Palmetto Profiles
207 pages
English

Palmetto Profiles , livre ebook

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207 pages
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Description

Palmetto Profiles documents the lives and accomplishments of the inductees of the South Carolina Hall of Fame during its first forty years. As Governor John C. West predicted in his dedication speech, the Hall of Fame has indeed become a "vital and integral part of the history and culture of South Carolina." Nearly ninety citizens have been inducted since Apollo 16 astronaut Colonel Charles Duke, Jr., became the first honoree in 1973. Each year one contemporary and one deceased individual is recognized by the hall for outstanding contributions to South Carolina's heritage and progress.

To date, inductees have included political leaders and reformers, artists, writers, scientists, soldiers, clergy, educators, athletes, and others. U.S. president Andrew Jackson, authors Elizabeth Coker and Pat Conroy, jazz legend Dizzy Gillespie, artists Jasper Johns and Elizabeth O'Neil Verner, Catawba King Hagler, Generals Francis Marion and Thomas Sumter, civil rights leaders Mary McLeod Bethune and Reverend Benjamin E. Mays, U.S. senators J. Strom Thurmond and Fritz Hollings, and Nobel Prize winning physicist Charles H. Townes are just some of the representative South Carolinians memorialized in the Hall of Fame for their lasting legacies in the Palmetto State and beyond.

Published on the fortieth anniversary of the opening of the South Carolina Hall of Fame and drawn from biographical entries in The South Carolina Encyclopedia, this guidebook presents concise profiles of the inductees from 1973 to 2013. Palmetto Profiles, like the Hall of Fame itself, serves as a tangible link to South Carolina's rich and complex past to the benefit of residents, visitors, and students alike. The volume also includes illustrations of all inductees and a foreword by Walter Edgar, a 2008 Hall of Fame inductee, author of South Carolina: A History, and editor of The South Carolina Encyclopedia.


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Publié par
Date de parution 30 septembre 2013
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781611172867
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 9 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,1100€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

Palmetto Profiles
South Carolina Encyclopedia Editorial Advisory Board
Michael Allen
William P. Baldwin
Barbara L. Bellows
Earl Black
Orville Vernon Burton
Dan T. Carter
David Chesnutt
Thomas Clark
Pat Conroy
William J. Cooper, Jr.
Susan L. Cutter
Chester B. DePratter
Don H. Doyle
Leland Ferguson
Elizabeth Fox-Genovese
William Freehling
Eugene Genovese
Cole Blease Graham, Jr.
Jonathan Green
Jan Nordby Gretlund
Robert Hicklin
A. V. Huff, Jr.
M. Thomas Inge
Charles Joyner
Rachel N. Klein
Charles F. Kovacik
Daniel C. Littlefield
Melton McLaurin
William Moore
Idus A. Newby
Patricia C. Nichols
Theda Perdue
Genevieve Peterkin
Robert V. Remini
Robert N. Rosen
Dale Rosengarten
Theodore Rosengarten
Lawrence S. Rowland
Louis D. Rubin, Jr.
Dori Sanders
Constance Schulz
Mark M. Smith
Stanley South
Lester D. Stephens
Allen Stokes
Rodger E. Stroup
C. James Taylor
Thomas E. Terrill
Robert Weir
Susan Millar Williams
Joel Williamson
Mary Ann Wimsatt
Palmetto Profiles
The South Carolina Encyclopedia Guide to the
SOUTH CAROLINA HALL OF FAME
Edited by W. Eric Emerson
Foreword by Walter Edgar
A Project of the Humanities Council sc

The University of South Carolina Press
Published in Cooperation with the South Carolina Hall of Fame with the Assistance of the Myrtle Beach Area Convention and Visitors Bureau
2006 The Humanities Council sc
New material 2013 The Humanities Council sc
Published by the University of South Carolina Press
Columbia, South Carolina 29208
www.sc.edu/uscpress
22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Palmetto profiles : the South Carolina encyclopedia guide to the South Carolina Hall of Fame / edited by W. Eric Emerson ; foreword by Walter Edgar.
pages cm. - (The South Carolina encyclopedia guides series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-61117-284-3 (hardbound : alk. paper) - ISBN 978-1-61117-285-0
(pbk. : alk. paper) - ISBN 978-1-61117-286-7 (ebook)
1. South Carolina-Biography. 2. South Carolina Hall of Fame-Biography.
I. Emerson, W. Eric, 1966- II. South Carolina Hall of Fame
F268.P35 2013
975.7-dc23
2013015102
Editorial Staff
E DITOR IN C HIEF
Walter Edgar
M ANAGING E DITOR
Thomas M. Downey
A SSOCIATE M ANAGING E DITOR
Aaron W. Marrs
C ONSULTING E DITOR
Thomas N. McLean
A SSOCIATE E DITORS

