The South Carolina Encyclopedia Guide to the Counties of South Carolina
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The South Carolina Encyclopedia Guide to the Counties of South Carolina documents the defining aspects of the forty-six counties that make up the state, from mountains to coast. Updated to include data from the 2010 census, these entries detail the historical, economic, political, and cultural character inherent in each location, noting major population centers, enterprises, and attractions. The guide also includes an appendix of entries on the state's original parishes and districts existing prior to alignment into the current counties. An introductory overview essay outlines the history and function of county development and authority in South Carolina. The resulting volume provides a concise guide to the state at the county level, from Abbeville to York.



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Date de parution 02 novembre 2012
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EAN13 9781611171518
Langue English
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South Carolina Encyclopedia Guide to the
South Carolina Encyclopedia Editorial Advisory Board
Michael Allen
William P. Baldwin
Barbara L. Bellows
Earl Black
Orville Vernon Burton
Dan T. Carter
David Chesnutt
Thomas Clark
Pat Conroy
William J. Cooper, Jr.
Susan L. Cutter
Chester B. DePratter
Don H. Doyle
Leland Ferguson
Elizabeth Fox-Genovese
William Freehling
Eugene Genovese
Cole Blease Graham, Jr.
Jonathan Green
Jan Nordby Gretlund
Robert Hicklin
A. V. Huff, Jr.
M. Thomas Inge
Charles Joyner
Rachel N. Klein
Charles F. Kovacik
Daniel C. Littlefield
Melton McLaurin
William Moore
Idus A. Newby
Patricia C. Nichols
Theda Perdue
Genevieve Peterkin
Robert V. Remini
Robert N. Rosen
Dale Rosengarten
Theodore Rosengarten
Lawrence S. Rowland
Louis D. Rubin, Jr.
Dori Sanders
Constance Schulz
Mark M. Smith
Stanley South
Lester D. Stephens
Allen Stokes
Rodger E. Stroup
C. James Taylor
Thomas E. Terrill
Robert Weir
Susan Millar Williams
Joel Williamson
Mary Ann Wimsatt
South Carolina Encyclopedia Guide to the
Edited by Walter Edgar A Project of the Humanities Council SC
2006 The Humanities Council SC New material 2012 The Humanities Council SC
Published by the University of South Carolina Press Columbia, South Carolina 29208
21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The South Carolina Encyclopedia Guide to the Counties of South Carolina / edited by Walter Edgar.
p. cm. - (South Carolina encyclopedia guides series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-61117-151-8 (E-publication : alk. paper) 1. Counties-South Carolina-Encyclopedias. 2. South Carolina-History, Local. I. Edgar, Walter B., 1943-
F277.A15.S68 2012
Editorial Staff
E DITOR IN C HIEF Walter Edgar
M ANAGING E DITOR Thomas M. Downey
Robert W. Bainbridge, Clemson University (Architecture)
William S. Brockington, Jr., University of South Carolina-Aiken (Transportation)
Katherine Reynolds Chaddock, University of South Carolina (Education)
Peter A. Coclanis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Business and Industry)
Marion Edmonds, South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism (Recreation and Leisure)
Lacy Ford, University of South Carolina (Politics)
Belinda F. Gergel, Columbia, South Carolina (Ethnicity)
Cole Blease Graham, Jr., University of South Carolina (Government and Law)
Charles H. Lippy, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (Religion)
Rudy Mancke, University of South Carolina (Environment and Geography)
Amy Thompson McCandless, College of Charleston (Women)
Peter McCandless, College of Charleston (Science and Medicine)
Bernard E. Powers, Jr., College of Charleston (African Americans)
Eldred E. Prince, Jr., Coastal Carolina University (Agriculture)
Dale Volberg Reed, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (Popular Culture)
John Shelton Reed, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Popular Culture)
Martha R. Severens, Greenville County Museum of Art (Art)
William Starr, Georgia Center for the Book (Literature)
Stephen R. Wise, Parris Island Museum (Military)
Benjamin Peterson
Michael Reynolds
Michael Coker, South Carolina Historical Society
Henry Fulmer, South Caroliniana Library
Theodore R. Steinke
Series Editor s Preface
Counties, Districts, and Parishes
Abbeville County
Aiken County
Allendale County
Anderson County
Bamberg County
Barnwell County
Beaufort County
Berkeley County
Calhoun County
Charleston County
Cherokee County
Chester County
Chesterfield County
Clarendon County
Colleton County
Darlington County
Dillon County
Dorchester County
Edgefield County
Fairfield County
Florence County
Georgetown County
Greenville County
Greenwood County
Hampton County
Horry County
Jasper County
Kershaw County
Lancaster County
Laurens County
Lee County
Lexington County
Marion County
Marlboro County
McCormick County
Newberry County
Oconee County
Orangeburg County
Pickens County
Richland County
Saluda County
Spartanburg County
Sumter County
Union County
Williamsburg County
York County
Appendix: Parishes
All Saints Parish
Christ Church Parish
Prince Frederick s Parish
Prince George Winyah Parish
Prince William s Parish
St. Andrew s Parish
St. Bartholomew s Parish
St. David s Parish
St. George s Dorchester Parish
St. Helena s Parish
St. James Goose Creek Parish
St. James Santee Parish
St. John s Berkeley Parish
St. John s Colleton Parish
St. Luke s Parish
St. Mark s Parish
St. Matthew s Parish
St. Michael s Parish
St. Paul s Parish
St. Peter s Parish
St. Philip s Parish
St. Stephen s Parish
St. Thomas and St. Denis Parish
Series Editor s Preface

