Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens
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Celebrating 25 years of archaeological research at the Danish Institute at Athens KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SOREN HANDBERG Ancient Studies A Late Roman building complex in the Papaz Tarlasi, Vezirkopru (ancient Neoklaudiopolis, northern Asia Minor) KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN & TONNES BEKKER-NIELSEN Appendix: Two Byzantine Coins from the Papaz Tarlasi VERA SAUER True to type? Archaic Cypriot male statues made of limestone LONE WRIEDT SORENSEN Vroulia revisited From K. F. Kinch's excavations in the early 20th century to the present archaeological site ERIPHYLE KANINIA & STINE SCHIERUP The cults of Kalydon Reassessing the miniaturised votive objects SIGNE BARFOED Colour shifts On methodologies in research on the polychromy of Greek and Roman sculpture JAN STUBBE OSTERGAARD Art Historical Studies and Modern Greece The Parthenon in Danish art and architecture, from Nicolai Abildgaard to Theophil Hansen PATRICK KRAGELUND Reports on Danish Fieldwork in Greece The Lower Acropolis of Kalydon in Aitolia Preliminary report on the excavations carried out in 2013-15 OLYMPIA VIKATOU & SOREN HANDBERG A short-cut to Delphi Indications of a vehicle track from a stone quarry to the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi ERIK HANSEN, GREGERS ALGREEN-USSING AND RUNE FREDERIKSEN The Greek-Swedish-Danish Excavations 2013 A short preliminary report ERIK HALLAGER & MARIA ANDREADAKI-VLAZAKI The Greek-Swedish-Danish Excavations 2014 A preliminary report ERIK HALLAGER & MARIA ANDREADAKI-VLAZAKI The Pit L Baby Burial--Hermeneutics Implications for immigration into Kydonia in MMIII/LMI P. J. P. MCGEORGE 'Finding Old Sikyon', 2015 A preliminary report RUNE FREDERIKSEN, KONSTANTINOS KISSAS, JAMIESON DONATI, GIORGOS GIANNAKOPOULOS, SILKE MUTH, VASSILIOS PAPATHANASIOU, WOLFGANG RABBEL, HARALD STUMPEL, KATHARINA RUSCH & KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN

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Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens
AA RH U S U NIVERS IT Y P RESS
P r o c eed i n g s
of the Danish Institute
at Athens
VIII
VIII
105848_cover_proceedings_r2.indd 1 09/04/17 09:12Proceedings of the
Danish Institute at Athens
VOLUME VIII
Edited by Kristina Winther-Jacobsen R, une Frederiksen
& Søren Handberg
Athens 2017© Te Danish Institute at Athens 2017
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens Volume VIII
General editor: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen
Graphic design: Jørgen Sparre
Typeset: Ryevad Grafsk
Cover illustration: View from the Saint Elijah Stone Quarry on
the southern slopes of Mount Parnassus. Delphi is situated
far to the lef in the picture 300 metres higher up. In the background
is the port of Kirrha situated on the Bay of Corinth (See p. 214).
E-book production: Narayana Press, Denmark
ISSN 1108 149X
ISBN 978 87 7184 506 8
AARHUS UNIVERSITY PRESS
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Tis volume was fnanced by a private Danish foundation wishing to remain anonymous.
Editorial board:

Anders Holm Rasmussen George Hinge,
PhD, Head of Department PhD, Associate Professor,
Te Saxo Institute: Classical Philology, Department of Culture and Society,
Achaeology - Ethnology - History - Greek and Latin Aarhus University
University of Copenhagen
John Lund,
Christian Høgel, Dr.Phil., Senior Researcher,
PhD, Associate Professor, Professor WSR Assistant Keeper Collection of Classical and Near Eastern
CML & Classical Studies, Antiquities,
University of Southern Denmark Te National Museum of DenmarkContents
7 Celebrating 25 years of archaeological research
at the Danish Institute at Athens
KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN
& SØREN HANDBERG
Ancient Studies
25 A Late Roman building complex in the Papaz Tarlası, Vezirköprü
(ancient Neoklaudiopolis, northern Asia Minor)
KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN & TØNNES BEKKER-NIELSEN
Appendix: Two Byzantine Coins fom the Papaz Tarlası
VER A SAUER
59 True to type?
Archaic Cypriot male statues m de of la imestone
LONE WRIEDT SØRENSEN
89 Vroulia revisited
From K. F. Kinch’s excavations in the early 20th century
to the present archaeological site
ERIPHYLE KANINIA & STINE SCHIERUP
131 Te cults of Kalydon
Reassessing the miniaturised v ivoe ot bjects
SIGNE BARFOED
149 Colour shifs
On methodologies in research on the p olychromy
of Greek and Roman sculpture
JAN STUBBE ØSTERG A ARDArt Historical Studies and Modern Greece
179 Te Parthenon in Danish art and architecture,
from Nicolai Abildgaard to Teophil Hansen
PATRICK KR AGELUND
Reports on Danish Fieldwork in Greece
191 Te Lower Acropolis of Kalydon in Aitolia
Preliminary report on the excavations carried out in 201-315
OLYMPIA VIKATOU & SØREN HANDBERG
209 A short-cut to Delphi
Indications of a vehicle track fom a s onte quarry
to the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi
ERIK HANSEN, GREGER S ALGREEN-USSING AND RUNE FREDERIKSEN
265 Te Greek-Swedish-Danish Excavations 2013
A short preliminary report
ERIK HALL AGER & MARIA ANDRE ADAKI-VL A Z AKI
281 Te Greek-Swedish-Danish Excavations 2014
A preliminary report
ERIK HALL AGER & MARIA ANDRE ADAKI-VL A Z AKI
293 Te Pit L Baby Burial – Hermeneutics
Implications for immigraio tn into Kydonia in MMIII/LMI
P. J. P. MCGEORGE
305 ‘Finding Old Sikyon’, 2015
A preliminary report
RUNE FREDERIKSEN, KONSTANTINOS KISSA S, JAMIESON DONATI,
GIORGOS GIANNAKOPOULOS, SILKE MÜ TH, VA SSILIOS PAPATH ANA SIOU,
WOLFG ANG R ABBEL, HAR ALD STÜMPEL, KATH ARINA RUSCH & KRISTINA
WI NTH ER - JA C OB SENCelebrating 25 years of archaeological
research at the Danish Institute
at Athens
KRISTIN A W INTHER- JA COB S EN,
1R UNE FREDERIK S EN & S ØREN H ANDBER G
Afer the Second World War it was no longer possible which schools are obliged to administer all archaeolo-g
for foreigners to get permission to do archaeological ical research conducted in Greece by scholars of their
feldwork in Greece without the mediation of an ofcial native countries. Te schools are privileged to conduct
foreign archaeological school based in Greece. Danish archaeological feldwork on Greek soil under a number
2 3archaeologists such as Søren Dietz E, rik Hallager, and of conditions, including the maintenance of a research
Klavs Randsborg managed to work on permits generously library accessible to Greek scholars, and the publications
provided by the Swedish Institute at Athens. However, in of the results of their work in a scientifc journal. Te
1992, the combined eforts of representatives of several Nordic Library, a collaborative institution shared by the
institutions and Bertel Haarder, then Minister of E-duca four Nordic institutes which opened in 1995, responds to
tion, succeeded in establishing a Danish Institute. On the the frst condition, and Proceedings of the Danish Institute
birthday of the famous Danish writer Hans Christian Ana-t Athens and Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens
dersen, the Danish Institute at Athens opened, on April to the second (see below).
2, 1992, with Søren Dietz as its frst director.
Te privileged situation the institute fnds itself in
25 years of feld projectstoday – located in the Plaka, one of the old central nei - gh
bourhoods of Athens on top of the Archaic agora, in two Under the privilege of Greek law each international
beautifully restored neoclassical buildings associated with school is allowed three synergasias, collaborative projects
a large modern auditorium – is due to generous donations involving the school and one of the Greek ephorates, and
from the Carlsberg Foundation in 1993 and 1995 and the three autonomous projects at any given time. Archaeo-log
Velux Foundation in 2000. ically speaking, the Danish Institute at Athens has been
According to Greek law, the foreign institutes or very active. Since its inauguration in 1992, DIA has
meschools are registered by the Greek Ministry of C- ul diated twelve feldwork permissions for Danish scholars,
ture as archaeological schools, i.e. they are non-proft, including the Swedish–Greek–Danish collaboration at
archaeological research institutions. Te function of the Khania. Some projects have taken up previous Danish e - n
schools are defned in the Greek law on the protection of gagements in Greece, e.g. the excavations of Karl Frederik
4antiquities and cultural heritage from 2002, according to Kinch on Rhodes between 1902 and 19 the exca14, vations
1 With contributions and insights from Tomas Roland, Pernille Foss, Søren Dietz, Bjørn Lovén, Niels Andreasen and Erik Hallager, for which we
are very grateful.
