Judging Redmond and Carson
126 pages

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126 pages

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John Redmond and Edward Carson remain two of the biggest names in modern Irish history. At the peak of their careers as senior members of the British parliament, they were locked together in combat over Home Rule. Divided by the union with Britain, they had surprisingly much in common. Contemporaries saw them together, and routinely judged them in comparative contexts. But with the partition of Ireland and independence, they have been disconnected, viewed wholly apart, and seen in political contexts scarcely imagined by people at the time. This new volume in the 'Judging' series is the first dual and comparative biography of Redmond and Carson - the first to assess them as contemporaries would have done. It uses both new approaches and much new evidence to shed fresh light on their sometimes fraught private lives, their professional and political achievements, and their stands on violence and war. The result is a strikingly original reassessment of the two men and their legacies.



Publié par
Date de parution 18 février 2018
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9781908997210
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 4 Mo

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Redmond, c . 1910.
Comparative Irish lives
First published 2018
by Prism Prism is an imprint of the Royal Irish Academy 19 Dawson Street Dublin 2 www.ria.ie
Text 2018 Alvin Jackson
ISBN 978-1-908996-93-0 (Hardback) ISBN 978-1-908997-20-3 (pdf) ISBN 978-1-908997-21-0 (epub) ISBN 978-1-908997-22-7 (mobi)
The author and publisher are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce documents, photographs and illustrations in this book, or for their assistance in sourcing images: Alamy Stock Photo; Express Syndication Ltd; Getty Images; Linenhall Library, Belfast; National Gallery of Ireland; National Library of Ireland; National Museums Northern Ireland; University of Kent; Michelle Ashmore of the Picture Library, National Museums Northern Ireland; Se n Barden at Armagh County Museum; Mary Broderick, Glenn Dunne and Berni Metcalfe at the National Library of Ireland; Gavin Carville at the Linenhall Library; John Green; Mary Green; and Dave McKeon at the library of the Royal Irish Academy.
During the production process some documents, photographs and illustrations have been retouched or tinted for aesthetic purposes. Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders of the images reproduced and to ensure the accuracy of their captions. See Photo Credits.
All rights reserved. The material in this publication is protected by copyright law. Except as may be permitted by law, no part of the material may be reproduced (including by storage in a retrieval system) or transmitted in any form or by any means; adapted; rented or lent without the written permission of the copyright owners.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Editor: Helena King Design and production: Fidelma Slattery Picture research: Alice Butler and Jeff Wilson Index: Eileen O Neill
Printed in Italy by Printer Trento
This publication has been supported by

Royal Irish Academy is a member of Publishing Ireland, the Irish book publisher s association
5 4 3 2 1
For Isabella Eve Jackson