Robert W. Bainbridge, Clemson University (Architecture)
William S. Brockington, Jr., University of South Carolina-Aiken (Transportation)
Katherine Reynolds Chaddock, University of South Carolina (Education)
Peter A. Coclanis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Business and Industry)
Marion Edmonds, South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism (Recreation and Leisure)
Lacy Ford, University of South Carolina (Politics)
Belinda F. Gergel, Columbia, South Carolina (Ethnicity)
Cole Blease Graham, Jr., University of South Carolina (Government and Law)
Charles H. Lippy, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (Religion)
Rudy Mancke, University of South Carolina (Environment and Geography)
Amy Thompson McCandless, College of Charleston (Women)
Peter McCandless, College of Charleston (Science and Medicine)
Bernard E. Powers, Jr., College of Charleston (African Americans)
Eldred E. Prince, Jr., Coastal Carolina University (Agriculture)
Dale Volberg Reed, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (Popular Culture)
John Shelton Reed, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Popular Culture)
Martha R. Severens, Greenville County Museum of Art (Art)
William Starr, Georgia Center for the Book (Literature)
Stephen R. Wise, Parris Island Museum (Military)
R ESEARCH A SSISTANTS
Matthew Lockhart
Benjamin Peterson
Michael Reynolds
I LLUSTRATIONS C ONSULTANTS
Michael Coker, South Carolina Historical Society
Henry Fulmer, South Caroliniana Library
C ARTOGRAPHY
Theodore R. Steinke
Contents
Series Editor s Preface
Foreword
Walter Edgar
Introduction
Hall of Fame Inductees
Baruch, Bernard Mannes
Bass, Robert Duncan
Bernardin, Joseph Louis
Bethune, Mary McLeod
Bolden, Charles Frank, Jr.
Bonham, James Butler
Butler, Pierce
Byrnes, James Francis
Calhoun, John Caldwell
Callen, Maude Daniel
Chesnut, Mary Boykin Miller
Clemson, Thomas Green, IV
Coker, Elizabeth Boatwright
Coker, James Lide, Jr.
Conroy, Donald Patrick
Cunningham, Ann Pamela
Dorn, William Jennings Bryan
Drayton, William Henry
Duke, Charles Moss, Jr.
Edgar, Walter Bellingrath
Edmunds, Frances Ravenel Smythe
Edwards, James Burrows
Farrow, William Glover Bill
Finney, Ernest Adolphus, Jr.
Floyd, Carlisle Sessions
Gillespie, John Birks Dizzy
Godbold, Lucile Ellerbe
Gray, Wil Lou
Gregg, William
Hagler
Hall, William Stone
Hampton, Wade, III
Heller, John Roderick
Heyward, Thomas, Jr.
Hollings, Ernest Frederick Fritz
Horry, Peter
Howie, Thomas Dry
Huntington, Anna Vaughn Hyatt
Jackson, Andrew
Jasper, William
Johns, Jasper
Laurens, Henry
Lynch, Thomas, Jr.
Lynch, Thomas, Sr.
Marion, Francis
Marvin, Robert E.
Mays, Benjamin Elijah
McColl, Hugh Leon, Jr.
McKissick, John
McNair, Robert Evander
McNair, Ronald Erwin
Middleton, Arthur
Milliken, Roger
Mills, Robert
Moultrie, William
Oliphant, Mary Chevillette Simms
Perry, Matthew J., Jr.
Peterkin, Julia Mood
Petigru, James Louis
Pickens, Andrew
Pinckney, Charles
Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth
Pinckney, Eliza Lucas
Pinckney, Thomas
Poinsett, Joel Roberts
Richardson (Paszek), Anne Worsham
Richardson, Robert Clinton Bobby
Riley, Richard Wilson
Russell, Donald Stewart
Rutledge, Archibald
Rutledge, Edward
Rutledge, John
Simmons, Philip
Simms, William Gilmore
Sims, James Marion
Smalls, Robert
Smart, Jacob Edward
Springs, Elliot White
Sumter, Thomas
Thurmond, James Strom
Townes, Charles Hard
Travis, William Barret
Verner, Elizabeth O Neill
Walker, William
West, John Carl
Westmoreland, William Childs
Wylie, Walker Gill
Yarborough, William Caleb Cale
Young, Anne Austin
Series Editor s Preface
The South Carolina Encyclopedia was published in 2006 to be a people s encyclopedia, a comprehensive single-volume print reference for anything that anyone wanted to know about the Palmetto State s rich cultures and storied heritage, from prehistory to the present. Including nearly two thousand entries and five hundred illustrations, the encyclopedia was the result of a six-year collaboration between the Humanities Council SC , the Institute for Southern Studies at the University of South Carolina, and the University of South Carolina Press. Nearly six hundred contributors came together to write more than one million words depicting our state s representative people, places, and things. The encyclopedia is an authoritative and entertaining compilation of essays covering an array of topics ranging from war and politics to arts and recreation, from agriculture and industry to popular culture and ethnicity. As diverse as the populations that live within the thirty-one thousand square miles that make up the Palmetto State, the entries included in The South Carolina Encyclopedia were chosen to best represent the many facets of our shared experiences that remind us of who we are, where we come from, what we have in common, and why we are distinctive.
Thanks to the generosity and vision of the Humanities Council SC and the collaboration and cooperation of the University of South Carolina Press, selected portions of the multiyear project that became the widely praised and best-selling print encyclopedia are now available in a new way through this South Carolina Encyclopedia Guides Series. The guides highlight, in an easy-to-access digital format, specific topic areas from the original print version. Where appropriate, entries have been updated or added. For example, the guide to the counties has been updated to include more recent population data, and the guide to the governors has been expanded to include all individuals who have been governor-whether elected or constitutionally succeeding to the office. Where possible, illustrations have been included and, in some cases, new illustrations not part of the print edition have been added.
In March 2012 the venerable Encyclopedia Britannica announced that after 244 years, it would cease publishing its print edition and focus solely on the digital version of its content. This transition is indicative of an unquestionable trend toward the digitization of reference materials to serve better the needs of the diverse range of users who have embraced the technology that brings this content to you via a whole host of devices-a technology that continues to revolutionize the ways that sound scholarship is made available and useful for an interested public.
The South Carolina Encyclopedia Guides Series-because of its digital format and its focus on thematic segments-expands the accessibility and functionality of the content created in the print encyclopedia and invites new readers to understand better the hundreds of people, places, and things that have defined the South Carolina experience.
W ALTER E DGAR
Foreword
We can learn much about our vision and values as a society from those whom we choose to honor and chronicle. Since its inception in 1973, the South Carolina Hall of Fame has taken as its mission the commemoration of the lives of South Carolinians past and present who have made valuable contributions to our shared heritage and progress. Those well-chosen words, heritage and progress, reflect the Hall of Fame s commitment to presenting an inclusive view of South Carolina s history as experienced, shaped, and recorded by representative citizens-men and women, black, white, and native American, from the eighteenth century to the present day.
The South Carolina Hall of Fame s eighty-nine inductees to date include obvious and popular choices of statesmen, war heroes, and leaders of industry, but throughout its forty-year history the Hall of fame has also lauded the contributions of a pantheon of writers, artists, musicians, architects, scientists, religious leaders, sports heroes, human-rights advocates, educators, preservationists, and, yes, even a few humble historians. The lasting influence of these Hall of Famers is not bound by the borders of the Palmetto State. Indeed the inclusion of three astronauts makes clear that the legacy of the inductees is not even limited to the planet Earth. These men and women have collectively helped shape our modern state, nation, and world, and they would be the envy of any state, so it is our good fortune to be able to claim them as South Carolinians.
From its Grand Strand location at the Myrtle Beach Convention Center, the South Carolina Hall of Fame effectively champions historical education in partnership with commerce and tourism. While hundreds visit the Hall of Fame s physical location each year, many more can now learn about the lives of the honorees through its Web site ( www.theofficialschalloffame.com ), through documentary videos produced and aired by South Carolina ETV, and through this fortieth-anniversary guide.
Like the South Carolina Hall of Fame, the Humanities Council SC also celebrates its fortieth anniversary in 2013. It is thus all the more fitting that the majority of biographical sketches featured in this volume are adapted from the council s landmark project, The South Carolina Encyclopedia. When selecting individuals for inclusion in the encyclopedia, the editorial board and I sought out entries on those South Carolinians who had lived extraordinary lives. Given the likeminded missions of both projects, the correlation between the Hall of Fame inductees and those mentioned in The South Carolina Encyclopedia is both appropriate and well deserved. Eric Emerson, as volume editor for Palmetto Profiles, is to be commended for his masterful efforts to update existing entries and to author new biographical sketches as needed to fill in the gaps, making this a comprehensive guide to the first forty years of the Hall of Fame s inductees.
As a 2008 inductee into the South Carolina Hall of Fame and as editor of The South Carolina Encyclopedia, it is my privilege to be associated with both projects in their common mission to share with so many the stories of those committed to the heritage and progress of our Palmetto State. It is my earnest hope that this fortieth-anniversary guidebook to the Hall of Fame inspires readers to continue learning about South Carolina s history and to take responsible roles of service and leadership in shaping our future.
W ALTER E DGAR
Entrance to the South Carolina Hall of Fame, Myrtle Beach Convention Center, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Courtesy of the South Carolina Hall of Fame
Introduction
On February 14, 1973, Governor John C. West delivered the dedication speech for the newly organized South Carolina Hall of Fame. Its first member, Apollo 16 astronaut Colonel Charles Duke, Jr., was inducted in the presence of more than one thousand guests including prominent dignitaries such as West and Senator J. Strom Thurmond, both of whom would later join Duke as Hall of Fame inductees. 1 In his opening comments, West predicted that the Hall of Fame would become a vital and integral part of the history and culture of South Carolina. 2 Nearly thirty years later, the South Carolina Hall of Fame sought and received designation as the state s official hall of fame. 3 As it marks its fortieth anniversary, the South Carolina Hall of Fame can assert with confidence that it has indeed become a vital and integral part of South Carolina history, and today it continues to pursue its original mission to recognize contemporary and past citizens who have made outstanding contributions to South Carolina s heritage and progress. 4 It also has provided the seldom-mentioned benefit of creating a venue where residents of the Grand Strand and visitors can learn about the Palmetto State s rich history.
Community leaders in Myrtle Beach and the Grand Strand established a number of goals for the South Carolina Hall of Fame at the time of its founding. The goal most frequently mentioned by contemporary newspaper accounts is largely forgotten today. In 1970 the South Carolina Bicentennial Commission was urging communities throughout the state to find suitable ways to mark the nation s two hundredth birthday. The bicentennial commission was joined in this effort by the Department of Archives and History, the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, and by local commissions statewide. The creation of the South Carolina Hall of Fame represented Myrtle Beach s keystone effort to celebrate the nation s bicentennial. In 1970 the Grand Strand began an annual celebration known as George Washington Days. The first induction ceremony for the Hall of Fame coincided with that celebration, and the organization s founders viewed the Hall of Fame as an important asset in fulfilling the bicentennial objectives. 5
Though the hall of fame s stated mission was to recognize important South Carolinians, another vital benefit has been to provide the area s residents with a tangible link to the state s rich history. With its origins in land development of the early to mid twentieth century, Myrtle Beach and the Grand Strand could boast few historical attractions that illuminated the state s important eighteenth- and nineteenth-century history. Robert N. Pryor, a key figure in the effort to create a hall of fame, elucidated this dilemma in a speech to the Myrtle Beach Rotary Club on August 5, 1974. Now if Myrtle Beach elects to participate in the Bicentennial it cannot possibly compete with other South Carolina communities. It is without historic buildings to restore or preserve. It is without shrines of historical importance. Furthermore, we do not have a single Revolutionary battle or skirmish to commemorate. Pryor argued, though, that Myrtle Beach has an unusual opportunity to place this community in the forefront of the celebration by embracing the South Carolina Hall of Fame . . . and becoming a part of South Carolina s heritage today and for generations to come. 6
The earliest public record involving the South Carolina Hall of Fame is found in the organization s charter, granted ten years before the first honoree was inducted. On June 1, 1963, the South Carolina Hall of Fame, Inc., was chartered with this stated purpose: to acquire real and personal property for use in connection with its primary purpose; to enter into leases and other contracts for the purpose of promoting its general purposes; to recognize contemporary and past citizens who have made outstanding contributions to South Carolina s heritage, progress, and advancement in the fields of religion, government, education, culture, business, sports, and other endeavors. The two managers listed on that charter were Joseph S. Gasque and Henderson Guerry, Jr., both of whom resided in Myrtle Beach. 7
To charter a hall of fame in South Carolina, incorporated to recognize individuals who had contributed in general to the state s history and progress, was unheard of in the Southeast in 1963. Halls of fame in adjacent states and throughout the nation recognized the contributions of individuals famous in specific fields. During the same year that the charter was filed in South Carolina, North Carolina created a sports hall of fame. 8 Georgia had created a sports hall of fame seven years prior in 1956, 9 and Virginia would not create one until 1972. 10 Other notable halls of fame founded at the same time included the Country Music Hall of Fame, which was founded in Tennessee in 1967. 11
After the South Carolina Hall of Fame was chartered, it languished for years until Robert N. Pryor arrived in Myrtle Beach. For twenty-seven years Pryor had served as director of information for CBS in Philadelphia. There he gained recognition as the philanthropist who founded a program that provided scholarships for twenty-five hundred needy students. In 1971 he retired to Myrtle Beach, but his retirement was active and productive. He became a public relations consultant for the Chamber of Commerce, and, six years after his arrival, Pryor was honored for his work with the South Carolina Hall of Fame by being declared the recipient of the Grand Strand Citizen of the Year. The person presenting the award noted that Pryor conceived the idea of the S.C. Hall of Fame . . . he developed the idea to the point of reality and of full acceptance by the state as a bona fide museum. He brought us a very real appreciation for the history of our state. 12