2 See Rathje & Lund 1991, 4 -10.
3 See Rathje & Lund 1991, 41.
4 Blinkenberg 1931, 1941; Dietz 1984; Dietz & Trolle 1974; Dyggve 1960; Friis Johansen 1957; Kinch 1914; Sørensen & Pentz 1992; see also Rathje &
Lund 1991, 39. 7
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 1. Kefallénia, Circular alter at Palaiocastro (Photo: Tomas Roland).
of Frederik Poulsen, later Einar Dyggve and Konst-antiporter of Danish feldwork in Greece. We remain ever
5nos Romaios at Kalydon between 1926 and 1 a938nd the , grateful for this vital support to the work of the Danish
In6work of Knud Friis Johansen on ʻSikyonean’” potery. stitute at Athens. However, many more foundations have
Te Danish archaeological projects are all commit - supported the feld projects and our gratitude is also owed
ted to the education of students through participattion o the Danish Ministry of Education, the Consul General
in feldwork and publication preparations. In fact the Gösta Enboms Foundation, the New Carlsberg Found - a
Kalydon Lower Acropolis Project acted as a seminar ex- tion, the Danish Council for Independent Research, the
cavation for Danish students of classical archaeology in Institute of Aegean Prehistory, the Costopoulos -Foun
2013-6, and more recently also Norwegian students. We dation, Queen Margrethe II’s Archaeological Found-a
owe a debt of gratitude to the Central Archaeological tion, the Augustinus Foundation, the Danish Research
Council and the Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports Council, Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation,
for granting us the permits and thereby supporting thithe s Eleni Nakou Foundation, the Velux Foundation, the
important element in the education of Danish archa -eoloG.E.C. Gads Foundation, the Sonning Foundation, Te
gists and to the ephorates (mentioned individually below American Friends of the Zea Harbour Project, the RPM
under the relevant projects) for their collaboration in thiNs autical Foundation, the Leverhulme Trust, Interspiro
important endeavour. AB, the Gunvor & Josef Anérs Stifelse, the Kungl. V- iter
Troughout the history of the Danish Institute a he t ts Historie och Antikvitets Akademien and the Herbert
Athens the Carlsberg Foundation has been the main s-up och Karin Jacobssons Stifelse.
5 Poulsen & Rhomaios 1927; Dyggve, Poulsen & Rhomaios 1934; Dyggve & Poulsen 1948; Dyggve 1951. See also Rathje & Lund 1991, 40.
6 Friis Johansen 1918; 1923.8
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SØREN HANDBERG ∙ CELEBRA TING 25 YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH A T THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS
Kefallénia
In 1992 the survey began in the western part of Kefallénia,
the largest of the Ionian Islands, directed by Klavs R- ands
borg from the University of Copenhagen and under the
aegis of the Swedish Institute at Athens. With the e - stab
lishment of the Danish Institute the permit was tr- ans
ferred and feldwork continued in 1993 and 1994 funded
by the Danish Ministry of Education.
Te projects applied a combination of topographical
and extensive and intensive archaeological survey to the
investigation of prehistoric and ancient/historical s - et
tlement paterns. Much efort was also put into mapping
and describing architectural sites, for example a group of
smaller Archaic forts and the ancient town of Sami.
Te archaeological survey revealed a total of more than
fve hundred sites dating from the Middle Paleolithic to the
early Modern period, with an emphasis, however, on the
Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods. As a novelty in
the island’s history, it was established by the lithic in -ven
tories that occupation was present in the Late Neolithic
period. Te project has been instrumental in making the
archaeology of the island available to an English-speaking
audience through the two volumes published in the Danish
7journal Acta Archaeologica. On several occasions, Klavs
Randsborg expressed his strong interest in returning to
Greek archaeology, but regretably he passed away in 2016. Fig. 2. Rhodes, Katavia 1994 (Photo: Søren Dietz).
Rhodes Katavia in southern Rhodes in collaboration with the N - a
Te feldwork of Karl Frederik Kinch and Christian B- link tional Museum in Copenhagen and the Ephorate of the
enberg on Rhodes is probably the largest Danish inv-est Dodecanese, represented by Efy Karantzaly, with Mete
ment in the archaeology of Greece to date. Publication Korsholm as feld director. Te survey examined an area of
8 2of the results took 90 yea rbut the ds, ata continue to about 5 km and the collected material documented
setlegenerate interest, including two PhD projects in recent ments in the valley from the Neolithic Age into the
mod9 11years.  Two Danish atempts to return to Rhodes too ek rn period.  Te project succeeded in locating the centre
thplace in 1975 and 1994, both revisiting southern Rhodes of the ancient deme, Katavia, a workshop for -cen7tury
10where K.F. Kinch worked in 19-08.7  In 1994, former Di - BC relief-decorated amphorae and a large workshop pr -o
rector of the Danish Institute at Athens Søren Die - tz d duci ing transport amphorae. Te survey was funded by the
rected a survey campaign in the valley around the village Consul General Gösta Enboms Foundation.
7 Randsborg 2002.
8 See n. 3.
9 Cecilie Brøns, University of Copenhagen/National Museum, Copenhagen and Sanne Hofmann, University of Aarhus/National Museum,
Copenhagen. See also Kaninia & Schierup, this volume.
10 Rathje & Lund 1991, 39.
11 Te project awaits publication. 9
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Te eforts were concentrated partly on the locality
of Pangali, on the eastern slope of Mount Varassova, and
partly on the hill of Aghia Triadha, named afer its large
12Early Byzantine Basilica. In 1995, the two already known
Classical fortifcation walls in Pangali were measured, and
an intensive survey revealed that the area between the
walls was probably never inhabited. A trial trench excav-at
ed in 1996 showed that a Final Neolithic setlement existed
th 13in Pangali in the later half of the 5 millennium BC.
In 1996-8, the Byzantine, Archaic, Classical and He-l
lenistic fortifcation walls surrounding the hill of Aghia Fig. 3. Chalkis, Aghia Triadha 1996 (Photo: Søren
Triadha were cleaned and measured, and foundations of Dietz).
Archaic/Classical and Hellenistic houses, primarily
situated outside these walls, were excavated and measured. At
the eastern terrace of the hill, layers of an EHI habitation
th Danish commitment to the archaeology of Rhodews ith indications of an additional earlier mid 4
-milleni14continues. In 2016, the Carlsberg Foundation funded the um habitation were uncovered in a trial trench A s. mall
four-year ‘Rhodes Centennial Project’. In close collabor- a excavation was carried out from 1998 onwards on the fat
tion with the Ephorate of Antiquities for the Dodecanelsaend, ; the area west of the hill of Aghia Triada revealed
this project will undertake the study and publication of both rich pre-historic layers (Middle to Late Bronze Age)
six rescue excavations in the city and the necropolis of at a depth of 3 -4 m, thick layers from the Archaic pe - ri
Rhodes. Te project is directed by Vincent Gabrielsen, ods and a rich Early Hellenistic tomb. Geological inve-s
with Stella Skaltsa acting as vice-director, both of the Saxo tigations made in 1997-8 in the Bay of Kato Vassiliki and
Institute at the University of Copenhagen. geomagnetic surveys in 2014 indicated that the ancient
harbour was situated at the shore of the bay, just west of
the hill of Aghia Triadha.
Chalkis
Between 1995 and 2001, the Danish Institute at Athens
Kalydonconducted surveys and excavations near the village of
Kato Vassiliki, on the northern coast of the CorinthiTe an Kalydon project has been the fagship of the Danish
gulf, in co-operation with the ephorate of Patras. Te rIe-nstitute at Athens since 2001. Te project takes up the
search was directed by former Director of the Institut bea, ton of Frederik Poulsen and Einar Dyggve, who ca - r
15Søren Dietz, and former Ephor of Patras, Keeper of N- raied out feldwork at the site in the 1920s and 3 S0s inc. e
tional Antiquities Lazaros Kolonas, with Iannis Moschos the inauguration of the Danish Institute at Athens, three
and Sanne Houby-Nielsen as feld directors. Te project projects have taken place at Kalydon: the Kalydon urban
was supported by the Consul General Gösta Enboms project, the Kalydon Teatre project, and the Kalydon
Foundation. In 2014, Søren Dietz returned to Chalkis Lower Acropolis project. In 2016 Signe Barfoed received
with Tatiana Smekalova and Bruce Bevan in order to carry permission from the Ministry of Culture and Sports to
out geomagnetic investigations to identify more precisely study and publish the unpublished potery and terracota
the port and the residential and industrial facilities as- sofgurines from Poulsen and Rhomaios’ excavations in the
ciated with it. Sanctuary of Artemis Laphria.
12 See list of MoDIA volumes below: Dietz & Moschos (eds) 2006; Dietz & Kolonas (eds) 2016; Houby-Nielsen forthcoming.
13 F. Mavridis & L. Sørensen in Dietz & Moschos (eds) 2006.
14 Dietz & Kolonas (eds) 2016.
15 See n. 4.10
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SØREN HANDBERG ∙ CELEBRA TING 25 YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH A T THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS
Fig. 4. Kalydon, East Gate (Photo: Søren Dietz).
