A Grammar of Igala
269 pages
English

A Grammar of Igala

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269 pages
English
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Description

The book establishes 28 phonemic consonants and 7 vowels, as well as lexical and grammatical tones in Igala. It shows the canonical syllable types as V and CV with no complexity, and relates resyllabification to the retiming of segments as tone bearing units and the duration of their mora. The work discusses nine word classes, as well as ideophones and clitics in Igala. There are splitting verbs of various structures and fully-fledged pronouns with morphologically toneless clitic counterparts that are toned in their syntactic context, among other elements of the Igala morphology. The work establishes clitics as generally bearing the grammatical tones of various categories as a result of their morphological tonelessness and their availability for post-lexical tone assignment. It also accounts for the generally complex interaction of clitics and tones in the organisation of the morphosyntax and the tone-syntax interface. Igala has both verbal and nominal extensional affixes with various semantic features. Some interesting discussions in the Igala syntax include the structural and functional types of serial verb constructions, the detransitivizing process of verb movement in object demoting structures, coreferentiality in relativised constituents and the future/non-future temporal distinction. Complementary binominals are conjoined with a specified binominal morpheme, and their rigidly irreversible structures have implications in the Igala semantics. The binominals demonstrate a grammatically specified pattern defined over a conceptual space, showing the network among conceptual categories, such as kinship, marital, social, hunter-hunted, more-less and cause-effect relationships as reflected in the Igala grammar.

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Publié par
Date de parution 14 décembre 2016
Nombre de lectures 2
EAN13 9789785420876
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 7 Mo

