The Gender Politics of the Namibian Liberation Struggle
248 pages
English

The Gender Politics of the Namibian Liberation Struggle

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248 pages
English
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Description

Women’s contributions against apartheid under the auspices of the Namibian liberation movement SWAPO and their personal experiences in exile take center stage in this study. Male and female leadership structures in exile are analysed whilst the sexual politics in the refugee camps and the public imagery of female representation in SWAPO’s nationalism receive special attention. The party’s public pronouncements of women empowerment and gender equality are compared to the actual implementations of gender politics during and after the liberation struggle.

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Publié par
Date de parution 03 mai 2014
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9783905758504
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 19 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0062€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

The Gender Politics of the Namibian Liberation Struggle
Basel Namibia Studies Series
Basel Namibia Studies Series
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Zedekia NgaviruePOLITICALPARTIESANDINTERESTGROUPSINSOUTHWESTAFRICA(NAMIBIA) A STUDYOFAPLURALSOCIETY(1972) (1997)
Wolfgang Werner‘NOONEWILLBECOMERICH’. ECONOMYANDSOCIETYINTHEHERERORE-SERVESINNAMIBIA, 1915–1946 (1998)
Lauren Dobell6:$32æ÷66758**/()251$0,%,$ ô :$5%<27+(50($16  ND (2(',7,21
Tony EmmettPOPULARRESISTANCEANDTHEROOTSOFNATIONALISMINNAMIBIA, 1915–1966 (1999)
James Suzman‘THINGSFROMTHEBUSH’. A CONTEMPORARYHISTORYOFTHEOMAHEKEBUSH-0(1 
William Heuva0(',$$1'5(6,67$1&(32/,7,&6 7+($/7(51$7,9(35(66,11$0,%,$ ô  
Marion Wallace+($/7+ 32:(5$1'32/,7,&6,1:,1'+2(. 1$0,%,$ ô 
8/9 Lovisa T. Nampala; Vilho ShigwedhaAAWAMBOKINGDOMS, HISTORYANDCULTURALCHANGE. 3(563(&7,9(6)5201257+(511$0,%,$ 
10 Bennett KangumuCONTESTINGCAPRIVI. A HISTORYOFCOLONIALISOLATIONANDREGIONAL1$7,21$/,60,11$0,%,$ 
11 Inge Tvedten“ASLONGASTHEYDONTBURYMEHERE”. SOCIALRELATIONSOFPOVERTYINA1$0,%,$16+$17<72:1 
12 Julie J. TaylorNAMINGTHELAND. SANIDENTITYANDCOMMUNITYCONVERSATIONINNAMIBIA'S:(67&$35,9, 
13 Martha AkawaTHEGENDERPOLITICSOFTHENAMIBIANLIBERATIONSTRUGGLE 
14Lorena RizzoGENDERANDCOLONIALISM. A HISTORYOFKAOKOINNORTH-WESTERNNAMIBIA, 6ô6 
M A ARTHA KAWA Preface by Bience Gawanas
The Gender Politics of the Namibian Liberation Struggle
Basel Namibia Studies Series 13
Basler Afrika Bibliographien 2014
The publication of this book has been kindly supported by the Basel University Dissertation Fund.
© 2014 Authors and Photographers © 2014 Basler Afrika Bibliographien Namibia Resource Centre & Southern Africa Library Klosterberg 23 PO Box 2037 CH 4051 Basel Switzerland www.baslerafrika.ch
All rights reserved. (ĶRUWV ZHUH PDGH WR WUDFH WKH FRS\ULJKW KROGHUV RI WKH LOOXVWUDWLRQV DQG WKH PDS XVHG LQ WKLV publication. We apologise for any incomplete or incorrect acknowledgements.
Cover photograph: “Female People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) commanders at a SWAPO Woman’s Council rally in Lubango, Angola. 1988”. Published by SWAPO Woman’s Council: “Viva! Namibian women in the struggle”. Windhoek, 1994, p. 6. Photographer: Joseph Nekaya.
Basic Cover Design: VischerVettiger Basel $GDSWHG &RYHU 'HVLJQ 3HWUD .HUFNKRĶ Layout: Jos Thorne
ISBN 978–3–905758–26–9 ISSN 2234–9561
Contents
Prefaceby Advocate Bience GawanasAcknowledgements Introduction Researching gender politicsStructure of the bookMethodology and notes on sourcesOral sourcesPrimary sourcesSecondary sourcesThemes and debatesOral sourcesWomen and the war of liberationWomen and the militaryThe roles and status of African women in pre- and colonial societiesFemale bodies: Sites of violenceA comparative glance at the question of sexual abuse andsexuality in the situation of warCamp experiences: Inclusions and exclusionsFeminism vs. liberation/emancipation of women in African national liberation movementsThe aftermath: Women after the liberation struggle
1.
“There can be no national liberation withoutthe full participation of women”: The role and position of women in the liberation struggle The people’s warPeriodisation of the liberation struggle: The political environment1970–19781979–1979Mobilisation inside the country: Rallying women, women at rallies“Who do they think SWAPOs are?”: Provision of assistance to SWAPO“Beware of your political preferences”: Consequences“A woman’s place is in the struggle”: The role played by women in exileThe establishment of the SWAPO Women’s Council