Te Kalydon urban project overall view of the town plan – estimating the economic
In 2001 the Danish Institute commenced large-scale and social divisions of the town; topographical surveys
archaeological feldwork in ancient Kalydon in Aitolia. aiming towards a total topographic registration of visible
Kalydon is located around 8 km as the crow fies from remains on the surface (including the remaining parts of
Chalkis, on the west side of Mount Varassova and 12 km the fortifcation walls, tombs etc.) and the town in the
from Messolonghi further to the west. Te project wlas andscape; geological surveys mapping the geology of the
directed by the Institute’s frst director, Søren Dietz, in landscape between the town and the sea and estimating
collaboration with Maria Stavropoulou-Gatsi and Ioannis the fuctuations of the coastline/coastal morphology and
Moschos from the ephorate in Patras. Te project was l- atthe changing course of the river Evinos; and fnally, larger
er transferred to the new administration in Messolonghi parts of the areas underwent archaeological survey.
with Maria Stavropoulou-Gatsi as ephor. Te excavations Excavations were carried out on strategic topics. An
were sponsored by the Consul General Gösta Enboms examination of the so-called ʻbouleuterion’ was initiated
Foundation and the New Carlsberg Foundation. in 2001 in order to clarify the function of the in - stal
While the old excavations in Kalydon between the lation – if a ʻbouleuterion’, it would have tremendous
two world wars concentrated on the Sanctuary of A- rconsequences for the estimation of the town planning.
temis Laphria (illuminating the Homeric epics) and a In the end it was shown to be a theatre of a rathe - r un
palaestra, the so-called Heroon of Leon, outside the city conventional layout (see below). Based on the results
walls, the 2001 feldwork focused on the city itself, and of the geomagnetic surveys, excavation was carried out
on Kalydonian urbanism – the economic and social life from the beginning on the Acropolis in order to unde - r
of an ancient city state. stand the chronology and function of installations in
From the beginning several types of survey were c-on this important part of the town. Excavations were also
ducted: geomagnetic surveys – in an atempt to get an carried out in the area near the large West Gate leading 11
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 5. Kalydon, Teatre (Photo: Rune Frederiksen).
to the Artemis Laphria sanctuary. Here a large peristyle to carry out a complete excavation, study and
publicabuilding, older than the Heroon, was partly uncovered. tion of the theatre. Tis project was conducted as a new
Te fnd of a shrine to the Anatolian mother goddess Danish–Greek collaborative project, under the direction
Kybele was rather exceptional; it was well-preserved since of Frederiksen and the Ephor of Aitolia and Akarnania,
the roof collapsed around 50 AD, preserving the context Olympia Vikatou. Te theatre is a structure of grea-t sig
almost in situ. Te sloping, terraced area inside the West nifcance, frst because of its idiosyncratic form: almost
Gate was called the Lower Town, where industrial activ- all of the some 250 ancient Greek theatre ruins known are
ities took place, in contrast to the habitation area in the of semicircular design, whereas this theatre is rectangular,
centre of the town. Te commercial agora was placed and perfectly designed to be so. In addition to posing
near the ancient East Gate, leading to the agricultural important questions relating to ancient architecture, this
areas close to the river Evinos and the harbour area near unusual form questions the role of the circular form as a
present day Krioneri, at the foot of Mount Varassovac. A entral physical frame of the ancient Greek drama. Te
well-preserved kiln was excavated in a building further scene-building with proskenion of the Ionic order is well–
up the main street from the peristyle building. Te - laypreserved and its meticulous excavation will answer basic
out of the excavation was based on the results from the questions on the development of this element of ancient
geomagnetic surveys. dramatic architecture. Frederiksen, Vikatou and some 15
Te results are published in Monographs of the Dan- other Greek and Danish archaeologists, architects and
ish Institute at Athens (MoDIA) 12 (see below). university students are currently amassing vast amounts
of excavation data into chapters for a monograph which
will present this exciting monument to the international
Te Kalydon theatre project scholarly community.
Te theatre at Kalydon was found during rescue exca - va
tions in the 1960s, and in 2002 the Danish–Greek project
Kalydon Lower Acropolis projectdirected by Maria Stavropoulou-Gatzi and Søren Dietz
identifed the structure as a theatre following partial aA n-new research project which includes feldwork on the
alytic excavations. Rune Frederiksen – then director of Lower Acropolis of Kalydon was, with the support of
the Danish Institute at Athens – was given four subsethe C- arlsberg Foundation, initiated in 2013. Te project
quent grants from the Carlsberg Foundation (2 -4) 011 is a collaboration between the Danish Institute and the 12
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SØREN HANDBERG ∙ CELEBRA TING 25 YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH A T THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS
Fig. 6. View over the excavations on the Lower Acropolis of Kalydon. Te Hellenistic house is seen in the foreground, the
test trenches at the fortifcation wall are visible further down the hill. Te South Hill, the plateau with the extra-urban
sanctuary of Artemis Laphria and the Gulf of Patra are visible in the back ground (Photo: Søren Handberg).
Ephorate of Antiquities of Aitolia-Acarnania and Lefada thr, ough to the Classical period was observed. Tese fnds
under the direction of Søren Handberg and the ephor suggest that the acropolis was occupied in the early period
Olympia Vikatou. Te main aim of the project is to en-of the city’s history. Te new fnds increase the knowledge
hance our understanding of the early period of the city’of the ts opography of the early city, and show that, in terms
history, of which we have very litle knowledge. of size, it was comparable to other ancient Greek cities.
During four years of excavations in 20-61, the 3 project Te excavations have also produced a substantial amount
sthas fully excavated a private house dating to the Hel-lenis of Roman potery that can be dated from the l ce ant-e 1
sttic period and investigated part of an earlier fortifcation tury BC to the early c1 entury AD, which reveals that
16wall that surrounds the acropolis Te in. vestigations the city was not completely abandoned when the later
showed that the house was most likely destroyed around Roman Emperor Augustus founded the city of Nikopolis
ndthe middle of the 2 century BC and that many of the in 27 BC, as the ancient literary sources suggest.
objects in it had been preserved in their original c-ul
ture-historical context. Test trenches at the fortifcation
Piraeuswall revealed a 3.6 m-thick double-faced wall, which is
likely to date to the Early Classical period. Across most From 2002 to 2012 the Zea Harbour Project conducted
of the excavated area, but especially associated with the feldwork on land and under water in and around two n - a
fortifcation wall, potery dating to the Late Geometr vic al harbours in the Piraeus, Mounichia and Zea. Working
16 For a preliminary report on the project see Vikatou & Handberg, this volume. 13
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 7. An archaeologist excavates the early shipsheds at Mounichia Harbour in the Piraeus on one of the very rare days of
good visibility (Photo: V. Tsiairis © ZHP 2012).
under the auspices of the Danish Institute at Athens, the the Koumoundourou Hill and in the Piraiki, the harbour
project was directed by Bjørn Lovén in close collabor-a fortifcations of Zea and Mounichia, thereby producing
tion with the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities and important knowledge of the fortifcations of the Piraeus.
the Ephorate of West Atica, Piraeus and Islands. Te Te project has been a model of modern, careful and
project was mainly funded by the Carlsberg Found - a meticulous feldwork under challenging conditions in the
tion, but it also received support from the Eleni Nakou polluted waters of modern Piraeus. Te methods included
Foundation, the Velux Foundation, the G.E.C. Gads digital and geophysical survey as well as excavation.
Foundation, the Sonning Foundation, the Augustinus Te results of the Zea Harbour Project are published in
Foundation, Te American Friends of the Zea Harbour Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens (MoDIA)
Project, the RPM Nautical Foundation, the Leverhulme 15 (see below). Te frst volume was published in 2012, and
Trust and Interspiro AB. two additional volumes are being prepared for publication.
Te Zea Harbour Project made a number of signi - f
icant discoveries within Zea, the largest and most
imMount Pelionportant naval harbour of antiquity, and the smaller naval
base of Mounichia. Tese included the identifcation of Te three-year Pelion Cave Project in Tessaly, directed
so-called double-shipsheds at Zea and the discovery that by Niels H. Andreasen, was initiated in 2006 by the Da-n
two shipsheds in Mounichia date to 52-0480 BC, thus ish Institute at Athens in co-operation with the E -phor
showing that Athens stored its warships in shipsheds ate of Palaeoanthropology and Speleology of Northern
in the Piraeus before or just afer the Persian Wars. Te Greece. While the use of caves goes back to the earliest
project also defned and mapped coastal fortifcations on humans, the original and innovative purpose of the Pelion 14
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SØREN HANDBERG ∙ CELEBRA TING 25 YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH A T THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS
Fig. 8. Survey of cave with WWII remains on North Pelion (Photo: Markos Vaxevanopoulos).