Pryor s efforts culminated in the first induction ceremony, which set a standard for attendance and publicity that successive ceremonies attempted to emulate. The Myrtle Beach Sun News produced a special Hall of Fame Edition to focus on the day s events. Local, state, and national politicians, including Mayor Mark C. Garner of Myrtle Beach, Governor West, and Senator Thurmond, gave remarks. Garner referred to the event as a red letter date in the history of our city and state. West commented that, While South Carolina is a state with a glorious past, we have an even greater present and future. The Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps, part of the Third Infantry based in Fort Myers, Virginia, was present in its Revolutionary War uniforms and performed period tunes that offered attendees a preview of the nation s forthcoming bicentennial. 13
Shortly after Colonel Duke s induction, the Hall of Fame s board and the Myrtle Beach Chamber of Commerce sought a more regular means of nominating and inducting members. They turned to Charles Lee, director of the South Carolina Department of Archives and History, for assistance. In a letter dated May 30, 1973, Robert N. Pryor informed Lee of the organization s accomplishments and asked for help. We are, however, at this point in time, when we feel we are now obliged to redefine our guide lines and nominating procedures. We must do this if the South Carolina Hall of Fame is to reflect the thinking, the interest and the participation of the entire State. Pryor and the Hall of Fame sought an orderly procedure with systematic guidelines to obtain nominations . . . and a clearing house or repository that would receive them. 14 Several days later Fred Brinkman, executive vice president of the Greater Myrtle Beach Chamber of Commerce, also wrote to Lee seeking his involvement as well as advice and counsel. 15
By September 1973 the Hall of Fame, with Lee s guidance, had established an orderly process for nominating and selecting inductees. The Confederation of South Carolina Local Historical Societies became the body to select nominees, who would fit into two categories. The first would include deceased persons of historical significance or outstanding achievement. The second would include living persons who have contributed to the fame, welfare, and quality of life in South Carolina. 16 One living and once deceased person were to be elected to the Hall of Fame annually, a policy that continues to this day. At the time of its initial association with the Hall of Fame, the confederation claimed five thousand members originating from forty-five regional councils, which were divided into ten districts. Each district was tasked with submitting a nomination for one living and one deceased South Carolinian. The confederation would forward these nominations to the Hall of Fame trustees, who would choose the inductees. 17
This model for nominations was in place for just over two years when it was questioned by members of the confederation. At the January 12, 1976, meeting of the confederation s executive council, Elias Bull made the motion that no living person be included in the South Carolina Hall of Fame. The motion was seconded by the confederation s vice president, Margaret Watson, and passed. Confederation executive council members agreed to inform the Hall of Fame board of their vote regarding the matter. The confederation s vote ultimately would result in the Hall of Fame forgoing its preferred method of inductions for the next two years.
The confederation s opposition to inducting living South Carolinians presented a significant problem for the Hall of Fame. The Hall of Fame had sought the confederation s involvement to make the hall a truly state-wide effort and to establish a recognized central authority or committee to receive, screen and recommend nominations. 18 In response to the confederation s concerns, the Hall of Fame board decided to forgo inducting a living person until 1978. It also organized a committee to discuss the matter of inducting living persons into the Hall of Fame. Committee members submitted suggestions to the Hall of Fame, and it resumed inducting living South Carolinians in 1978. The confederation dropped its opposition to the practice, and a living South Carolinian continues to be inducted annually.
In keeping with the Hall of Fame s goal of becoming the Grand Strand s primary bicentennial attraction, the Myrtle Beach Convention Center, at the corner of Oak and 21st Streets, was designated Bicentennial Square for the eight years (1975-83) of the American Revolution Bicentennial. On July 3, 1976, the day before the bicentennial of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the Hall of Fame inducted South Carolina s four signers of that document and its four signers of the Constitution. 19 This marked the only time in the Hall of Fame s existence that eight members were inducted in a single ceremony. The bicentennial ceremony did not exhaust the organization s efforts to honor the state s Revolutionary generation. Ten other notable Revolutionary-era South Carolinians have been inducted, with one, Francis Marion, being inducted in 1975, before the mass induction of the South Carolina signers. 20
It is noteworthy that the 40th anniversary of the Hall of Fame and the 150th anniversary of the American Civil War coincide, as the Hall of Fame has inducted few South Carolinians who played a significant role in America s bloodiest conflict. The first Civil War-era inductee, Wade Hampton III, joined the Hall of Fame in 1980, although Hampton is equally notable for his political career after the war. Jurist and Unionist James Louis Petigru was inducted in 1987, and agriculturalist Thomas Green Clemson was inducted in 1988. The addition of two significant Civil War-era authors occurred in the 1990s with the induction of William Gilmore Simms (1992) and Mary Boykin Chesnut (1999). Manufacturer William Gregg was inducted in 1995. The most recent inductees from that era were Robert Smalls (2010) and William Walker (2011), which leaves the period widely represented, but lacking in depth. 21
Though inductees have represented a variety of professions, the Hall of Fame has inducted numerous living politicians from the mid to late twentieth century. The list includes governors (three of whom later served as senators) including J. Strom Thurmond (1982), Donald Stuart Russell (1987), James B. Edwards (1997), John C. West (2002), Robert E. McNair (2004), Ernest F. Hollings (2006), and Richard Wilson Riley (2010). 22 The induction of J. Strom Thurmond drew a crowd that rivaled the first induction ceremony in both the number of people in attendance and in the high profile of its guests. Vice President George H. W. Bush gave the induction speech for Thurmond. 23
With one exception, every induction ceremony since 1973 has occurred at the Myrtle Beach Convention Center. In 2001, when Roger Milliken and James Butler Bonham were inducted, the Myrtle Beach Convention Center was undergoing extensive renovations. The induction ceremony was held on September 10, 2001, at Wofford College, near the headquarters of Milliken and Company, the textile corporation Milliken led at the time of his induction. 24
Today the Hall of Fame promotes its statewide effort to commemorate the accomplishments of South Carolina s foremost citizens. In addition to the publicity provided by this volume, the Hall of Fame has collaborated with South Carolina Educational Television (SCETV) to create brief video vignettes of inductees. These videos have appeared on SCETV and are found in webcasts on the SCETV website, as well as on social media sites. 25
Despite these efforts, the Hall of Fame still struggles to promote its mission. Its location in Myrtle Beach, which is geographically distant from most of the state s other population centers (especially Greenville and Spartanburg), limits visitation to those who live or vacation nearby. Annually a large number of public school students from Horry County attend the induction ceremony and visit the Hall of Fame, where they learn about South Carolina s past. Some return to the Hall of Fame with their families. Horry County politicians regularly attend the induction ceremony, which enhances the Hall of Fame s profile with those who make budget decisions regarding the organization.
The South Carolina Hall of Fame has been housed in the Myrtle Beach Convention Center since its founding, so the support of local benefactors has played a vital role in the organization s operations. The Hall of Fame has received funding from the City of Myrtle Beach, the Myrtle Beach Area Chamber of Commerce, and, at times, the State of South Carolina. For forty years the Myrtle Beach Area Chamber of Commerce has provided administrative, planning, and public-relations support for the Hall of Fame. It also has funded the Hall of Fame s annual induction ceremony.
In recent years the organizations that have historically provided support for the Hall of Fame have faced serious challenges. Although still performing a vital role as the nominating body for the Hall of Fame, the Confederation of South Carolina Local Historical Societies has diminished in size as the number and membership of its constituent organizations has declined. The South Carolina Department of Archives and History, which has played a key advisory role for both the confederation and the Hall of Fame, has endured significant budget cuts over the past two decades. These cuts have reduced the agency s staff and forced it to limit time spent assisting the confederation and the Hall of Fame with the nomination process. 26
Despite recent challenges, the South Carolina Hall of Fame remains a vital and integral part of the history and culture of South Carolina four decades after its founding. It is a much-visited destination for South Carolinians and others interested in those who have shaped the state s past. Myrtle Beach and the Grand Strand benefit significantly from the Hall of Fame s presence, and the annual induction ceremony generates positive publicity and attention, which complement the recreational tourism that drives the area s economy. The South Carolina Hall of Fame will remain an important resource as long as it continues to seek out those South Carolinians who have contributed substantially to the betterment of the Palmetto State. With due concern for its past and informed regard for the state s present and future, the South Carolina Hall of Fame is positioned to serve that purpose for many years to come.
Notes
1 . Col. Duke Inducted Into Hall of Fame, Sun News, February 15, 1973; South Carolina Hall of Fame File, 1973-1977, Series S108049, South Carolina Department of Archives and History (hereafter SCDAH), Columbia, S.C.
2 . Col. Duke Inducted Into Hall of Fame, Sun News, February 15, 1973.
3 . On September 21, 2001, Governor Jim Hodges signed into law a bill, sponsored by Representative C. Alec Harvin of Clarendon, which designated the South Carolina Hall of Fame as the state s official hall of fame History, South Carolina Hall of Fame, accessed June 18, 2012. http://theofficialschalloffame.com/history.html .
4 . Names Selected for Hall of Fame, Sun News, November 1, 1973.
5 . Hall of Fame Helps Plans for Birthday, Sun News, February 15, 1973; Fred P. Brinkman to Charles E. Lee, June 6, 1973, Hall of Fame File 1973-77, Series S108049, SCDAH.
6 . Address by Robert N. Pryor to Myrtle Beach Rotary Club, August 5, 1974, S.C. Hall of Fame General Information and Correspondence, Prior to 1976-Retired, Series 108049, SCDAH.
7 . Gasque was presumably related to Bill Gasque, president of the Myrtle Beach Chamber of Commerce at the time of the charter. Guerry was an electrical engineer serving with the South Carolina Public Service Authority and the local Jaycee chairman in Myrtle Beach. Secretary of State Corporate Charter Division, Eleemosynary Corporation File 6382, South Carolina Hall of Fame, Inc., SCDAH; Col. Duke Inducted Into Hall of Fame, Sun News, February 15, 1973.
8 . About Us: Our Mission, North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame, accessed June 18, 2012, http://www.ncshof.org/about-the-hall/ .
9 . GSHF General Info: Georgia Sports Hall of Fame Fact Sheet, Georgia Sports Hall of Fame, accessed June 18, 2012, http://www.gshf.org/pdf_files/press_room/2012%20inductees%20list/GeneralInfo.pdf .
10 . Virginia Sports Hall of Fame and Museum, Virginia Sports Hall of Fame and Museum, accessed June 18, 2012, http://vshfm.com/about/about.php .
11 . Our Mission: Introduction to the Museum, Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, accessed June 18, 2012, http://countrymusichalloffame.org/mission/ .
12 . Pryor Retires for Award, Sun News, April 22, 1977, p. 1-A. To honor his work with the Hall of Fame, the confederation created a Robert N. Pryor Volunteer Service Award.
13 . Col. Duke Inducted Into Hall of Fame, Sun News, February 15, 1973.
14 . Robert N. Pryor to Charles E. Lee, May, 30, 1973, South Carolina Hall of Fame File 1973-77, Series 108049, South Carolina Hall of Fame File, 1973-77, SCDAH.
15 . Fred P. Brinkman to Charles E. Lee, June 6, 1973, South Carolina Hall of Fame File 1973-77, Series 108049, SCDAH.
16 . Names Selected for Hall of Fame, Sun News, November 1, 1973; Press Release South Carolina Hall of Fame, October 27, 1973, Series 108049, South Carolina Hall of Fame File, 1973-77, SCDAH.
17 . Ibid.
18 . Robert N. Pryor to Charles E. Lee, May 30, 1973, South Carolina Hall of Fame File 1973-77, SCDAH.
19 . Past Replayed Here, Sun News, July 5, 1976; South Carolina Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony Material 1976, Series S108049, SCDAH.
20 . Francis Marion, South Carolina Hall of Fame Files, SCDAH.
21 . Wade Hampton III, James Louis Petigru, William Gilmore Simms, Mary Boykin Chesnut, Robert Smalls, South Carolina Hall of Fame Files, SCDAH.
22 . J. Strom Thurmond, Donald Stuart Russell, James B. Edwards, John C. West, Robert E. McNair, Ernest F. Hollings, Richard Wilson Riley, South Carolina Hall of Fame Files, SCDAH.
23 . Ibid., J. Strom Thurmond, South Carolina Hall of Fame Files, SCDAH; telephone interview with Bob Hirsch, May 24, 2012.
24 . Roger Milliken, James Butler Bonham, South Carolina Hall of Fame Files, SCDAH.
25 . South Carolina Hall of Fame, SCETV, accessed June 18, 2012.
26 . There are no accurate figures regarding the total number of confederation members in 2012, though a conservative estimate would place the number at less than half of the total figure in 1973. Until 2009 the Department of Archives and History committed three personnel to assist the confederation and the Hall of Fame. As of 2012 one staff member was attending the meetings of both organizations.
Baruch, Bernard Mannes (1870-1965). Inducted 1990. Speculator, financier, presidential adviser. Baruch was born in Camden on August 19, 1870, the second son of Dr. Simon Baruch and Isabella Wolfe. Both his parents were Jews, and Baruch s father had immigrated to the United States from Poland in 1855. The Civil War and Reconstruction left Baruch sensitive both to the physical destruction and political chaos of warfare and to the limited opportunities of the New South. The state loomed large in Baruch s identity, however, shaping his politics and outlook and leading him to comment in later years that he was a South Carolinian at heart.

