Performance and Sports Nutrition
55 pages
English

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55 pages
English

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Description

Performance and Sports NutritionHandbook with nutritional factors that can influence physical performance Achieve and maintain performance through nutritionPerformance is a daily quest when you want to achieve the results of high performance sport. In addition to more or less intensive daily training, it is important to get to know the ins and outs of a correct day-to-day sports nutrition. To do this, ask yourself the right questions:Do you practice a sport and want to reach a higher level?Want to know the right drinks for optimal hydration?Do you wonder about the energy needs of the sportsman?Want to know the number of meals per day and their optimal composition to perform?Are you wondering about food supplements?Find recommendations and helpful tips in this little book.We initiated a collaboration with a senior scientist who trained athletes who successfully participated in the Olympics. Cristina Botezatu brings her experience and especially her results to this reference handbook that will allow all athletes to answer legitimate questions about an often neglected aspect of their training: nutrition.We want to share with you this useful and concrete knowledge that will answer your questions about nutrition, whether you are an endurance, power or strength, speed or explosiveness athlete.You will discover clear, organized and accessible information to serve as a basis for your specific culture and usefully supplement your follow-up by a nutritionist.What will you find in this practical handbook “Performance and Sports Nutrition”?a clear presentation of the fundamental concepts of sports nutritiongenetic predispositionshydration, nutritionenergy needsformulas to calculate different indicesclear examples of calculations for meals during the dayspecific sections by type of sport: endurance, power / strength, speed / explosivenessSo, are you in the starting blocks to reach performance?OK, here we go!Sincerely,Cristina & Olivier Rebiere

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Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 02 décembre 2018
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9781790649785
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,05€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

Performance and Sports Nutrition

Handbook with nutritional factors that can influence physical performance

- English, version 1 -



© Cristina & Olivier Rebière, Cristina Botezatu - 2018. All rights reserved.
Table of Contents

Introduction
Sports performance and its mechanisms
Indices to be considered in athletes
Genetics and sports performance
Role of hydration in sports performance
Role of nutrition in sports performance
Energy needs of the athlete
Recommended diet for endurance athletes
Recommended diet for power / strength athletes
Recommended diet for speed athletes
Effects of dietary supplements for athletes
Acknowledgments
Authors
Introduction
W We welcome you on your first guide within the new collection " SportPRO: Performance and Sports Nutrition " which we hope will help you learn to better control the factors that affect athletic performance.
This guide is made for all athletes, but especially sports enthusiasts who seek to reach performance and for those who are already elite athletes as well, who want to better understand mechanisms and effective levers they can use to increase their capacity. This book was voluntarily written in an accessible language, even if it is aimed at sport performance. Its purpose is to familiarize you with several concepts that have a big impact on your results. This is the first of a series that we want to develop and in which we will gradually discuss of increasingly sophisticated topics that will allow you to access or maintain a high level of performance.
Cristina Botezatu will share with you its research data, practical experiences and results and the methods applied in optimizing the performance of athletes who managed to climb the highest step of the Olympic podium. She has coached several athletes preparing for Olympic Games and World Championships in various sports: athletics, tennis, fencing, swimming, volleyball, handball, football, etc. Each sport has its own specificities and acts on biological, neurological and psychological specific mechanisms. We will help you know them better and learn to master them in order to fully optimize your athletic performance.


We invite you to start right away!

Depending on the capabilities of your ebook reader, you can enjoy zoom features on photos. You can also click on the hypertext links (or hyperlinks) underlined throughout the eGuide. We tried our best to make your reading experience as enjoyable as possible, despite the wide technology gaps between various reading systems.
Be sure that we will propose to you more interactive versions, as the formats and ebook readers should be standardized in the future!