Cave Project was to understand the diversity, complexity records, oral history and folklore, the project has raised
and development of cave-use on the mountain, mainly interesting issues about cave-use prior to and following
from 1881 – the end of the Otoman period in th-at rethe onset of the industrialized period. Te rich dataset
gion – until today. demonstrates complexities beyond the picture usually
Husbandry, local history and folklore related to caves perceived by archaeologists and provides a fascinating
have rarely been documented systematically in this r- e glimpse of a humanized landscape existing outside the
gion. Te physical traces and knowledge of cave-use are cultural landscape of villages and felds.
rapidly disappearing, but caves remain a valuable source Te Pelion Cave Project was supported by the
Danof information concerning local history and regional ish Council for Independent Research, the Institute of
economy. Te conditions on Mount Pelion in south - Aegean Prehistory, the Costopoulos Foundation, Queen
east Tessaly provided a unique opportunity to ask key Margrethe II’s Archaeological Foundation and the
Auquestions of both ethnographic and historical interest g, ustinus Foundation. Scientifc adaptation of the data for
as well as demonstrating nuances in cave-use that would publication in the Institutes monograph series volume 19,
otherwise have remained undetected. Te methodology expected in 2017 (see below), has been made possible due
included archaeological survey, systematic collection of to a grant from the Danish Research Council, Agency for
objects from the cave foors, local historical research and Science, Technology and Innovation.
interviews with local informants.
Te 2006-8 survey on Mount Pelion documented 158
Khaniacaves and rock shelters, and compiled a rich collection of
ethnographic material. Drawing on archaeological and In 2010 the Danish Institute at Athens joined the
longtopographical data from the caves as well as documentary term Greek–Swedish excavations at Kastelli, Khania, in 15
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
sensational fnd of Linear B tablets came to light, in Crete
otherwise only known from the Palace at Knossos. Te
tablets are dated from context to the LM IIIB:1 period
(c. 1250 BC) and prove that Dionysos was considered a
god as early as the Bronze Age. Te way the tablets were
made is exactly the same as that of the Knossos tablets,
the date of which is still uncertain: an observation which
may allow for the dating of the Knossos tablets.
Te aim of the Greek–Swedish–Danish Excavations
was to excavate as far as the modern habitation pe -rmit
ted the building where the Linear B tablets were found.
Te excavations stopped in 2014, and as discussed in the
two reports, they revealed one of the largest and most
impressive non-palatial buildings yet discovered in LM
17III Crete.
Te sponsors for the project have been the Institute
for Aegean Prehistory, the Carlsberg Foundation, Gunvor
& Josef Anérs Stifelse. Kungl. Viterhets Historie och
Antikvitets Akademien, Herbert och Karin Jacobssons
Stifelse and the Augustinus Foundation.
Fig. 9. Te impressive walls of the LM IIIA:2/IIIB:1 Lechaion
Building 2 were very well preserved between the wall fou- n
Te Lechaion Harbour Project was initiated in 2014 by
dations of an Early Christian Basilica. Facing east.
Excathe Danish Institute at Athens in co-operation with the
vation photo 2010 (Photo: Erik Hallager).
University of Copenhagen and the Ephorate of Unde -rwa
ter Antiquities. Te project is under the direction of Bjørn
Lovén and Dimitris Kourkoumelis, aided by assistant
Crete. Te project was directed by Yannis Tzedakis ( -fordirectors Paraskevi Micha and Panagiotis
Athanasopoumer General Director of Antiquities, Ministry of Culturelos), . In 2013 it received a grant from Queen Margrethe II’s
followed in 2011 by Maria Andreadaki-Vlazaki (Gen- Archaeological Foundation. Te Augustinus Foundation
eral Secretary of the Ministry of Culture and Sportsa), nd the Carlsberg Foundation have commited to funding
Ann-Louise Schallin (the Swedish Institute) and Erik the project until 2018.
Hallager (the Danish Institute). Te previous excavations Lechaion, together with Kenchreai, served as a harbour
at Minoan Kydonia revealed that Khania has existed for town of ancient Corinth. Troughout antiquity Corinth
5000 years, and showed that the site was continuously took advantage of its position astride the Isthmus t - o con
inhabited with the exception of a -4y0e0ar period from trol land routes north and south and sea routes east and
the end of the Bronze Age (c. 1150) till the end of the west. Lechaion, positioned north of the city on the Gulf
Geometric period (c. 725). of Corinth, ofered convenient access to the central and
Te most important discoveries were those from western Mediterranean, and according to ancient sources,
the end of the Bronze Age, the Late Minoan period (c. Corinth derived a great deal of its wealth from this trade.
1600-1150 BC), from which – uniquely for Crete – seven Te aim of the project is to document the physical
subsequent setlements could be documented. In 1990 a remains of Lechaion’s harbours in light of Corinth’s 25
17 For reports on seasons 2013 and 2014 see Hallager & Andreadakis-Vlazakis as well as McGeorge, this volume.16
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SØREN HANDBERG ∙ CELEBRA TING 25 YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH A T THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS
Fig. 10. Archaeologist excavating wooden caisson in Area 2 (Photo: V. Tsiairis © LHP 2015).
centuries of recorded history. Te methods include digital Hansen. In 2013 the Danish Institute at Athens received a
and geophysical survey of the inner and outer harbours as permit under the direction of Rune Frederiksen for Erik
well as the harbour canal, using innovative technologies Hansen and Gregers Algreen-Ussing to study the inf - ra
thsuch as a newly-developed 3D parametric sub-botom structure for the construction of the 4 -century temple of
profler, and excavation. Apollo. Te project received support from the Carlsberg
Te project will generate data pertaining to the de - Foundation and the Danish Institute at Athens.
velopment of commercial harbours, and, by extension, Te background for the project is the detailed study
thshed essential light on the nature and development of the of the 4-century BC phase of the temple of Apollo by
ancient world. Its early discoveries are already yielding Pierre Amandry and Erik Hansen, published in 2010 in
18unique and critical archaeological information on the the Fouilles de Delphes series. Tis study revealed that
use of wooden caissons in underwater construction t -ech 7500 tons of blocks were transported from the St. Elias
niques during the Byzantine era. quarry, located 6 km to the west and 300 m below the level
of the sanctuary of Apollo in a mountain funnel. Some of
the heaviest blocks visible in the temple foundation weigh
Delphi approximately 9 tons. It has been estimated that the tr - ans
Te Danish contributions to the study of the Sanctuary of port of the blocks took 1900 trips, and for this purpose an
Apollo at Delphi under the auspices of the French School extensive network of roads was constructed. Te project
have long been recognized, especially the work of Erik has identifed the tracks and roads for the transportation
18 Amandry & Hansen 2010. 17
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 11. View of the plain of Pre-Hellenistic Sikyon towards the Corinthian Gulf (Photo: Silke Müth-Frederiksen).
thof building material for the -c4entury temple. Teir re- Sikyon’. Te project is a synergasia between Te National
port on the results in this volume of Proceedintegst ifes to Museum, Copenhagen, the Ephorate of Antiquities of
a remarkably rectilinear infrastructure through the steep Corinth and the Danish Institute at Athens and is funded
mountain funnels and the extraordinary skills of ancient by the Carlsberg Foundation. It was conceived by
for19Greek engineers. mer director of the Danish Institute Rune Frederiksen,
who also co-directed the project’s frst season in 2015,
21the report of which is published in this volume Te .
Sikyon Greek co-director is Konstantinos Kissas, the Ephor of
In 1918, Knud Friis Johansen suggested that the widely Antiquities of Corinth. In 2016, the Danish directorship
exported potery archaeologists have come to consider of of the project was taken over by Silke Müth-Frederiksen
Corinthian origin since the American excavations there (National Museum). In two campaigns in April and June/
were actually produced at Sikyon, a famous centre for July 2016, geoarchaeological augering, geophysical
inves20arts and crafs in ancient times Te D. anish Institute tigation, intensive survey, aerial photography and remote
at Athens in collaboration with the National Museum of sensing were applied to great efect. It is now possible to
Denmark was granted the permit to investigate the plain defne the limits of the old city in most directions and to
of pre-Hellenistic Sikyon for the purpose of identifyinchg aracterize some of its quarters and buildings. Furthe- r
the site of the city and analyzing the material remains, the more, there are some frst indications for the localization
specifc setlement structures and urban fabric of ʻOld of the harbour of Sikyon.