Bernard Mannes Baruch. Courtesy of the South Carolina Hall of Fame. Portrait photographed by Keith Jacobs
Seeking greater research opportunities for himself and a better education system for his sons, Simon Baruch relocated his family in 1881 to New York City. There, in autumn 1884, Bernard Baruch entered City College, where he excelled in languages and political economy. Although he entertained the notion of enrolling at West Point, a childhood injury had left him deaf in his left ear and ultimately ruled out a military career. Baruch graduated fifteenth in his class at City College in June 1889.
Baruch began an illustrious career on Wall Street in 1891 as a clerk for the broker Arthur Housman. An astute observer of the market, Baruch made a name for himself with his encyclopedic knowledge of a vast array of topics from railway routes to business law. By 1895 he had become a junior partner with A. A. Housman and Company. After shrewd trading in sugar stocks during the spring and summer of 1897, Baruch had made enough money to purchase a seat on the New York Stock Exchange, and to marry Annie Griffen on October 20, 1897. The marriage produced three children by 1905. Business was fruitful too. Establishing his own brokerage in 1903, Baruch possessed a trading acumen that earned him a fortune, a reputation for risky but successful speculating, and a nickname: The Lone Wolf of Wall Street. In 1905 he purchased Hobcaw Barony, a 17,000-acre plantation near Georgetown, South Carolina. In the ensuing years, Hobcaw would play host to prominent political, business, and literary figures, including Winston Churchill, George C. Marshall, and Franklin Roosevelt.
Baruch entered public life in 1916. His interest in preparing America for entry into World War I led President Woodrow Wilson to appoint Baruch to the Business Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense. Other appointments followed before Baruch joined the War Industries Board (WIB) at its formation on August 1, 1917. A close adviser to Wilson on mobilization, Baruch urged greater centralization, gradually accepting that a successful war effort might demand federal intervention in private industry. When mobilization faltered during the winter of 1917-18, Baruch s advice was heeded. After bureaucratic reorganization, the WIB became the focus of mobilization, with Wilson appointing Baruch its chairman in March 1918.
After World War I, Baruch resigned his position but remained an influential figure in the national Democratic Party. In December 1918 Baruch joined Wilson s peace delegation in Paris as an economic adviser, stridently supporting Wilsonian principled internationalism at home and abroad. With the decline of Wilson as the head of the Democratic Party, Baruch s star also faded. Riven with infighting during the 1920s, the party required Baruch s money more than his wisdom, although the stockbroker occasionally acted as power broker for favored political hopefuls.
Nevertheless, Baruch became an elder statesman of the party. Although he had advised Republican presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, Democrats still knew the value of his support. Franklin Roosevelt relied on him for advice on policy during the Depression-despite Baruch s occasional criticism of the New Deal-and turned to him to help guide both economic mobilization and demobilization for World War II. Baruch hoped to participate in framing the postwar international order. Although President Harry Truman appointed Baruch in 1946 to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, the new president had few attachments to the Wall Street financier, and a rift soon developed between the two men. Baruch spent the 1950s crusading against the inflationary economy, and concerns about the growth of government led him to support Republican candidate Dwight Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election. During the 1950s and 1960s he remained an American icon but grew increasingly detached from politics.
Reflecting in 1960 on changes he had witnessed in policy making, this Wilsonian reared in the southern tradition of limited government and the Wall Street tradition of laissez-faire could observe: Today, the old kind of do-nothing government is dead. Government intervention has been made necessary by the growing complexity of society. Baruch died on June 20, 1965, in New York City. ERIC A. CHEEZUM