Sincerely,

Cristina Botezatu, Cristina & Olivier Rebière
Attention, we update our books permanently. Whether to correct small mistakes that we all make and for which we apologize in advance, but also to add important information such as new restaurants, accommodations or places to visit for our Travel eGuides on our next visits, new recipes or plants for our eGuides Nature or to update technical data for minor changes occurring in all our useful guides. We want to warn you that many platforms DO NOT send you our updates. We tried to explain to them the usefulness of announcing at least the existence of a new version, but without success. So if you want to enjoy the latest version of our ebooks, ask the platform from which you bought them and you will benefit from this feature.
Sports performance and its mechanisms
Athletic performance is the combination of a complex training that is influenced by many factors that must be not only known, but considered and optimized during training to maximize the performance of the athlete.
The exceptional value of sports performance requires continuous improvement in all aspects of the preparation of athletes, the environmental conditions of their training, and their coaching as well. Whatever the practiced discipline and the level of performance achieved, sport performance is driven through continuous preparation at all levels without neglecting any aspect because, it needs a balanced workout that takes into account all the morphological mechanisms of the body. The expected high value of achievement, combined with the possibility of future growth, depends directly on the effort and the accuracy of the training conducted by the athlete and the seriousness of the approach towards many factors determined in sports training including psychological, biological, social aspects.
Vladimir Nikolaevič Platonov , a Russian scientist in the field said that: « Performance is the expression of maximum individual possibilities in a field at some point ».
Indeed, there are several factors to specifically define and optimize in order to achieve athletic performance.
Let's find them out within the following sections:

Endurance
E ndurance plays a very important role in most sports because it consists in the ability of an athlete to maintain an effort for a prolonged period, exceeding its limits, despite the fatigue.
Endurance requires great adaptability, involving the development of phenomena that may balance biological processes throughout the efforts to reduce energy consumption.
Increased resistance is conditioned by several factors that can influence more or less its manifestation: Maximum oxygen consumption or maximum volume of oxygen (VO 2 max), because resistance is based on glycogen energy, fatty acids and lipids decomposition in the presence of oxygen. Type of muscle fibers Quantity and quality of energy resources, enzyme activity and hormonal regulation mechanisms Cardiovascular system capacity, breathing, muscle and other body functions to support the effort Level of development of motivational qualities (perseverance, determination, bravery) Level at which the central nervous system performs the coordination of the locomotor system and vegetative functions Age and sex