19 Hansen et al., this volume.
20 Te French version came out in 1923.
21 Frederiksen et al., this volume.18
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SØREN HANDBERG ∙ CELEBRA TING 25 YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH A T THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS
25 years of publications: PoDIA and Te monograph series, MoDIA, publishes Danish and
MoDIA Danish-Greek feldwork in Greece and Cyprus and well
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens (PoD) aInd A as conference proceedings. Te generous gif from the
Monographs of the Danish Institute at At(hMenoDs IA) Velux Foundation in 2000 provided the Danish Institute
form the infrastructural backbone of the institut - e’s prwith a modeo rn auditorium, which is a popular venue for
motion of Danish research in Greece as well as inter-na international conferences. Conferences continue to be
tionally. an extremely important academic tool to gain access to
Te frst volume of the scientifc journal PoD ap I-A the most current research. As we write this, 17 volumes
peared in 1995, and the series issue normally with an have appeared and an additional eight are in preparation
interval of two to four years. PoD is a cIA ollection of (see list below). Ten of these volumes are dedicated to
occasional papers writen primarily by scholars from the Danish and Danish-Greek feld projects while the r -e
Danish scholarly environment, but also by foreign scho- l maining volumes are conference proceedings. Many of
ars working on topics thematically related to the activitiethes se conferences are related to the feld projects, and
of the Institute. Although Greek archaeology and ep- igrathe Danish Institute at Athens remain grateful to all the
phy dominates, the scope of Proceedin igs gs eographical- institutions and foundations, Danish and Greek, that
ly wide, encompassing the entire Greek world from the have made such rich opportunities and favourable c-on
rd3 millennium BC to the present day. Te most recent ditions available to Danish Classical Archaeology. We,
volumes include sections on ancient studies and art hi - s the authors and editors of this volume, can only look
torical studies, as well as reports on Danish feldwork in forward to the exploits of future generations.
Greece. Articles other than feld reports are peer-reviewed Proceedings volume 8 is published by Aarhus
Univerby at least one reviewer and with mutual anonymity. An sity Press, and the production has become possible only
editorial board decides on titles to publish and control by the very generous support of a Danish foundation
the review process. PoDIA is available online wishing to remain anonymous. Te Institute is grateful
(htp://ojs.statsbiblioteket.dk/index.php/pdia/issue/ for the help received without which this volume would
archive). never have issued.
Te present volume is number 8 in the series.
Ancient Studies consist of fve articles which refect well the KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN
geographical width of Danish research interests in the Te Danish Institute at Athens
eastern Mediterranean in recent years in Greece and the Herefondos 14, 10558 Athens
islands (Barfoed; Kaninia & Schierup), in Turkey (W - in Greece
ther-Jacobsen & Bekker-Nielsen and Sauer) and in Cyprus kwj@diathens.gr/kwjacobsen@hum.ku.dk
(Sørensen). Tis section also includes an evaluation of the
research into ancient polychromy by one of its main pr - o RUNE FREDERIKSEN
ponents (Østergaard). Te section on Art Historical S-tud Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
thies and Modern Greece consists of an article on 1 c9entury Dantes Plads 7, 1556 Copenhagen V
reception of the Parthenon (Kragelund). Finally, therDee nmark
are six preliminary reports from four Danish and D -an rufr@glyptoteket.dk
ish-Swedish-Greek feld projects in Greece: the excav-a
tions of the ancient City of Kalydon in Aitolia (Vikatou & SØREN HANDBERG
Handberg), the architectural studies at Delphi (Hansen, University of Oslo
Algreen-Ussing & Frederiksen), the Minoan excavations Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History
in the center of the old town of Chania in Crete (H- allagBlindernveien 11, 0371 Oslo
er & Andreadaki-Vlazaki; McGeorge), and the investig-a Norway
tions at Ancient Sikyon in the Peloponnese (Frederiksen, soren.handberg@iakh.uio.no/shhandberg@hotmail.com
Kissas, Donati, Giannakopoulos, Müth, Papathanasiou,
Rabbel Stümpel, Rusch & Winthe Jacor-bsen). 19
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
List of Monographs
E. Hallager & B. P. Hallager (eds), Late Minoan III Potery. S. Dietz & M. Stavropoulou-Gatsi (eds), Kalydon in Aitolia
Chronology and Terminology. Acts of a Meeting held at the D- an I – Reports and Studies. Danish/Greek Field Work 20-200105;
ish Institute at Athens, Augus-t 114 1 2994 (MoDIA 1), 1997. Kalydon in Aitolia;II  – Catalogues. Danish/Greek Field Work
2001-2005 (MoDIA 12.1-2), 2011.
Chr. Troelsgaard (ed.), Byzantine Chant. Tradition and
Reform. Acts of a Meeting held at the Danish Institute at Athens E. Hallager & D. Mulliez (eds), Te French Connection – 100
1993 (MoDIA 2), 1997. years with the Danish architects at l’École fançaise d’Athènes.
Acts of a Symposium held in Athens and Copenhagen 2008 by
J. Isager (ed.), Foundation and Destruction. Nikopolis and l’École fançaise d’Athènes and Te Danish Institute at Athens
Northwestern Greece.Te archaeological evidence for the city (MoDIA 13), 2010.
destructions, the foundation of Nikopolis, and the synoecism. Acts
of a Meeting held at the Danish Institute at Athens, March 1999G . Vavouranakis (ed.), Te seascape in Aegean Prehistory
(MoDIA 3), 2001. (MoDIA 14), 2011.
I. Nielsen (ed.), Te Royal Palace Institution in the First Mil- B. Lovén & M. Schaldemose with contributions by
lennium BC. Regional Development and Cultural Interchange B. Klejn-Christensen & M.M. Nielsen, Te Ancient Harbours
between East and West. Acts of a Meeting held at the Danish of the Piraeus I .1– Te Zea Shipsheds and Slipways: Architecture
Institute at Athens, November 1999 (MoDIA 4), 2001. and Topography; I.2 – Te Zea Shipsheds and Slipways: Finds,
Area 1 Shipshed Roof Reconstructions and Feature Catalogue
J. Eiring & J. Lund (eds), Transport Amphorae and Trade in (MoDIA 15.1-2), 2012.
the Eastern Mediterranean. Acts of the International
Colloquium at the Danish Institute at Athens, Septemb-2er 29 26002 B. Lovén & I. Sapountzis, Te Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus
(MoDIA 5), 2004. II – Zea Harbour: the Group 1 and 2 shipsheds and slipways –
architecture, topography and fn (dMs oDIA 15.3), forthcoming.
L. Wriedt Sørensen & K. Winther Jacobsen (eds), Panayia
Ematousa I – A rural site in south-eastern Cyprus; II – Political, N.M. Nielsen, Te Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus, III.1 – Te
cultural, ethnic and social relations in Cyprus. Approches to re- Harbour and Coastal fortifcations of the Mounichia and Zea
gional studies (MoDIA 6.1-2), 2006. Harbours – architecture and topography (MoDIA 15.4),
forthcoming.
S. Dietz & Y. Moschos (eds.) Chalkis Aitolias I – Te
prehistoric periods (MoDIA 7.1), 2006. B. Lovén & I. Sapountzis, Te Ancient Harbours of Piraeus
III.2 – Mounichia Harbour: the shipsheds – architecture, topo - g
S. Houby Nielsen, Chalkis Aitolias II – Te Emporion. Archaic, raphy and fnds and fnds fom the fortifcations at Mounichia
Classical and Early Hellenistic Habitations on the Hagia Triada and Zea Harbour (MoDIA 15.5), forthcoming.
(MoDIA 7.2), forthcoming.
M. Tsipopoulou (ed.), Petras, Siteia. 25 years of excavations
S. Dietz & L. Kolonas (eds), Chalkis Aitolias III T– e Archaic and studies (MoDIA 16), 2012.
Period (MoDIA 7.3), 2016.
R. Frederiksen, E. Gebhard and A. Sokolicek (eds), Te A -r
T. M. Brogan & E. Hallager(e ds), LM IB potery – relative chitecture of the Ancient Greek Teatre: conference at the Danish
chronology and regional diferences. Acts of a workshop held at Institute at Athens January 2012 (MoDIA 17), 2016.
the Danish Institute in collaboration with the INSTAP Study
Center for East Crete, 2-29 J7 une 2007 (MoDIA 11.1-2), 2011.
20
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN, RUNE FREDERIKSEN & SØREN HANDBERG ∙ CELEBRA TING 25 YEARS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH A T THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS
R. Frederiksen, S. Müth, M. Schnelle & P. Schneider (eds),
Fokus on Fortifkation. Conference on the Research of Ancient
Fortifcations, Athens 6-9 December 2012 (MoDIA 18), 2016.
N. H. Andreasen, P. Pantzou & D. Papadopoulos, Unfolding a
mountain. An ethno-archaeological investigation of modern cave
use on Mount Pelion (2006-2008) (MoDIA 19), forthcoming.
S. Dietz et al., Communities in Transition (MoDIA 20),
forthcoming.
M. Tsipopoulou, Petras-Siteia. Te Pre- and Proto-Palatial
ceme tery in Context (MoDIA 21), 2017.
S. Handberg, A. Gadolo & C. Morgan (eds), Material Koinai
in the Greek Early Iron Age and Archaic Period (MoDIA 22),
forthcoming.
W. Friese, T. Myrup Kristensen & S. Handberg (eds),- As
cending and Descending the Acropolis. Sacred Travel in Ancient
Atica and its Borders (MoDIA 23), forthcoming.