Baruch, Bernard M. Baruch: My Own Story. New York: Henry Holt, 1957.
---. Baruch: The Public Years. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960.
Grant, James. Bernard M. Baruch: The Adventures of a Wall Street Legend. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.
Schwarz, Jordan A. The Speculator: Bernard M. Baruch in Washington, 1917-1965. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

Bass, Robert Duncan (1904-1983). Inducted 1980. Historian, professor of English literature. Bass was born on September 25, 1904, in Scranton, South Carolina (Florence County), to Fletcher Graves Bass, a farmer, and Bertha (Matthews) Bass. He graduated from Britton s Neck High School in Marion County in 1922 and attended Columbia Presbyterian Theological Seminary from 1925 to 1927. He received a total of three degrees from the University of South Carolina at Columbia: a bachelor s degree (1926), a master s degree (1927), and a doctorate (1933) in English literature. On May 25, 1929, he married writer Virginia Wauchope, with whom he would have two children: Robert Wauchope and George Fletcher.
Bass began his professional career as an assistant professor of English literature at the University of South Carolina in 1927 and remained at the university until 1940. From 1934 to 1940 he also served in the United States Naval Reserve, eventually attaining the rank of commander. When the reserves were mobilized in 1940, Bass began his active duty service with the United States Navy. During World War II he was a professor of English literature at the United States Naval Academy (Annapolis, Maryland), and he continued teaching there until 1957. While at the Naval Academy, he conducted postdoctoral studies at the University of London and Cambridge University (1951-52), and Johns Hopkins University (1952).
In 1957 Bass returned to South Carolina, where he was a professor of English literature at Furman University (1957-63), Limestone College (1963-65), and Erskine College (1966-70). At Erskine he served as head of the Department of English until his retirement in 1970. His hobbies included amateur radio, and he owned and operated WCQG radio station.

