (It.). Afectionately, with feeling or tender feeling, w-arm, emo
tional.
Afretando (It.). Hurrying, increasing the speed, pushing on.
Agevole (It.). Easy, relaxed, smooth, comfortable, facile.
Agitato (It.). Excited, agitated, hurriedly, at a slightly faster tempo.
Agité (Fr.). Agitated, restless.
Agosti, Guido (1901–89). Italian pianist renowned for concerts throughout
Europe. He taught in Venice and Rome and made editions of works by
Ludwig van Beethoven and Fryderyk Chopin.
Agrandissement asymétrique (Fr.). Asymmetrical enlargement. A t - ech
nique used by Olivier Messiaen to expand a motive or phrase b- y low
ering the lowest pitch and raising the highest pitch a half-step upon
successive repetitions.
Agrémens, Agréments (Fr.). Grace notes, in particular the “smal-l orna
ments” found in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century French music.
A | 3 Aigre (Fr.). Harsh, shrill.
Aigu (Fr.). Sharp, acute.
Aimable (Fr.). Kindly, pleasant, nice.
Aimard, Pierre-Laurent (b. 1957). French pianist who studied with Yvonne
Loriod, he has had a special interest in music since World War II.
Among his repertoire are pieces by Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez,
György Ligeti, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Elliott Carter, as well as
J. S. Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven. Te winner of the Oliv-ier Mes
siaen Competition in 1973, he has appeared in solo and with major
orchestras throughout Europe and the United States.
Air. A tune, a simple melody, sometimes in the style of a folksong. In suites
of the Baroque and Classical eras, the air was an optional piece, in
general as opposed to the dance-based pieces in the suite. J. S. Bach
used the term for the fourth movement in his French Suite N o. 2 in
C Minor, BWV 813, and the ffh movement in his French Suite No. 4
in E-Flat Major, BW 8V 15.
Air with variations. See theme and variations.
Airplane Sonata. George Antheil, Sonata No. 2, 1922. Sonata in two m- ove
ments, its rhythms are aggressive and motoristic but also sometimes
reminiscent of ragtime. It is characterized by clusters and strident
harmonies and is deliberately noisy; material is repeated either wholly
or in fragments.
Aisé (Fr.). Easy.
Aisément (Fr.). Unhurried, with ease.
Al, Alla (It.). To the, at the, in the (manner, style, etc.).
Al fne (It.). To the end (go).
Al niente (It.). Dying away to nothing, gradually fading away.
Al segno (It.). To the sign: locate the sign in the score and p lay from
there.
Albéniz, Isaac (1860–1909). Spanish composer and pianist, he studied with
Franz Liszt. Albéniz composed over two hundred piano pieces with
strong rhythmic Spanish features, including , a cIberyicale of twelve
pieces, and the popular Tango in D.
D’Albert, Eugen (1864–1932). German composer, born in Glasgow, S-cot
land. A student of Franz Liszt and highly regarded as a piano virtuoso
and composer, d’Albert’s piano works include two piano concertos, a
sonata, a suite, and miscellaneous piano pieces. He also edited piano
music. One of d’Albert’s six wives was the Venezuelan pianist Teresa
Carreño.
4 | Te Pianist’s DictionaryAlberti bass. An accompaniment fgure, located mainly in the lef hand.
It gets its name from Domenico Alberti (1710–40), who used i- t fre
quently. A good example is found in the frst movement of the Mozart
Sonata in C Major, K. 545.
      
Alborada (Sp.). Music at dawn, a morning song. Maurice Ravel’s Alborada
del gracioso (Te Fool’s Dawn Song) from his Miroirs is best known.
Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg (1736–1809). Austrian composer who gave
Beethoven lessons in composition. He wrote 278 keyboard works.
Albright, William (1944–98). American composer and pianist known for
a sense of humor in his music. Composed rags with a
late-twentiethcentury favor, Tree Original Rag besing best known.
Albumblatt (Ger.). Album leaf: a title used for short character pieces, mainly
for piano, by nineteenth-century composers.
Alcun, Alcuna (It.). Some, a little.
Alegria (Sp.). Mirth, merriment, gaiety, joy.
Alhambra Suite No. 1. Isaac Albéniz, 1897. Tis suite contains only one
movement (La Vega) and was lef unfnished. It is based on imp-res
sions of Grenada and contains colorful native rhythms and melodies.