21
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Bibliography
Amandry, P. & E. Hansen 2010 Frederiksen,R., K. Kissas, J. Donati, McGeorge, P. J. P. 2017
Fouilles des Delphes II, Le temple d’Apol- G. Giannakopoulos, S. Müth, V. Papa- ʻTe Pit L Baby Burial –
Hermeneulon du IVe siècle, Paris. thanasiou, W. Rabbel, H. Stümpel, K. tics: Implications for immigration into
Rusch & K. Winther-Jacobsen 2017 Kydonia in MMIII/LMI’, PoDIA 8,
Blinkenberg, C. F. 1931 ʻFinding Old Sikyon’, 2015. A prelimi- 293-303.
Lindos I – Fouilles de l’Acropole nary report’, PoDIA 8, 305-24.
1902-1904. Les Petit Objects, Berlin. Poulsen, F. & K. A. Rhomaios 1927
Friis Johansen, K. 1918 Erster vorlaufger Bericht über die
daBlinkenberg, C. F. 1941 Sikyoniske vaser: en arkæologisk nisch-griechischen Ausgrabungen von
Lindos II – Fouilles de l’Acropole u n der sø ge lse, Copenhagen. Kalydon, Copenhagen.
1902-1914.Inscriptions. Publiée en grande
partie d’apres les copies de K.F. Kinch, Friis Johansen, K. 1923 Randsborg, K. 2002
Berlin. Les vases sicyoniens. Études Kephallenia I – II. Archaeology and
archéologique, Paris. History. Te Ancient Greek Cities (Acta
Dietz, S. 1984 Archaeologica 73), Copenhagen.
Lindos IV.1 – Excavations and Surveys in Friis Johansen, K. 1957
Southern Rhodos: Te Mycenean Period. ʻExochi, ein frührhodisches Graberfeld’, Rathje, A. & J. Lund 1991
Copenhagen. Acta Archaologica 28, 1-192. ʻDanes Overseas – A Short History
of Danish Classical Archaeological
Dietz, S. & S. Trolle 1974 Hallager, E. & M. Vlazakis-Andreada- Fieldwork’, in Recent Danish Research
Arkæologens Rhodos, Copenhagen. ki 2017a in Classical Archaeology: Tradition
ʻTe Greek–Swedish–Danish Excava- a n d R en ew a l (Acta Hyperborea 3),
Dyggve, E., F. Poulsen & tions 2013 – a short preliminary report’, T. Fischer Hansen, P. Guldager,
K. Rhomaios 1934 PoDIA 8, 265-79. J. Lund, M. Nielsen & A. Rathje (eds),
Das Heroon von Kalydon, Copenhagen. Copenhagen, 11-56.
Hallager, E. & M.
Vlazakis-AndreadaDyggve, E. & F. Poulsen 1948 ki 2017b Sørensen, L. Wriedt & P. Pentz 1992
Das Laphrion, der Tempelbezirk von ʻTe Greek–Swedish–Danish Excava- Lindos IV.2 Excavations and Surveys in
Kalydon 1 (Arkæologisk-kunsthistoriske tions 2014 – a short preliminary report’, Southern Rhodos: Te Post-Mycenean
skrifer 2), Copenhagen. PoDIA 8, 281-92. Periods until Roman Times and the
M e d iev a l P er io d, Copenhagen.
Dyggve, E. 1951 Hansen, E., G. Algreen-Ussing, & R.
ʻA Second Heroon at Calydon’, in Frederiksen 2017 Vikatou, O. & S. Handberg 2017
Studies Presented to David M. Robinson ʻA Short Cut to Delphi: Indications ʻTe Lower Acropolis of Kalydon in
1, George E. Mylonas (ed.), St. Louis, of a vehicle track from a stone quarry Aitolia: preliminary report on the ex -
360-4. to the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi’, cavations carried out in 201-315’, PoDIA
PoDIA 8, 209-63. 8, 191-206.
Dyggve, E. 1960
Lindos II – Fouilles de l’Acropole Kinch, K. F. 1914
1902-1914 et 1951. Le Sanctuaire d’Athena Fouilles de Vroulia (Rhodes). Berlin.
Lindia et l’architecture lindienneBe, rlin.
22
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.Ancient Studies
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.Köprülüler Çaddesi
Ulu Çayı
A Late Roman building complex in
the Papaz Tarlası, Vezirköprü
(ancient Neoklaudiopolis, northern Asia Minor)
KRISTIN A W INTHER- JA COB S EN
& TØNNES BEKKER-NIEL S EN
Cruciform structures are common in the Late Romasin stivity survey just north of Vezirköprü, Samsun pr - ov
1and Byzantine religious architecture of Asia Minor M.ost ince, Turkey, in the region known in antiquity as Pontos
2structures, however, have arms of unequal length; the (Fig. 1). Vezirköprü was founded as Neapolis by Pompey
‘Greek cross’ shape with arms of equal length is quite the Great in 64 BC and later renamed Neoklaudiopolis
rare. Tis paper discusses a building complex including in honour of the emperor Claudius or Nero. Te city
a Greek cruciform structure identifed by geoelectric re-continued, however, to be known under its indigenous
Oymaağaç
Neoklaudiopolis
Papaz Tarlası (survey area)
N
0 100 200 300 400 500m presumed site of ancient bridge
Yürükçalnecropolis
Taş Medrese Kurt Köprüsü
Taşköprü
Great mosque
Tepeören/Havza
Fig. 1. Map of ancient remains in Vezirköprü and surroundings (Map: Richard Szydlak).
1 All dates are AD unless otherwise indicated.
2 Te work was done under the auspices of the Where East meets West Project, investigating the Pompeian model of setlements in northern Anatolia
and its trajectory from diferent material and historical perspectives focusing on one of its cities, Neoklaudiopolis, see Bekker-Nielsen 2013; 2014;
Bekker-Nielsen et al. 2015; Winther-Jacobsen 2015. 25
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.
Esenli ÇayıPROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 3. Ploughed surface of the Papaz Tarlası
(Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen).
Fig. 2. Google image of the Papaz Tarlası on December
8, 2012.
3name, Andrapa, as well. Tis was also the name of the
Late Roman bishopric. Several bishops from Andrapa
are named in the atendance lists of church councils and
provincial synods. Te earliest bishop mentioned in the
lists is Paralios, who in 431 was unable to atend the
council of Ephesus in person but sent a deacon, Eucharios, to
4represent him.
Introduction
Te feld known as the Papaz Tarlası (‘priest’s feld’) is
located in the Kuruçay Mahallesi on the southern edge Fig. 4. Georesistivity map of the Papaz Tarlası
of the plateau that stretches northward and westward (Plan: Harald von der Osten-Woldenburg).
from Vezirköprü towards the Kızılırmak river (ancient
Halys). Te shape of the feld is irregular and its size a- p
2proximately 8250 m. At the southeastern corner, the feld ately visible on the ground as high density areas, as well as
drops towards the southeast, and the southern edge of small elevations on the surface (Fig. 3). Te fnds include
the feld is defned by the ravine of the river, the Ulu. T no umerous architectural remains: fragments of roof tiles,
the west, the feld abuts the road leading from Vezirköprü foor tiles and bricks, as well as a stone threshold (Figs
northwards to Adatepe, Oymaağaç and Türkmenköy. To 7-8) and a broken column (Figs 9-10). In the ravine to the
the east and north, it abuts on other felds (Fig. 2). south, foundations are visible in the slope and according
Te surface of the Papaz Tarlası is densely scatered to local informants, looters have uncovered masonry and
with ceramics and the sub-surface structures are imme - di a small vaulted chamber in the feld.
3 Ptolemy, Geography 4.4, Andrapa hê kai Neoklaudiopolis. An inscription now in the Köprülü Mehmet Paşa Parkı, Vezirköprü, commemorates a s- ol
dier on detached duty “in (the city of) the Andrapans”; Bekker-Nielsen, Høgel & Sørensen 2015, no. 3.
4 Le Quien 1740, 1.539-40; Fedalto 1988, 1.79. Paralios is also named in an inscription found at Doyran on the southern outskirts of Vezirköprü:
Anderson et al. 1910, no. 68, 87-8.26
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN & TØNNES BEKKER-NIELSEN ∙ A LATE ROMAN BUILDING COMPLEX IN THE PAPAZ TARLASI, VEZIRKÖPRÜ
Fig. 5. Gridded survey map of the Papaz
Tarlası indicating the subsurface str- uc
tures and other recorded features
(Plan: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen).
Georesistivity survey
In April 2010, a georesistivity survey of the central part
of the Papaz Tarlası was carried out by a team from the
Nerik excavation project under the direction of Prof.