Robert Duncan Bass. Courtesy of the South Carolina Hall of Fame. Portrait photographed by Keith Jacobs
Bass gained his greatest professional fame as one of the nation s leading scholars of the American Revolution in South Carolina. He authored several books on the subject, including Swamp Fox: The Life and Campaigns of General Francis Marion; Gamecock: The Life and Campaigns of General Thomas Sumter; The Green Dragoon: The Lives of Banastre Tarleton and Mary Robinson; and Ninety Six: The Struggle for the South Carolina Backcountry.
Bass received a number of accolades for his books. The American Revolution Roundtable named Swamp Fox the best book of the American Revolution in 1959. In addition Bass received a certificate of commendation from the American Association of State and Local History. The Marion Museum honored both Bass and his wife by naming the Robert and Virginia Bass Library and Research Center in their honor. Bass died on May 11, 1983, in Marion, S.C.

Bass, Robert D., 1979. South Carolina Hall of Fame Files. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, S.C.
Dr. Robert Duncan Bass. Find A Grave, Inc. Accessed June 18, 2012. http://www.finda grave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr GRid=27793067
Robert Duncan Bass, (1904-1983). Sandlapper Publishing, Inc. Accessed June 18, 2012. http://www.sandlapperpublishing.com/robert_bass.htm

Bernardin, Joseph Louis (1928-1996). Inducted 1988. Catholic cardinal. Bernardin was born in Columbia on April 2, 1928, the elder child and only son of Joseph Bernardin, a master stonecutter, and Maria Maddalena Simion. His parents had emigrated in 1927 from Ton dico, in the Italian Province of Trent. His father died when Joseph was four, and his mother worked as a seamstress to support her two children. Bernardin was educated in Columbia s Catholic and public schools. He entered a premedical program at the University of South Carolina, but then decided to study for the priesthood. He attended St. Mary s Seminary, Baltimore, and the Catholic University of America, where he earned a master s degree in education.