xi xv 1 4 4 6 6 8 9 10 10 12 14
16 20 21 23
2627
29
34 35 36 37 37 41 45 48 49
2.
Mobilisation in exilePlatforms and MediaInternational conferences and networkingMeetings in the settlements10 December and 8 March“The Namibian woman”Sisterhood and SolidarityThe role of women in the settlements/campsCaring of the young onesNursingFood productionManufacturing and studyingSisters in arms: Women in the military wingSummary
Idealised struggle? Public and VisualRepresentations of WomenHeroines and Legends: (Re-)presenting the women leaders and icons of the struggleKakurukaze MungundaMeekulu Putuse AppolusDr Libertina Inaviposa AmathilaPendukeni KaulingePenny Hilite HashoongoAngela Yvone DavisInclusion and exclusion“This is what we stand for”: Public declarations by SWAPO’s male and female leadershipLiberated zonesThe politics of gendered bodies and symbolic representationsMothers of the nationThe face of repressionFloggingsKassinga MassacreRape – A strategy for repressionRauna NambingaLucia HamutenyaIda JimmyThe visual liberation of women
51 54 54 55 56 5757 60 60 60 61 61 61 64
66
67 68 69 71 72 73 74 76
76 82 84 89 92 92 94 97 98 100 100 101
3.
4.
The legacy of the warVictims, perpetrators or actors?Summary
Women and the SWAPO Refugee Camps The history of the campsArrival at a campStructures and infrastructuresA normal day in a campNormality against all oddsThreats and challengesAttacksLack of basic necessitiesAccess to positions of leadership and controlHelplessness and despairReminiscences: The good old daysComradeship“SWAPO was our mother and our father”“We left those issues here and found them when we got back to Namibia”Summary
Sexual Politics in the Camps Shifting sexuality patterns in NamibiaPolygamy and the colonial state'HķQLWLRQV RI UDSH DQG VH[XDO DEXVHCircumstances under which rape and sexual abuse were committed against womenThe trips between Namibia and the host country“Ondjolo”: Goodies for sex“No comrade says ‘no’ to another comrade”“Rape? I do not know what you are talking about”One hand washes the otherControlling female sexuality: No foreign menSome relationships were genuineThe position of SWAPO regarding rape and sexual abuseDisciplinary measures and structuresAttitudes towards polygamy in post-independent NamibiaMomeya iha mu inyenge mwaana okapukaSummary
103 106 106
107 108 110 111 113 115 117 117 117 118 119 119 120 120
121 123
124 124 127 129
131 131 132 135 137 140 141 144 145 146 149 153 153
5.
6.
Education and Training Education and training in apartheid NamibiaEducation in exilePre-school educationFormal educationSecondary educationUpper Secondary EducationThe Namibia Secondary Technical School in LoudimaVocational trainingTertiary education, scholarships and institutions of Higher LearningThe United Nations Institute for NamibiaInternational university and scholarshipsInformal education: Adult education programmes and skill developmentWomen’s programmesNutrition and childcareTailoring, weaving and knitting projectsTeaching materials and contentFeminist-oriented educationFamily planningThe relationship between education, development, employment, power sharing and equal relationsLiberation of women through educationGender equality and family relationsSummary
“All has not been won. Not everything has been lost”: Women in post-independent NamibiaFormal equalitySubstantive equality)URP D :RPHQ÷V 'HVN WR D IXOO\ĸHGJHG PLQLVWU\National policies and documentsVarious national commitmentsInternational agreementsLaw and policy reform on genderNon-governmental organizations and civil societyThe struggle continuesPower-sharing and decision-making at the political level Power-sharing and decision-making at the political level
155 155 159 160 160 161 161 161 162 162 162 163
166 166 167 167 168 169 169
171 173 175 176
177
178 178 178 179 180 180 180 182 183 183 185
Power-sharing and decision-making at the household levelEducation for allWomen and employmentWomen and the landGender-based violence“You are your own liberators”Summary
Epilogue Abbreviations List of Illustrations and Map Bibliography ArchivesLiteratureInternet sourcesInterview participantsIndex
187 187 189 190 190 191 193
195 199 201 203 203 204 217 217 219
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