Dr. Rainer Czichon and Dr. Harald von der Osten-W -ol
5denburg. Te survey, which covered a surface of 6000
2m , revealed the foundations of a large building complex
composed of three main elements oriented east–west
(Figs 4-5): in the west was a quadrangle 42 x 42 m lined
by structures on all four sides. From the georesistivity
scan it is not possible to say with certainty whether the
plan is completely regular or whether the northern side
is slightly skewed in relation to the others. At the centre
of the quadrangle, a hexagonal structure approximately
10 m in diameter can be seen. To the east lies a structure Fig. 6. Silver coin of the emperor Arcadius collected in
in the shape of a Greek cross, measuring 21 x 21 m; its 2010.
western arm is atached to the quadrangle although its
axis is not aligned with it, nor with the central structure,
but shifed approximately 2 m northwards (hereafer the contours show up as two parallel grey lines, suggesting
complex with the cruciform structure). Te plans of the that the foundations have been removed, leaving only a
cruciform and hexagonal structures show up on the g -eo robber trench.
resistivity plot as distinct, dark areas, indicating that their Two additional structures are visible on the map: just
foundations remain in situ. Te foundations of the qua - nord theast of the cruciform structure is a small rectangular
rangle, on the other hand, appear to be best preserved on structure approximately 4 x 2 m and of a slightly diferent
the western and eastern sides; in the north and south, its orientation. Also in the northeastern corner of the area
5 Te georesistivity survey was not part of the WEmW project. See Czichon et al. 2011. 27
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 7. Treshold ploughed out of the Papaz Tarlası Fig. 8. Detail of threshold ploughed out of the Papaz
Tar(Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen). lası (Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen).
surveyed is another rectangular structure approximately
6 x 7 m, again of a diferent orientation (hereafer the
northeastern complex).
Te main structural elements of the complex with
the cruciform structure identifed in the Papaz Tarlasi
are quite distinctive (see below). Based on the plan, the
quadrangle is tentatively identifed as an open courtyard,
possibly with a colonnade; the hexagonal structure in
its centre as a fountain; and the cruciform structure as a
martyrion.
Simultaneously with the resistivity survey, a grab
sample was collected from the feld for the purpose of a
preliminary assessment of the chronology. Te preliminary
analysis of the potery by Kristina Winther-Jacobsen in
2012 suggested that only Roman and post-Roman
material was collected. A silver coin of the Emperor Arcadius,
already known, provided a preliminary date for the asse-m
blage (Fig. 6).
Architectural fragments
Te plan produced by the resistivity survey is
complemented by the evidence of multiple architectural remains
recovered from the surface of the feld believed t -o orig
inate from the sub-surface structures; these include a
stone threshold and a broken column. Te grey limestone Fig. 9. Fragmented column shaf ploughed out of the
Pathreshold of the standard Roman type (Fig. 7) measurep s az Tarlası (Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen).
1.46 x 0.55 m and the door opening was 1.175 m wide. Two
thirds of the surface has been cut down to a lower levelmidd, le and one square and one round hole facing each
leaving a small step to shut the door against, 6 cm high. other at either end, indicate that the threshold w -as in
Te positions of the fve holes, one square hole in the tended for a double door with a vertical locking bar. Te 28
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN & TØNNES BEKKER-NIELSEN ∙ A LATE ROMAN BUILDING COMPLEX IN THE PAPAZ TARLASI, VEZIRKÖPRÜ
Fig. 10. Detail of fagmented column shaf ploughed out
of the Papaz Tarlası (Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen).
hinges rotated in the round holes at either end, positioned
opposite the square holes which received the lower ends
of the jambs. All three square holes are the same size,
7.5 cm wide, and the two round holes are also identical
with a diameter of 8 cm, suggesting some level of s-tand
ardization. On the side of the block, tool marks of both
point and tooth chisels can be seen very clearly (Fig. 8).
A fragment of a similar threshold can be seen lying in a
feld in the Tikenli Mahallesi on the southwestern edge of
the city where tombs were reported to have been found
6in the spring of 1900 A c. omplete threshold was found in
72012 during construction work in the 517 Sokak.
Fig. 11. Grave stele ploughed out of the Papaz Tar- A broken monolithic column of polished grey
limelası: font, top section and back (Photo: Kristina W - instone was also observed in the feld (Fig. 9). Te fragment
ther-Jacobsen).is 1.03 m long. Te diameter at the top is wider than 0.35 cm,
and the shaf is 0.365 cm in diameter at the fracture. Te
top of the column is fnished with two fat bands, each
4 cm high, of which the edges are not sharp, but slightly it was fted into some kind of architecture, presumably
rounded and smooth. Te shaf measures 0.95 cm and it the structure in the Papaz Tarlasi. Preserved on the front
tapers towards the botom. On the top, tool marks of both of the block is the top of the double-framed main p- an
point and tooth chisels can be seen very clearly (Fig. 10). el and the lower part of the double-framed pediment
A fragment of a grave stele was also found (Fig. 11). fanked with acroteria. At the centre of the pediment is
Te top had been cut of and the surface worked with a a rosete with curved pointy leaves. Te acroteria appear
point chisel. Te botom is broken, leaving the shape of to consist of at least three leaves pointing downwards and
the block irregular. It measures approximately 0.50 x 0.28 ending in three spirals resembling ‘comma’ locks. A stele
m. Tere is an irregular, rounded hole in the back which from Pompeiopolis in the Museum of Kastamonu may
points toward its secondary use as a threshold. Remains have been produced by the same workshop or artist.
of mortar with small pebbles on the back indicate that Although the decoration of the pediment is diferent (a
6 Cumont & Cumont 1906, 132.
7 Nerik database, photo no. 000020938. 29
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 12. Foundation exposed in the south slope (Fig. 5.2) Fig. 13. Foundation exposed in the south slope (Fig. 5.1)
(Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen). (Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen).
pine cone resting on acanthus leaves), the proportions need not be any connection between the artist and the
11and details of the double frame and acroteria are similar stonecuter who carves the inscription F. rom the distr -i
and quite distinctive. Te inscription on this stele does bution of the four pieces and the seemingly unfnished
not mention the era, but based on the Antonine name state of the stele from Kocaoğlu, it seems most likely that
nd 8it can be dated to the 2 century. Another stele phot -o the workshop was located in Vezirköprü, but the pieces
graphed by Professor E. Olshausen in 1990 in Karkucak could also have been produced by an itinerant artist. Te
(6 km south of Vezirköprü) is decorated in the same existence of itinerant artists is widely assumed, but there
12fashion as the stele from Pompeiopolis, but the relief appears to be litle research into the phenomenon A. n
9appears to be deeper. In 1988 Olshausen photographed inscription from Havza/Termai tôn Phazemonitôn set
a well-preserved stele with a similar but apparently un- up by a Proklos from Sinope mentions at the botom the
13fnished double frame in Kocaoğlu, c. 5 km southeast name of the artist, Chresst Te wos. ord following the
of Kayabaşı, formerly Tahna, near the bridge knowan rtist’s name is not complete but based on the preserved
10as the Kurt Köprüsü (‘wolf brid Te pege’). diment leters and the parallel with the frst line mentioning the
is decorated with a rosete similar to the one found in dedicator, the word may be reconstructed as an ethnic
the Papaz Tarlası, but the panel with the inscription irs eference to his home town Sinope. Multiple scenarios
also decorated with a mirror and a comb. Tis stele was can be reconstructed from this information. Was C-hress
inscribed with the era of the city, dating it in the year 192 tos a famous artist in Sinope, who made the stele at his
of the era, i.e. 186/7, providing an approximate terminus workshop there? Did he travel to Termai specifcally to
post quem for the structure in the Papaz Tarlası. To the make the stele? Was he an itinerant artist? Te case - cer
non-epigraphist the letering seems to indicate three dif-tainly testifes to the mobility of people and/or artefacts
ferent hands, but such conclusions await the publication as Proklos himself seems to have come from Sinope to
by Olshausen. Indeed some inscriptions give evidence be healed in the springs of Termai, about 125 km away
of multiple hands on the same monument and there as the crow fies but over difcult terrain.
8 Marek 1993; Pompeiopolis 38, 147.
9 Personal communication by Professor Eckart Olshausen and Dr. Vera Sauer, for which we are very grateful. Te stele will be published in the v- ol
ume of the inscriptions of Neoklaudiopolis, which is in preparation for the series Inschrifen griechiscadhter Se atus Kleinasien.
10 See n. 6.
11 Bekker-Nielsen & Høgel 2012, 153, no. 1. Studies of the crafsmen cuting the inscriptions focus mainly on Athens, e.g. Tracy & Dow 1975.
12 Jennifer Trimble (2011, 121, 144) mentions itinerant artists but cites no references. Boon 1989, 248.
13 Anderson, Cumont & Grégoire 1910, 38 -40. We’re grateful to Søren Lund Sørensen for drawing our atention to this inscription and explaining the
epigraphical context.30
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN & TØNNES BEKKER-NIELSEN ∙ A LATE ROMAN BUILDING COMPLEX IN THE PAPAZ TARLASI, VEZIRKÖPRÜ
sive, systematic survey strategy to the feld to analyze the
distribution of fnds in order to confrm the relationship
between surface and sub-surface structures identifed by
the resistivity survey, and to reach a beter understanding
of the chronology and function of the sub-surfac-e struc
14tures and their interrelationship.