Joseph Louis Bernardin. Courtesy of the South Carolina Hall of Fame. Portrait photographed by Keith Jacobs
Ordained in 1952, Bernardin served at St. Joseph s Church, Charleston, and taught for two years at Bishop England High School. For twelve years he worked in the chancery of the Diocese of Charleston, eventually serving as chancellor, vicar-general, and diocesan administrator. During those years Bernardin shared parochial duties at the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, saying mass, hearing confessions, and training altar boys. He was a leader in efforts to desegregate South Carolina s Catholic schools.
Bernardin worked closely with Paul J. Hallinan, bishop of Charleston (1958-62), a scholarly, pastoral prelate who became Bernardin s mentor. After Hallinan was named Archbishop of Atlanta in 1962, he secured Bernardin s appointment as his auxiliary bishop in 1966. As a result Bernardin became the country s youngest bishop at the time. In 1968 Bernardin was elected general secretary of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops. He was appointed Archbishop of Cincinnati four years later and became Archbishop of Chicago, the country s largest diocese, in 1982. Pope John Paul II elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1983.
Bernardin was a popular bishop, renowned for administrative skill and respected for his work to benefit children, the elderly, the poor, and the sick. He became a nationally respected spokesperson for American Catholicism. Often mentioned as a possible future pope, he dismissed such speculation as unrealistic. He chaired a committee of American bishops who wrote The Challenge of Peace, a 1983 national pastoral letter questioning use of nuclear weapons. An opponent of abortion, he also opposed the death penalty and assisted suicide, and promoted active efforts to alleviate poverty. He spoke out for a consistent ethic of life, asserting that Catholic tradition calls for positive legal action to prevent the killing of the unborn and the aged and positive societal action to provide shelter for the homeless and education for the illiterate. Concern about the spread of AIDS led him to speak out for understanding and kind treatment of people with the disease.
Bernardin worked to promote mutual respect and friendship with non-Catholics and to foster dialogue between Christians and Jews. Even as he achieved international status, Bernardin remained attentive to the church and his many friends in South Carolina. His numerous honorary degrees and awards included the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1996. In 1995 Bernardin was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. He died in Chicago on November 14, 1996, and was buried in Mount Carmel Cemetery, Chicago. DAVID C. R. HEISSER

Bernardin, Joseph Louis. Selected Works of Joseph Cardinal Bernardin. Edited by Alphonse Spilly. 2 vols. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 2000.
Kennedy, Eugene. Bernardin: Life to the Full. Chicago: Bonus Books, 1997.
Unsworth, Tim. I Am Your Brother Joseph: Cardinal Bernardin of Chicago. New York: Crossroad, 1997.
White, John H. This Man Bernardin. Chicago: Loyola Press, 1996.

Bethune, Mary McLeod (1875-1955). Inducted 1983. Educator, social activist, government official. The daughter and sister of former slaves, Bethune was born the fifteenth of seventeen siblings, near Mayesville on July 10, 1875. After emancipation, her father and mother, Samuel McLeod and Patsy McIntosh, worked on plantations for wages until they managed to buy land for cotton farming and build a small cabin for their family.
Bethune gained an educational opportunity rare for black children of the time when the Trinity Presbyterian Mission School opened in 1885 about five miles from her home. She attended for three years when she was not needed in the fields, absorbing learning in both industrial and academic subjects. She also learned domestic arts from her mother, whom Bethune later credited with holding the family together and with engineering their successful transition from slavery to self-sustenance.
With a scholarship from a teacher in Colorado, Bethune continued her education at Scotia Seminary for Negro Girls (later Barber-Scotia College) in Concord, North Carolina. As a student there, she particularly honed her public speaking and singing skills. On graduation in 1894 she entered the Bible Institute for Home and Foreign Missions (later Moody Bible Institute) in Chicago with hopes of preparing for an overseas mission assignment. When she graduated a year later, however, she discovered that the Mission Board did not make overseas appointments to African Americans. Instead, she began the career as an American educator that would bring her national acclaim and provide her a platform for activism in racial equality.

Mary McLeod Bethune. Courtesy of the South Carolina Hall of Fame. Portrait photographed by Keith Jacobs
As a teacher at the Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia, Bethune found a role model and mentor in Lucy Craft Laney, the first African American female to found and manage a major secondary school. Bethune left Haines after one year to teach at Presbyterian-sponsored Kendall Institute in Sumter, where she met Albertus Bethune, a native of nearby Wedgefield, whom she married in May 1898. The couple moved to Savannah, Georgia, where Albertus had found work and where their only child, Albert, was born. By 1899 they moved to Palatka, Florida, where Bethune was urged by the Presbyterian Church to establish a mission school. In 1904, in the resort community of Daytona, she opened the Daytona Normal and Industrial School for Negro Girls.
An expert fund-raiser and eloquent speaker among the wealthy northerners who visited Daytona Beach, Bethune developed her small school into a major institution. By 1910 more than one hundred students attended the all-grades school to study academic, industrial, and religious subjects. In 1911 Bethune founded the McLeod Hospital to provide the first local medical opportunity for African Americans and to train African American healthcare professionals. Her school also ran a large farm and various social service outreach missions. The Methodist Episcopal Church affiliated with the growing school in 1923 and merged it with the Cookman Institute, a coeducational Methodist school in Jacksonville. Bethune soon added a junior college; and in 1929 the institution became Bethune-Cookman College, with Bethune serving as its president until 1942.
Bethune s widespread influence on behalf of African Americans began with her presidency of the Florida Federation of Colored Women s Clubs (1917-24). She later served as president of the Southeastern Association of Colored Women, president of the Florida State Teachers Association, president of the National Association of Colored Women, founder and president of the National Council of Negro Women, member of President Herbert Hoover s Commission on Home Building and Home Ownership, vice president of the National Urban League, and vice president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. With these local and national platforms, her influence ranged from establishing community welfare projects for African Americans to convincing U.S. Army officials to include black women at all levels in the Women s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC).
Bethune gained her greatest national renown when President Franklin Roosevelt tapped her as an adviser on New Deal programs and spokesperson to and for African Americans concerning his administration s reform policies. In 1936 he appointed her director of the Office of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration, a post she held for eight years and from which she was able to assure that thousands of black youths received a fair share of government-supported college funding, job training, and employment opportunities.
As an educator and civil rights activist, Bethune was recognized with numerous national awards and honorary academic degrees. Among the first of these was an honorary master of science degree from South Carolina State University. She also received an honorary LL.D. from Howard University and honorary doctorate degrees in humanities from Bennett College, West Virginia State College, and Rollins College. Bethune spent most of the last five years of her life in retirement at her home on the Bethune-Cookman College campus. She died of a heart attack on May 18, 1955, and was buried at Bethune-Cookman. KATHERINE REYNOLDS CHADDOCK