Alkan, Charles Henri Valentin (real name Morhange) (1813–88). French
composer, pianist, and teacher, he wrote mainly for the pia-no, espe
cially studies and character pieces, many of a virtuosic le-vel compa
rable to his contemporaries Fryderyk Chopin and Franz Liszt. His best
works display technical challenges and musical imagination. He was
killed when a bookcase fell on him.
�Alla breve (It.). In a concise manner, indicated by the sig, w n hich means
two beats to a measure instead of four; also called “cut time.”
Alla marcia (It.). In march style.
Alla tedesca (It.). In the style of a German dance.
Alla turca (It.). In the Turkish style. See the last movement of Mozart’s
Sonata in A Major, K. 331.
Alla zingarese (It.). In a gypsy style.
Allant (Fr.). Stirring, going, moving.
Allargando (It.). Broadening, enlarging, getting slower and having a more
dignifed style, sometimes with a simultaneous cres.cendo
Allégrement (Fr.). Gaily, merrily, fast, briskly.
A | 5 Allegretto (It.). Light and cheerful but not as fast as . allegro
Allegrezza (It.). Joyous, cheerfulness.
Allegrissimo (It.). Very fast.
Allegro (It.). Cheerful, merry, happy, upbeat, quick, lively, brisk, swif, good
humored; a rather fast speed. Allegris: esimxtoremely fast and lively.
Allegro barbaro (It.). Pieces by Charles-Valentin Alkan and Béla Bartók
that contain plenty of vigor and storm and stress.
Allegro di molto, Allegro molto (It.). Very fast.
Allegro non tanto (It.). Fast, but not too fast.
Allemande (Fr.). 1. A French word meaning Germ. 2an. A German dance
in 7 meter, somewhat like the Ländler. Ofen used as the frs-t move
ment in Baroque suites, for example, in J. S. Bach’s French Suites.
It makes frequent use of an upbeat at the opening, is wr itten in
4 meter, and is rather cheerful and sprightly.
Allmählich (Ger.). Gradually, little by little.
Alquanto (It.). Somewhat, a little, rather.
Amabile (It.). Graceful, tender, sweet, gentle.
Amada, Kenneth B. (1931–2015). American pianist who devoted most of his
career to teaching at the University of Iowa. He studied with Moritz
Rosenthal, Isidor Philipp, Eduard Steuermann, and Constance Keene
and made seven international concert tours, playing in every country
in Europe. He won prizes in several competitions, including t - he Lev
entritt, Queen Elisabeth, and Harriet Cohen.
American Ballads. Roy Harris, 1946. Five settings of American folk tunes,
something of American equals to Béla Bartók’s folksong a- rrange
ments. Includes Streets of Lare, dWo ayfaring Stranger, Te Bird, Black
Is the Color of My True Love’s Hai, ar nd Cod Liver Ile.
Amoroso (It.). Tenderly, lovingly.
Amoureusement (Fr.). With passion, romantically.
Amplitude (Fr.). Greatness; full sound.
Anacrusis. Unstressed upbeat note(s) preceding the frst strong beat of a
measure; pickup.
Ancora (It.). Again, once more, still, yet. See en. core
Anda, Géza (1921–76). Hungarian-born, Swiss pianist, he studied at the
Liszt Academy in Budapest with Ernst von Dohnányi, Jean Weiner,
and Zoltán Kodály. He began appearing as a soloist with orchestras in
his early twenties and quickly gained an international reputation. As
an indication of his skill, he mastered a large repertoire, one that was
refected not only in performances but also in recordil nagtst, etr he
6 | Te Pianist’s Dictionary including the complete Mozart piano concertos and Béla Bartók’s
three piano concertos. Conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler called him “a
troubadour of the keyboard.”
Andante (It.). Steadily moving (walking), literally “going.” Te ste-ady qual
ity is more appropriate to the eighteenth century. Not slow or fast: in
between.
Andante favori (Favorite Andante). Ludwig van Beethoven, WoO 57, 1803–
04. Composed by Beethoven as a slow movement for the “Wald stein”
Sonata, Op. 53. Afer a friend suggested the movement was too long for the
sonata, Beethoven withdrew it and composed a shorter one. Beethoven
used the Andante alone, and it was published as Andante favori.