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A GRAMMAR OF ÍGÁLÂ
In the same series 1.Ajiboye, Oladipo.ExpressionsThe Syntax & Semantics of Yorùbá Nominal 2.Anyanwu, Ogbonna Ndubuisi.Syntax of Igbo Causatives: A Minimalist The Account 3.Ngulube, Isaac.The Eleme Phonology 4.Obiamalu, Greg Orji.Functional Categories in Igbo: A Minimalist Perspective 5.Onumajuru, Virginia C. Affixation and Auxiliaries in Igbo 6.Ashipu, K.B.C.Bette Ethnography: Theory & Practice 7.̩Èjè̩bá, SalemǑchála.A Grammar of Ígálâ8.Isaac, Baridishi Hope.Aspects of the Grammar of Gokana
A GRAMMAR OF ÍGÁLÂ
SalemǑchála È̩j̩èbá Lecturer Department of Linguistics & Communication Studies, University of Port Harcourt,NigeriaM & J Grand Orbit Communications Ltd. Port Harcourt
The Landmarks Series Publications Landmarks Research Foundation Box 237 Uniport P.O. University of Port Harcourt,Nigeriae-mail: mekuri01@yahoo.com Mobile Phone: 08033410255 Copyright ©SalemǑchála̩Èj̩èbá2016All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner, by print, photoprint, microfilm, or any other means, without the written permission from the Copyright owner except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. ISBN: 978-978-54311-8-6 Published by The Linguistic Association of Nigeria (LAN) In Collaboration with M & J Grand Orbit Communications Ltd.,NigeriaReprinted and Distributed Overseas by: African Books CollectivePO Box 721, Oxford OX1 9EN, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1865 58 9756, Fax: +44 (0) 1865 412 341 US Tel: +1 415 644 5108 Customer Services please email orders@africanbookscollective.com For Warehouse/shipping/deliveries: +44 (0) 1865 58 9756
Dedication I dedicate this work to Jesus Christ, the King of glory who reached down for me, gave me hope, and who alone makes me strong.
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Editorial Note This is the revised version of Dr. Salem Ejeba’sdoctoral thesis which was recently submitted to the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It is a fairly detailed account of the Igala phonology, morphology, syntax as well as semantics.  The book establishes 28 phonemic consonants and 7 vowels, as well as lexical and grammatical tones in Igala. It shows the canonical syllable types as V and CV with no complexity, and relates resyllabification to the retiming of segments as tone bearing units and the duration of their mora. The work discusses nine word classes, as well as ideophones and clitics in Igala. There are splitting verbs of various structures and fully-fledged pronouns with morphologically toneless clitic counterparts that are toned in their syntactic context, among other elements of the Igala morphology.  The work establishes clitics as generally bearing the grammatical tones of various categories as a result of their morphological tonelessness and their availability for post-lexical tone assignment. It also accounts for the generally complex interaction of clitics and tones in the organisation of the morphosyntax and the tone-syntax interface.  Igala has both verbal and nominal extensional affixes with various semantic features. Some interesting discussions in the Igala syntax include the structural and functional types of serial verb constructions, the detransitivizing process of verb movement in object demoting structures, coreferentiality in relativised constituents and the future/non-future temporal distinction.  Complementary binominals are conjoined with a specified binominal morpheme, and their rigidly irreversible structures have implications in the Igala semantics. The binominals demonstrate a grammatically specified pattern defined over a conceptual space, showing the network among conceptual categories, such as kinship, marital, social, hunter-hunted, more-less and cause-effect relationships as reflected in the Igala grammar.  This is an excellent book for the professional linguists and non-initiates written is a straightforward prose without allegiance to any specific theoretical framework. It is a book for all ages. I strongly endorse it. Ozo-mekuri Ndimele Professor of Comparative Grammar  & Founding Editor
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PrefaceThis book,A grammar of, is a descriptive-oriented study on the Igala language, a member of the New Benue-Congo language family. Igala has an approximate population of 2, 000, 000 native speakers in Kogi State, Nigeria. The population for this work is the Igala language community that speaks the Dekina variety of the language, around Dekina, Anyigba, and Egume areas. The study utilized incidental sampling, as the researcher observed the speech of other competent native speakers encountered through the period of six years within which the researcher collected data for this work. The study generalizes the outcome of the research on the larger population in this grammar. The primary source of data for this study is the perception of the Igala native speaker’s speech through day-to-day social interaction, supplemented by the intuitive knowledge of the researcher as a native speaker of the Dekina variety of the Igala language. The method of data collection used for the research is the guided task of perceiving the speech of the Igala native speaker through day-to-day social interaction. This is supplemented by introspection. The researcher collected language samples from the native speakers through direct personal contact and analyzed the data using the descriptive method of interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glossing. For the phonetic experiments, labelling and tracing were done at the midpoint of the sound segments and at some calibrated points in seconds. The results are laid out in formant plates. I wish to specifically list some key features of this grammar that make it important. This grammar of the Igala language is indispensable to the linguist interested in further investigating particular aspects of the grammar of Igala. It is also useful to the student learning the grammar of Igala and the native speaker of Igala who wishes to be consciously acquainted with the systematic organisation of the language s(he) knows, uses and with which s(he) lives. The grammar herein also meets one of the two fundamental conditions for the adequate translation of text into the Igala language, the other being the availability of a lexicon. The lexicon in this grammar puts well underway the making of an English-Igala bilingual dictionary that will aid adequate translation of texts into the Igala language. Translation of more texts into Igala will guarantee a robust functional load for the Igala language through the adequate knowledge of the grammar, publishing in the language and consumption of published materials. The writing of this grammar of Igala is a major step towards more progress in Igala linguistics. The study furthers the understanding of major aspects of Igala grammar. It therefore forms the basis for further academic and pedagogical works, and serves as a framework for a reference grammar of the language. Future researchers now have a basis for further studies on specific areas of the grammar enunciated herein, to make the discourse on Igala linguistics a lively and ongoing enterprise. This is the only way native speakers and linguists alike may better understand and appreciate the grammar of the language.