Methodology
Te feld was divided into geomorphologically
homogeneous units in a grid of 10 x 10 m squares (73 in total, as
well as sub-sized ones along the edge of the feld laid out Fig. 14. Water channel exposed in the south slope
using a total station and marked with fags at the corners (Fig. 5.3) (Photo: Kristina Winther-Jacobsen).
of each square; Fig. 5). A total collection of 10% of the
surface material was achieved by total count/collection
Many fragments of tiles and bricks, as well as some cut of all fnds in 1 m transects spaced at 9 m intervals (81 in
stone blocks bonded with mortar were found in rubbish total). Total collection included anything from the size
heaps on the southern edge of the feld. In 2013 a found - aof a thumbnail and bigger – smaller objects were only
tion matching the southeastern corner of the quadrangle collected if they were diagnostic or recognizable by a
on the geoelectric map had become visible in the slope. distinctive feature. Te vast majority of sherds w -ere ar
Te foundation consists of stratifed layers of feld stonechit s ectural fragments. Subsequently, the potery collected
bound by mortar tempered with small pebbles (Figs 5.2, was sorted into use-categories, counted and weighed in
12). It is at least 80 cm deep. the feld; only a diagnostic sample was collected for full
Another foundation was identifed in the slope s-outhregistration in the inventory. Te survey of the transect
west of the quadrangle, which from its location is not lines was followed up by an intensive, systematic (nine
immediately associable with the complex with the cr - u feld-walkers shoulder to shoulder) survey of the squares
ciform structure (Figs 5.1, 13). Tis foundation seems tbeo tween the transect lines. Te sample collected from
be of a diferent quality, including cut stone blocks and the squares was random, aiming at specifcally diagnostic
brick, and it appears to be at least 2.5 m wide. pieces for the inventory.
Furthermore, a water channel constructed from feld We operated with three levels of recording: 1) sherds
stones and mortar tempered with small pebbles and lined per transect line (number and weight); 2) fnds groups
with pink mortar was identifed protruding from the slope per transect line (number and weight); and 3) inventory
further to the east (Fig. 5.3): however, its location at a (individual sherds). Since the total sum is unknown, the
much lower level suggests that it is either not in situ or validity of our data rests on our ability to control and
not associated with the structures in the feld (Fig. 14).compare them. Te diferent levels of recording provide
us with diferent data sets for diferent purposes:
Recording of sherds allows us to map their
distribuTe intensive systematic survey tion across the survey area.
Based on the preliminary survey carried out in 2010 under Recording of fnds groups allows us to detect d - ifer
the auspices of the Nerik project and the analysis of the entiation in the distribution of diferent functions of fnds
data carried out in 2012, it was decided to apply an inten- across the survey area.
14 Te survey was carried out under permit number 9494953-7161.02-174996, issued on September 9, 2013, by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture,
General Directorate of Cultural Heritage and Museums of the Turkish Republic. Te representative of the Turkish government was Mustafa
Kolağasıoğlu from the Directorate of Samsun Museum. We are grateful to the director and staf of the Museum and to the local authorities of
Vezirköprü for their cooperation. 31
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.PROCEEDINGS OF THE DANISH INSTITUTE A T A THENS ∙ VOLUME VIII
Fig. 15. Tiles collected fom WEmW13:09-1000/080-090. Fig. 16. Tile collected fom WEmW13:060/090.
Recording individual fnds allows us to study di-fer back in the feld from which they came. Te results of the
entiation in temporal paterns and provenance. three levels of registration were recorded into an Access
Te initial sorting of the fnds into use groups was database.
done in the feld by the feld-walkers, but checked by the
ceramics expert before recording. Te defnitions of the
Te fndsuse categories were established based on the results of
the analysis of the potery from the preliminary survey in Based on their visual similarity with the fabrics of Iron
2010, when a random sample was collected. Te use-cat- Age ceramics from Nerik/Oymaağaç, the vast majority
egories were: architectural fragments, tableware, kitchen of ceramics collected appear to be of regional production
ware, cooking ware, transport amphorae and ‘other’. Te for which no comparand ha ave been published. Te only
individual fnds were categorized based on shape, fabric, contexts in the Nerik excavations dated to the Roman or
decoration, fring technology, style and size. Two of the Early Byzantine period are the graves, which included
15groups – cooking wares and transport amphorae – were no potery. Te nearest published site to Vezirköprü is
rarely recognized as such in the feld, where they were Taşköprü (ancient Pompeiopolis), where the ceramics are
categorized as kitchen ware. Consequently, the quantifed currently undergoing analysis and only preliminary stud -
distribution maps which are based on the statistically ies of the tablewares and selected coarse wares have been
16valid, systematic, total collection in the transect lines only published. KWJ was kindly allowed to study some of the
17include the categories architectural fragments, tablewareP, ompeiopolis material for referenc Ce.onsequently, the
kitchen ware (including cooking wares and transport am- chronology for the Papaz Tarlası is based almost
excluphorae) and other. sively on the tableware and coins, as well as parallels with
In accordance with the guidelines set out by the T - urkthe Pompeiopolis material and general typo-morpho-lo
ish authorities, all inventoried fnds of the inventory werge y and technology. Te tableware is almost exclusively
photographed, drawn and described, then re-deposited Pontic Red Slip ware, a type of potery studied by Dr. K.
15 Personal communication by Dr. Pavol Hnila, who is studying the Nerik tile graves, for which we are very grateful.
16 Domżalski 2011; Zhuravlev 2011.
17 KWJ is very grateful to the director of the Pompeiopolis project, Professor Lâtife Summerer and to the director of the Late Roman villa project,
Dr. Luisa Musso for allowing her to study their material and refer to it here, and to Drs M. Brizzi, K. Domżalski, and M. Gwiazda for sharing their
thoughts on the mater.32
CONTENTS
This page is protected by copyright and may not be redistributed.KRISTINA WINTHER-JACOBSEN & TØNNES BEKKER-NIELSEN ∙ A LATE ROMAN BUILDING COMPLEX IN THE PAPAZ TARLASI, VEZIRKÖPRÜ
Fig. 17. Ceramics collected fom Fig. 18. Ceramics collected fom
WEmW13:090-100/060-070. WEmW13:120-130/030-040.
18Domżalski. Te 2002 article by Arsen’eva and Domżalski other types of cover tiles were identifed suggests the as - so
is the most detailed publication to date, but this materical iation with the pan tiles. None of the fragments preserve
includes litle of the Pontic Red Slip form 7, which is the the complete profle, but they were probably V-shaped
19most common Pontic Red Slip form found in the Paparaz ther than U-shaped. All the diferent types of tiles are
Tarlası. 504 ceramics sherds were inventoried, including smoothed on the upper side and rough on the underside
the material collected in 2010: 37 architectural fragments, from being made in a mould. Te fat part of the pan tiles
40 cooking ware fragments, 313 kitchen ware fragments, ranges in thickness from 1.6 to 2.3 cm. Te cover tiles range
110 tableware fragments, four transport amphora f- rafgrom 1.4 to 1.8 cm in thickness, and the two possible ridge
ments and one lamp nozzle. Te inventory is not propor - tiles are both 2.7 cm thick (Pl. 1 nos. 11-10 20/060 -070.5 and
tionally representative, but selected for its chronological 150-160/090 -100.1). Unlike the tiles from the Nerik tile
20signifcance and morphological range. graves, the outer edges are smoothed S. ome of the tiles
testify to a more mechanical production with sharper lines
(Fig. 15 above lef), while others appear more “handmade”,
Architectural fagments with curved and smoothed transitions (Figs 15 below right,
Te vast majority of ceramics collected belonged in 16 and 17 right). One sub-type of tile has raised edges with
the architectural category: fat square foor tiles/bricks a smoothed surface running straight to the edge (Fig. 15
and Corinthian-style pan tiles/tegulae combined with below right), another has curved corners (Fig. 17 right),
curved cover tiles/imbrices (so-called Sicilian style) (Pl. while a third type with a more mechanical appearance has
1 nos. 060/090.2, 090 -100/080 -090.1, 120-130/030 -040.2, a raised band along the short end (Figs 15 above lef and
110-120/060 -070.5). Although the curved cover tiles can 18 lef). Te lower corners are narrower to allow insertion
be difcult to distinguish from the traditional pre-modern into the next layer on the roof and the transition is angular
tiles of which many had been dumped among the rubbish (Figs 15 below lef and 16). No fragments preserve both
along the slope, their sheer number and the fact that no ends, and all styles appear in the same transect lines. In
18 We are very grateful to Dr. Domżalski for his personal comments on the Pontic Red Slip fragments from the Papaz Tarlası. For his publications on
Pontic Red Slip see Domżalski 2000; 2007; 2011 and Arsen’eva & Domżalski 2002.
19 Similar to Özyiğit 1990, fg. 5g–h.
20 Te Nerik tiles are yet unpublished, but in 2012 KWJ was allowed to study the material, for which we are very grateful. 33
CONTENTS
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