Carson waving from a train window as he leaves Belfast for Enniskillen to open the Ulster Day Campaign, 18 September 1912.
Introduction: Dual biography
1. Private Lives
2. Land and Law (1879-1929)
3. Unity and Marginality (1890-1910)
4. The Dimensions of Home Rule (1911-1925)
5. The Great War (1914-1918)
6. Image, Memory and Commemoration
Image credits
I am grateful to Ruth Hegarty of the Royal Irish Academy, who first asked me to write a work of this kind, and who (together with Pauric Dempsey, Helena King and Fidelma Slattery) has carefully guided it towards publication. I want, too, to thank my friends and colleagues in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology at the University of Edinburgh for stimulus and support, and the Irish history community there-Enda Delaney, Owen Dudley Edwards, David Fitzpatrick (as a distinguished visiting fellow) and Niall Whelehan. I am especially indebted to David and Owen, who caused me to think again about different critical aspects of (in particular) Carson s career. Similarly, Colin Armstrong in Belfast gave freely of his erudition in helping me to understand Carson s complex relationship with Orangeism. I am indebted to my friends and former colleagues at University College Dublin, Ronan Fanning, Michael Laffan and Patrick Maume, each of whom read the book at an early stage and commented at length on its arguments. Ronan s untimely death in January 2017 has robbed Irish history of one of its most gifted and charismatic practitioners. None of these readers bears any responsibility for any demerit in the work. I must also acknowledge a great debt of gratitude to the Leverhulme Trust, through whose support the completion of this work became possible. The book is dedicated to my youngest daughter, Isabella.
Edinburgh, August 2017.
A CHRONOLOGY OF TWO LIVES 1854 9 Feb Carson born at 4 Harcourt Street, Dublin 1856 1 Sept Redmond born at Ballytrent House, Wexford 1858 17 Mar Creation of the Irish Republican Brotherhood 1868-74 Redmond at Clongowes Wood College 1871 Oct Carson enters Trinity College Dublin 1874 Oct Redmond enters Trinity (leaving in 1875) 1877 April Carson sits his bar finals 1879 21 Oct Creation of the Irish National Land League 19 Dec Carson marries Annette Kirwan 1880 Redmond employed as House of Commons clerk 17 May Parnell elected chair of the Irish Parliamentary Party 1881 31 Jan Redmond elected as MP for New Ross 7 April Introduction of Gladstone s Land Law (Ireland) Bill 1883 4 Sept Redmond marries Johanna Dalton 1884 1 Nov Foundation of the Gaelic Athletic Association 1885 24 Nov-9 Dec General election (Carson campaigns on behalf of the liberal unionist cause) 5 Dec Redmond elected for Wexford North 1886 8 April Introduction of Home Rule bill into Commons 8 June Defeat of Home Rule bill on second reading 1-17 July General election 5 July Redmond re-elected for Wexford North 23 Oct Plan of Campaign announced 1887 7 Mar Arthur Balfour appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland 19 July Criminal Law and Procedure Act; Carson appointed crown prosecutor 9 Sept Mitchelstown Massacre ; trials of O Brien and Mandeville Nov Redmond called to the Irish bar 1888 Sept Redmond in gaol for five weeks 1889 June Carson made QC (Ireland) 12 Dec Death of Johanna Redmond 24 Dec Beginning of O Shea divorce proceedings 1890 1-6 Dec Committee Room Fifteen debate-split in the Irish Party 1891 3 Feb Final break-down of agreement within the Irish Party 6 Oct Death of Parnell 6 Nov Redmond defeated for Cork City 1892 1 July Carson appointed as Solicitor General for Ireland 7 July Redmond elected for Waterford City 8 July Carson elected as Unionist MP for Trinity College Dublin 1893 2 Feb Carson s maiden speech in the House of Commons 13 Feb Introduction of the second Home Rule bill 31 July Formation of the Gaelic League 9 Sept Rejection of the Home Rule bill by the House of Lords 1895 Carson made QC (England) 3 April Wilde v Queensberry trial opens (Carson defending) 12-26 July General election 1896 Feb Carson appointed to the Irish Privy Council 1 Aug Recess Committee report published 14 Aug Land Law (Ireland) Act passed 1898 23 Jan Creation of the United Irish League 12 Aug Local Government (Ireland) Act passed 1899 Redmond marries Ada Beesley 11 Oct Outbreak of war in South Africa 1900 6 Feb Redmond leader of a reunited Irish Party May Carson appointed Solicitor General for England and knighted 29 Sept-12 Oct General election 9 Nov George Wyndham appointed Chief Secretary 1902 20 Dec Land conference 1903 25 Mar Introduction of Wyndham s land purchase bill 1905 6 MarDec Wyndham resigns as Chief Secretary Carson appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom 1906 13-27 Jan General election 14 Oct Laurence Ginnell advocates Downs Policy (cattle driving) 1907 29 Jan Augustine Birrell appointed Chief Secretary 21 May Irish Party declares against Irish Council bill 5 Sept Amalgamation of National Council and Sinn F in League as Sinn F in 1908 1 Aug Irish Universities Act passed 1909 30 Nov House of Lords rejects People s Budget 3 Dec Birrell Land Act passed 1910 15-28 Jan General election (Irish Party holds balance) 21 Feb Carson elected as chair of the Irish Unionist Parliamentary Party 26 July Archer-Shee case opens Dec General election (Irish Party holds balance) 1911 18 Aug Parliament Act on the statute book 13 Nov Bonar Law elected as Conservative leader 1912 11 April Third Home Rule bill introduced 11 June Agar-Robartes s exclusion amendment to the Home Rule bill 28 Sept Ulster Day : signing of the Solemn League and Covenant 1913 1 Jan Carson suggests nine-county exclusion amendment 31 Jan Ulster Volunteer Force formally inaugurated 6 April Death of Annette Carson 26 Aug Dublin tram strike and lock-out 24 Sept Formation of the Ulster Provisional Government 25 Nov Formation of the Irish Volunteers 1914 20 Mar Curragh mutiny 24-25 April Larne gun-running 12 May Amending measure to the Home Rule bill announced 21-4 July Buckingham Palace conference 26 July Howth gun-running (and killings at Bachelor s Walk, Dublin) 4 Aug War declared on Germany September Carson marries Ruby Frewen 18 Sept Home Rule enacted but suspended 20 Sept Redmond speaks at Woodenbridge, Wicklow 24 Sept Split in the Irish Volunteers over Redmond s call 1915 25 May Carson appointed as Attorney General; Redmond declines office 18 October Carson resigns from government 1916 24-29 April Easter Rising, Dublin May-July Lloyd George negotiations over the future government of Ireland 1 July First day of the Battle of the Somme 7 Dec Carson appointed First Lord of the Admiralty 1917 5 Feb Roscommon by-election victory for Sinn F in (Count Plunkett) 9 May Longford by-election victory for Sinn F in (Joseph McGuinness) 21 May Irish Convention scheme published 7 June Death of Major William Redmond 7 July Carson moves from the Admiralty to membership of the war cabinet 10 July East Clare by-election victory for Sinn F in ( amon de Valera) 25-26 Oct Sinn F in ard-fheis 1918 20 Jan Carson resigns from the war cabinet 6 Mar Death of John Redmond in London 9 Mar Redmond s funeral in Wexford 21 April Anti-conscription pledge 14-28 Dec General election in the United Kingdom 1919 Publication of Stephen Gwynn s John Redmond s last years 21 Jan First meeting of D il ireann; ambush at Soloheadbeg, Co. Tipperary 1920 25 Feb Government of Ireland bill introduced 1921 4 Feb Carson resigns from the Ulster Unionist leadership 21 May Carson accepts Lordship of Appeal 24 May General election, Northern Ireland 9 July Truce between crown forces and IRA 6 Dec Signing of Anglo-Irish Treaty 14 Dec Carson condemns the Anglo-Irish Treaty 1929 1 Nov Carson retires from the Court of Appeal 1932 Publication of Denis Gwynn s Life of John Redmond Publication of

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