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A major task for Igala linguists, language teachers, language enthusiasts, and the government of the day is the development of teaching materials, readers, functional primers, storybooks, reference grammars, and lexicons with wide themes that will be helpful for teaching and learning the Igala language at primary, secondary, and tertiary institutions. These categories of people interested in developing the Igala language may assess the body of knowledge in this grammar, as it will be indispensable for their various tasks.
The text,̩Otakada̩Ola̩Ojo̩,the translation of the Holy Bible into Igala.This is translation of the Bible into Igala is a very popular text which native speakers of Igala frequently read. The problems associated with this text are associated with lack of tone marking, inaccurate and inconsistent division of words and inappropriate indication of grammatical relations. These problems characterise not only this religious text but also many other texts in the Igala language. Today, more readers of the Igala Bible translation have come to appreciate the enormity of the problem as the rigours of mere reading deters many a competent native speaker from reading in Igala. However, after more than 30 years of the existence of̩Otakada̩Ola̩Ojo̩, in 2004, a committee was set up that has worked on revising̩Otakada̩Ola̩Ojo̩to what it terms a ‘Common Language’In my opinion, and from interaction with some translation. members of the committee as well as some facilitators of the project, theIgala Common Language Bible Projectwill stop at using the form of the Igala language that is more semantically comprehensible to the younger generation and wider population of native speakers. As much as this will be a great accomplishment, the argument still rages on whether or not tone should be represented and what the convention would be in the case of marking tones. I recommend that tone should be fully marked or certain tone marking conventions should be proposed. This research provides a clear outline of tones in the Igala language in a way that will be very helpful to this end. I also recommend that what is now known on Igala word classes, clitic elements and word boundaries should be utilized in the Igala Bible project that has been in progress for more than a decade now. This grammar of Igala is based on the formal levels of phonology, morphology and syntax and some aspects of the semantics of the language. Future researchers may carry out studies in other aspects of Igala language based on what this study of the grammar of Igala has outlined. I therefore urge future researchers to make advancements in Igala linguistics by tackling aspects of studies such as Igala semantics, pragmatics, historical linguistics, applied linguistics, and the wide area of the interface between linguistics and other fields of studies. This grammar of Igala is a product of a thesis, which I defended for the award of PhD in linguistics at the University of Port Harcourt in March 2016. The work is sincerely a product of prayer, enormous perspiration and inspiration from God Who made me carry the study in mind like a six-year pregnancy.
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My senior and line colleagues in the Department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Port Harcourt greatly supported me in finishing this work eventually. The following are my teachers who have contributed invaluably to the linguistic experience and understanding brought to bear in doing this study: Prof. E.N. Emenanjo [19432016], Prof. S. Yul-Ifode, Prof. P.Ejele, Prof. O.-M. Ndimele, Dr. C.E.W. Jenewari, Dr. O. Ojukwu, Dr. E.E. Akpan, Dr. E.E. Kari, Dr. B.H. Isaac and Dr. R.I.C. Alerechi. Dr. E.N. Oweleke and Dr. E.F. Obikudo also made vital contributions in this wise. My PhD thesis supervisors, Prof. Yul-Ifode and Prof. E.E. Kari have provided for me academic mentorship, spirituals and filial support over the years. I am grateful to Rev. Fr. Dr. W.C. Ihejirika, Engr. E.J. Eyo, Dr. C.U. Omego, Prof. E. Amakoromo, Prof. and Dr. (Mrs.) B.E. Okoli, and Dr. A.A. Sado. I appreciate Östen Dahl and Hedvig Skirgård for comments and materials. My spiritual mother, Prof. (Mrs.) T. Gani-Ikilama and my big brother, Prof. G.S. Omachonu are two great sources of motivation and support for me. I am also grateful to God for late Prof. B. Gani who supported me by no mean measure. I wish to specially appreciate Aunties N.I. Kari and B.L. Nwikobe for their goodwill over the years. I am grateful for Auntie E. Nordman’s constant prayer mobilization and immense support over the years.God has blessed me with parents who really care, being to me a rock and a role model; my father, Rev. (Dr.) P.S. Ejeba and my mother, Deaconess S. Ejeba. I express my love to the greatest siblings anywhere: Sis. Eli, Bro. Emma, Sis. Ojone, Dorcas and Ezekiel. I also appreciate my cousin, Omachonu and my sister-in-law, Sis. P. I pay my debt of respect to Mommy E.G. Omachonu, Auntie Y. Johnson, Auntie P.B.K. Gbosi, Dr. (Mrs.) E. Eze, Dr. (Mrs.) F. Olubode-Sawe, Dr. I. Essien, Dr. C. Ochonogor, Dr. A. Udoudo, Prof. B.J.O. Efiuvwevwere, Prof. and Mrs. N.E.S. Lale (Vice-Chancellor, University of Port Harcourt), Prof. and Dr. (Mrs.) G.O. Avwiri, Prof. L.C. Yuka, Prof. and Dr. (Mrs.) A.A. Obafemi, Prof. S.B. Arokoyu, Prof. O. Akaranta , Prof. E.G. Akpokodje, Dr. E.E. Ezedike, Dr. A. Ahiamadu, Prof. M.T. Bestman, Prof. F.O. Shaka, Prof. S.A. Okodudu, Prof. B.E. Nwigwe, Prof. A.O. Kilani, Dr. I.C. Krama, Dr. S. Okoroafor, the Rev. K.T. Francis, Dr. F.U. Nte, Dr. S.L. Harcourt, Dr. (Mrs.) D. Morokonla, Mrs. R. Ochonma, Mrs. E. Ire and Mrs. O.A. Chimezie. My very good friend and brother, I.S. Obot, my cousin, J.O. Negedu and Mrs. M. Akinwale are part of the lot to whom I am grateful. There are yet others who are constant admirers: Mr. A. Okpako, E. Adi, F.M. Ogunka, Auntie Amadi, Auntie Ozuru, Mr. A. Okoko, Mr. B. Evans and Mr. S. Kpenu. Special thanks must go to Professor and Dr. (Mrs.) Otokunefor for the pleasant time outs. I acknowledge the support of the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU), London, United Kingdom, for graciously awarding me the Early Careers Grant for conference attendance. This grant made it possible for me to attend the XIII Conference of the Linguistic Association of SADC Universities at the University of Botswana, Botswana in June 2015. The conference afforded me the opportunity to
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