Andante spianato (It.). 1. Flowing and smooth. 2. Te title of Fryderyk
Chopin’s Op. 22 for piano and orchestra (1834). Linked by Chopin
to the Polonaise in E-Flat Major; the whole work appeared as Grand
polonaise brillante précédée d’un Andante spianato .
Andantino (It.). In the eighteenth century, a little slower than ; in andante
the nineteenth century, a little faster tha.n andante
Anglaise (Fr.). English dance, in the English style. Tis word has been used
for many types of dances: hornpipe, country dance, écossaise. Tey are
usually strongly accented. See Johann Sebastian Bach’s French Suite
No. 3, BWV 814.
Angoissé (Fr.). Anguish, distressed, anguished.
Angosciosamente (It.). Distressingly.
Anima (It.). Soul. Con anim:e wholeheartedly.
Animando (It.), Animant (Fr.). Becoming lively, animated.
Animato (It.), Animé (Fr.). Animated, lively; to be performed in a rather
quick tempo.
Animez (Fr.). More lively (slightly).
Années de pèlerinage (Years of Pilgrimage/Travel). Franz Liszt. Tree c- ol
lections of piano music. Te frst (1835–52), an extensive revision of
his Album d’un voyageur, is entitled Suisse(S wiss), S. 160; the second
(1838–49) Italie (Italy, with a three-piece supplement entitled Venezia e
Napoli [Venice and Naples]), S. 161 and 162; and the third (1867–77) is
untitled, S. 163. Descriptive titles refecting Liszt’s travels are used with
many of the pieces.
Añoranza (Longing for Home). Enrique Granados, 1888–90. From Seis
piezas sobre cantos populares españoles (Six Pieces on Spanish Folk
Songs). Tis set, like many of his earlier works, is a picture postcard
in sound.
A | 7 Antheil, George (1900–59). American composer and pianist. Known for
famboyant performances and as a composer of “machine music,” of
which his “Airplane” Sonata is most famous.
Apaiser (Fr.). To sooth, calm, appease.
Aperçus désagréables (Unpleasant Perceptions). Erik Satie, 1912. For piano
duet. 1. Pastorale, 2. Choral, 3. Fugue.
Appassionato (It.). Impassioned, in a passionate intense style. Sonata a- ppas
sionata is the title given to Beethoven’s Sonata in F Minor, Op. 57, 1805,
by the publisher Cranz in the four-handed arrangement published in
1838. Te sonata (in its original solo form) is usually called t- he Appas
sionata.
Appena (It.). Scarcely, very little, hardly.
Appoggiatura (It.). A “leaning” note that appears as a small note having
been approached by a skip that resolves by a step to the main note. In
music of the Baroque and Classical periods, it is played as an accented
dissonance on the beat. Afer ca. 1815, it is normally played slightly
before the beat.
Appuie sur la clé (Fr.). Press on the key.
Âpre (Fr.). Harsh, violent.
Arabeske (Ger.), Arabesque (Fr.). 1. An ornate fguration; a curved, fowing
line derived from Moorish art and architecture. 2. In music, a piece
that uses a decorative design of forid material. Robert Schumann,
Edward MacDowell, and Claude Debussy, among others, used this
word as titles for piano pieces.
Argerich, Martha (b. 1941). Argentinean pianist, she studied with Friedrich
Gulda, Nikita Magalof, and Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli. She won
the Chopin Competition in Warsaw in 1965 and has enjoyed a d - istin
guished international career performing around the world.
Aria (It.). Air, song, tune, songlike piece. Used as titles for piano pieces
by Alfredo Casella, George Frideric Handel, Peter Mennin, Selim
Palmgren, and Domenico Scarlatti, among others.
Aria with Variations in the Italian Manner. Johann Sebastian Bach, BW V
989, 1709. Aria with ten contrasting variations. Tis early set and the
Goldberg Variations are Bach’s only two separate sets of strin-ged key
board variations.
Ariadne musica. Johann Kaspar Ferdinand Fischer, 1702. A collection of
twenty preludes and fugues for keyboard in as many keys t-o demon
strate the possibilities of Well-Temperament tuning.
Arietta (It.). Little aria or song. Used as the title of small pieces by M-uzio Clem
enti, Edvard Grieg, Johann Pachelbel, and Francis Poulenc, among others.
8 | Te Pianist’s Dictionary

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