During resistance training, the functional activity of the body runs a series of changes that contribute to energy production in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The spent efforts during resistance tests is primarily of aerobic origin. These efforts are characterized as low intensity, medium or submaximal and are carried out under conditions of a balance between demand of, and oxygen supply. They can be kept for a period of several minutes to several hours depending on the intensity with which they occur. Aerobic power is limited by the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to transport oxygen in the body. Improving the transport capacity of the O 2 to the muscle fiber is a priority of the resistance training process. In such cases, the long-term training in aerobic regime alternates with various intensities activities. Thus, the body recovers and can therefore increase the durability of the aerobic power.
During resistance training, a number of adaptations of the cardiovascular system are made within the body of the athlete. These adjustments are accompanied by an increase in heart volume, expansion of the heart chamber along with the growth of residual volume. The increased stroke volume occurs simultaneously with the rise of the heartbeat intensity, which promotes the emptying of the heart chamber. The improvement of microcirculation due to proliferation and use of the capillary network within skeletal muscles increases the contact ability between blood and muscle tissue, developing the ability to supply the muscle with power and oxygen.
Motivation is a key factor in resistance training because when fatigue sets in, the athlete can maintain the intensity level if it is supported by his will, which commands the nerve centers to continue - or even intensify - the effort, especially at the end of the race.
There are several types of endurance, particularly in relation to the period during which it must play its part: Short term: endurance concentrated between 45 seconds and 2 minutes ; the amount of energy required is produced primarily by the anaerobic system. Medium term: this endurance manifests from 2 to 8 minutes, when the aerobic sector gets more involved in the production of the required energy. Long term: this is the stamina to longer efforts, more than 8 minutes, and for which energy production is mainly provided by the aerobic system.
Latest discoveries in the field of physiology and biochemistry have shown that the physiological mechanism of resistance is located deep within the muscle cells. This indicates that the primary training requires specific changes at the cellular level in skeletal muscles. That phenomena cause changes in blood flow within the cardiovascular circulatory system and other systems. A specific resistance level of development is due to the use of oxygen, appropriate and balanced at all levels (absorption-use-disposal) in order to not limit the functionality of the entire system.
Strength
Strength is the ability to overcome or withstand external resistance through muscular tension. These are created by a slide mechanism of actin filaments between those made of myosin . Actin and myosin are the two proteins by which energy is produced. This mechanism is actually the result of the formation of “union bridges” between myosin heads and some actin filaments. Through a chemical reaction, energy is released thereby generating a force directly proportional to the number of actin-myosin bridges formed. On this occasion, the inner muscle chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy.
This force is proportional to the number of muscle fibers which are recruited, and it greatly depends on the workout. The more fibers that come into play and the strength will be greater. The frequency of nerve impulses also affects the level of force. During low intensity exercises, the recruitment of fibers is done haphazardly, but when the intensity increases, recruitment becomes more organized, tending to sync up and having, as a result, intramuscular coordination.
In conclusion, the level of force depends on how the motor unit (UM) is involved.
The factors that determine the manifestation of the force are: The diameter of the muscle fiber The frequency of the pulses transmitted by the motor neurons to muscles The types of muscle fibers The amount of energy in the muscles The muscle fiber contraction rate The quality and integrity of the supporting bodies The recruitment of motor units Psychological factors Age and sex, etc.
With the extended training process, an increase in muscle mass is obtained, which may be due either to the thickening of the muscle fibers either to the proliferation of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers can be either type 1 or type 2, this characteristic being given by the myofibrils .
The muscle fiber type 1, known in the specialized literature as "slow-twitch" or "red fibers" are resistant to fatigue and are characterized by a slow contraction of the rich reserves of glycogen, enzymes of aerobic metabolism, a mitochondria lot relative to the sarcoplasm, a high catabolism, a high capillary density, neuron innervation alpha engines with a relatively low speed sending continuous nerve impulses sequences, characterizing sustained motor activity (e.g. the maintenance of posture).
Two types of fast fibers called "white fiber" are not resistant to fatigue. They are characterized by a rapid contraction of rich ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and CP ( phosphocréatine ), a high concentration of enzymes required to anaerobic metabolism, a larger diameter than that of the type 1 fibers. innervation is performed by alpha motor neurons at high speed, that transmit nerve impulses staple typical of voluntary motor activities of high intensity and short duration.
Inside a muscle, there are two types of muscle fibers, but certain muscles are mostly faster and others slower, depending on the number of predominant fibers.
The amount of energy possessed by the muscle fibers depends largely on the power of the athlete. A proper diet provides a lot of energy (ATP, PC, glycogen) and enzymes in the muscle fibers, blood and liver, allowing full effort deployment.
The quality and integrity of the support bodies are represented by the development of ligaments, tendons and bones.
The maximum muscle contraction begins first as the result of the slow motor units’ contraction, ending with the contraction of the fast units. The recruitment of motor units and the frequency increasing of nerve impulses contribute to the increase in strength between 0 and 80% of the maximum possibilities. They represent the basic factors for the development of maximum strength.

There are several schemes of muscle contraction: The static or isometric diet when muscle length does not change. For example, the cladding exercises are done under the isometric contraction regime. The concentric dynamic regime: the muscle contracts by bringing its insertion points on the bones. The plyometric regime: the muscle contracts, initially eccentrically then shortens and works concentrically. This type of training helps to multiply the capacity to produce a more powerful movement within a very short period. Eccentric dynamic regime, during muscle lengthening, thanks to the insertions moving away.
As the force is considered the "foundation" of other factors influencing sports performance, it should not be neglected, regardless of the practiced sport. It requires well-defined compliance in order to be effective and not to cause any injury.
Here are the requirements: Know the level of force and the athlete’s physical capacities Choose wisely the exercises for the development of force depending on the specific sport. Accurately determine the workload Determine the intensity depending on the capabilities of the athlete Provide individualized recovery break adapted to each athlete Develop a force preparation plan
Speed
Speed is equal to the ratio between the distance and time taken to travel a given distance. In sports performance, speed is composed of three factors: the latency time of the motor reaction the speed of the unique movement the frequency of the movement
The speed of movement depends on the degree of general and specific coordination of the athlete.

Speed comes in many forms: Reaction speed Execution speed Repetition speed Movement speed Acceleration speed
Speed, with strength and power, form together a set of parameters which allow performing actions at a maximal intensity. These two factors are part of the physical qualities of a sports complemented by the flexibility, coordination or address that involve specific skills as well as each sport.
The development of speed depends on several factors: The analyzers operating state (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) in the direction of the sharpness, the fineness and accuracy of these analyzers.

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