Fleming, Sheila Y. Bethune-Cookman College, 1904-1994: The Answered Prayer to a Dream. Virginia Beach, Va.: Donning, 1995.
Holt, Rackham. Mary McLeod Bethune: A Biography. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.
McCluskey, Audrey, and Elaine M. Smith, eds. Mary McLeod Bethune: Building a Better World; Essays and Selected Documents. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

Bolden, Charles Frank, Jr. (b. 1946). Inducted 1999. Soldier, astronaut. Bolden was born in Columbia on August 19, 1946, the son of Charles Bolden, a high school teacher and football coach, and Ethel M. Bolden, a high school librarian. He graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in 1964. He received a B.S. degree in electrical science from the United States Naval Academy (1968) and an M.S. in systems management from the University of Southern California (1977). Bolden married Alexis Jackie Walker of Columbia on June 8, 1968. They have two children.

Charles Frank Bolden, Jr. Courtesy of the South Carolina Hall of Fame. Portrait photographed by Keith Jacobs
Bolden became a naval aviator in 1970 and flew more than one hundred combat missions from 1972 to 1973 during the Vietnam War. In 1979 Bolden graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School. The following year he was selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for training, and he became an astronaut in August 1981. Bolden is a veteran of four space flights. In January 1986 he served as part of the crew of the space shuttle Columbia, which deployed the SATCOM KU satellite, and performed experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. Four years later, in April 1990, Bolden piloted the space shuttle Discovery, whose crew deployed the Hubble Space Telescope.
In March 1992 Bolden commanded the space shuttle Atlantis. Among its other accomplishments, the crew operated the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Cargo (ATLAS-1), a series of experiments that measured the physical and chemical composition of Earth s atmosphere. Following his third space mission, Bolden was selected to serve as the assistant deputy administrator of NASA at its Washington, D.C., headquarters. He returned to the space shuttle program two years later in February 1994 as commander of the first joint U.S.-Russian space shuttle mission on his second flight aboard the space shuttle Discovery. The mission carried the Space Habitation Module-2 and the Wake Shield Facility-01 and conducted joint U.S.-Russian scientific experiments. On completion of his fourth shuttle mission, Bolden had logged more than 680 hours in space.
Bolden left NASA in 1994 to return to operational duty in the U.S. Marine Corps as deputy commandant of midshipmen at the Naval Academy. He subsequently served in a variety of command positions. He served as deputy commander, U.S. Forces, Japan, from 1998 to 2000. In August 2000 he was named commanding general of the Third Marine Aircraft Wing at the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. Bolden has received military and NASA decorations, including the Distinguished Flying Cross, and holds honorary doctorates from several institutions, including the University of South Carolina and Winthrop University. MARY S. MILLER


James Butler Bonham (left). Courtesy of the South Carolina Hall of Fame. Portrait photographed by Keith Jacobs
Bonham, James Butler (1807-1836). Inducted 2001. Soldier. Bonham was born in Edgefield District on February 20, 1807, the son of James Bonham and Sophia Butler Smith. He was expelled from South Carolina College in 1827 for participating in a protest over the quality of the food served at the college boardinghouse. He then studied law and set up practice in Pendleton in 1830. During the nullification crisis of 1832 he commanded an artillery company in Charleston, but by 1834 he was practicing law in Montgomery, Alabama. When the Texas revolution broke out, Bonham went to Mobile and helped raise the Mobile Greys, volunteers for service in Texas. On December 1, 1835, he wrote to Sam Houston offering to serve without pay, land, or rations. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Texas cavalry, although he never served in an organized unit. In late December he was practicing law in Brazoria.
Bonham rode with James Bowie into San Antonio de B xar and the Alamo in early January 1836. About February 16, 1836, Bonham was sent by Lieutenant Colonel William Travis with letters requesting reinforcements. Bonham was unable to convince Colonel James W. Fannin to act, but he did return with a letter written on March 1, 1836, by Major Robert M. Three-Legged Willie Williamson promising help and urging Travis to hold out. On March 3 Bonham dashed through the Mexican lines and carried this letter into the Alamo. Williamson s promise raised the spirits of the defenders, but it was too late. On March 6 Santa Anna ordered the final attack, and Bonham, along with six other South Carolinians, died defending the Alamo. The town of Bonham, Texas, was named in his honor. JACK ALLEN MEYER

Groneman, Bill. Alamo Defenders: A Genealogy, the People and Their Words. Austin, Tex.: Eakin, 1990.
Nofi, Albert A. The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836: Heroes, Myths, and History. Conshohocken, Pa.: Combined Books, 1992.
Roberts, Randy, and James S. Olson. A Line in the Sand: The Alamo in Blood and Memory. New York: Free Press, 2001.

Butler, Pierce (1744-1822). Inducted 1976. Soldier, planter, statesman. Butler was born on July 11, 1744, in county Carlow, Ireland, the son of Henrietta Percy and Sir Richard Butler, fifth baronet of Cloughgrenan. His parents purchased a commission for Butler in the British army, and he rose through the ranks quickly. In 1766 he attained the rank of major, and in 1768 Butler s regiment (the Twenty-ninth Foot) was transferred to South Carolina. Butler gained entry into Charleston society through his marriage to Mary Middleton on January 10, 1771. When his regiment returned to England in 1773, Butler sold his commission and remained in Charleston.
While proud of his aristocratic heritage, Butler nevertheless supported the patriot cause during the Revolutionary War. Governor John Rutledge appointed Butler as the state s adjutant general in 1779, placing him in charge of organizing, training, and mobilizing the South Carolina militia. Though given the rank of brigadier, Butler preferred his previous title of major. After the fall of Charleston in May 1780, Butler joined the army of Horatio Gates in North Carolina and remained with the Continental army until the end of the war. Butler returned to South Carolina to find his family exiled, his plantations burned, and some two hundred of his slaves confiscated by the British. Despite these deprivations, he still favored leniency for the state s Loyalists and supported the return of their confiscated property.
Although Butler served in the General Assembly from 1776 to 1789, his most significant political accomplishments came at the national level. In 1787 the legislature elected Butler to both the Confederation Congress and the constitutional convention scheduled to meet later that spring in Philadelphia.

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