The South Carolina Encyclopedia was published in 2006 to be a people s encyclopedia, a comprehensive single-volume print reference for anything that anyone wanted to know about the Palmetto State s rich cultures and storied heritage, from prehistory to the present. Including nearly two thousand entries and five hundred illustrations, the encyclopedia was the result of a six-year collaboration between the Humanities Council SC , the Institute for Southern Studies at the University of South Carolina, and the University of South Carolina Press. Nearly six hundred contributors came together to write more than one million words depicting our state s representative people, places, and things. The encyclopedia is an authoritative and entertaining compilation of essays covering an array of topics ranging from war and politics to arts and recreation, from agriculture and industry to popular culture and ethnicity. As diverse as the populations that live within the thirty-one thousand square miles that make up the Palmetto State, the entries included in The South Carolina Encyclopedia were chosen to best represent the many facets of our shared experiences that remind us of who we are, where we come from, what we have in common, and why we are distinctive.
Thanks to the generosity and vision of the Humanities Council SC and the collaboration and cooperation of the University of South Carolina Press, selected portions of the multiyear project that became the widely praised and best-selling print encyclopedia are now available in a new way through this South Carolina Encyclopedia Guides Series. The guides highlight, in an easy-to-access digital format, specific topic areas from the original print version. Where appropriate, entries have been updated or added. For example, the guide to the counties has been updated to include more recent population data, and the guide to the governors has been expanded to include all individuals who have been governor-whether elected or constitutionally succeeding to the office. Where possible, illustrations have been included and, in some cases, new illustrations not part of the print edition have been added.
In March 2012 the venerable Encyclopedia Britannica announced that after 244 years, it would cease publishing its print edition and focus solely on the digital version of its content. This transition is indicative of an unquestionable trend toward the digitization of reference materials to serve better the needs of the diverse range of users who have embraced the technology that brings this content to you via a whole host of devices-a technology that continues to revolutionize the ways that sound scholarship is made available and useful for an interested public.
The South Carolina Encyclopedia Guides Series-because of its digital format and its focus on thematic segments-expands the accessibility and functionality of the content created in the print encyclopedia and invites new readers to understand better the hundreds of people, places, and things that have defined the South Carolina experience.
Counties, districts, and parishes . County government in South Carolina represents both the old and the new. It represents the old in the sense that county government can trace its roots to the early colonial period in South Carolina. It represents the new because amendments to the South Carolina constitution passed in 1973 and the Local Government Act of 1975 (also known as the Home Rule Act ) gave county governments limited home rule that granted authority to provide services ranging from animal control to zoning.
In 1682 the Lords Proprietors created three counties, Berkeley, Craven, and Colleton; Granville County was added later. The primary functions of these counties were administering justice, granting land, and the election of representatives. The Church Act of 1706 established the Church of England in South Carolina and also created ten parishes to carry out the church s work. These parishes obtained a civil function to join their ecclesiastical one in 1716, when parishes became election districts for the colony. Besides serving as election districts, parishes recorded vital statistics, cared for the poor and orphans, provided doctors, and operated free schools.
New parishes were added throughout the colonial period, although the development of parishes in the backcountry did not keep pace with its rising population. In 1770 there were twenty-four parishes, of which only three were in the backcountry. Demands for better government led to the creation of seven judicial districts in 1769 that incorporated all the settled area of the colony. These districts brought some legal services to the backcountry but did not supply all the benefits of the parishes.
Counties, districts, and parishes all existed in South Carolina after independence from Great Britain. Under the 1778 constitution, the parish and the district were election districts for the General Assembly. This gave the lowcountry, with its numerous small parishes, a distinct advantage. Despite having over half the white population in the state, the backcountry received less than half of the seats in the House of Representatives. Although each district or parish was allotted one senator, Charleston had two parishes, inflating its power. A survey of uniform counties within the seven judicial districts was commissioned in 1783. In 1785 the General Assembly created twenty counties and established a small claims court in each county. Nevertheless, the creation of the new counties did not change the role and duties of district courts. District justices continued to hold sessions at district courthouse towns.
By 1800 this early experiment with counties came to an end. Despite serious efforts, counties were unable to establish clearly their identity and utility as extensions of state government. Most of the counties that existed became districts that assumed judicial responsibilities for their geographic areas. Although roughly the same size, these judicial districts had overlapping jurisdictions and responsibilities. It is noteworthy that few changes were made prior to the end of the Civil War. During this period there was little consistency in the manner in which services that had previously been provided by the counties (for example, education and road construction) were delivered. The Compromise of 1808 settled the issue of apportionment. By apportioning seats based on population and tax collection, the lowcountry finally acknowledged the growing power of the upcountry.

Parishes, 1775
After the Civil War, counties in South Carolina underwent a significant transformation. In 1868 the state constitution abolished the parishes and designated judicial districts formally as counties. It also created a three-man board of commissioners in each county. These boards of commissioners had the power to collect taxes and spend revenue for a limited range of services, including roads, bridges, schools, and public buildings. Their authority to tax and spend was limited to purposes specified by the General Assembly. Because of this limited authority, this view of the responsibilities of county government became known as the county purpose doctrine. This long-standing doctrine continued until passage of the Local Government Act of 1975.
It was also during this period that Dillon s Rule became the prevailing principle on the roles and responsibilities of county government. Named for Iowa Supreme Court justice John F. Dillon, a leading authority on municipal government, Dillon s Rule held that local governments were solely the creature of state government. As such they had no authority beyond that delegated to them by the state legislature. This became the accepted view in South Carolina and served to further limit the authority of county governments to provide services. Combining the county purpose doctrine and Dillon s Rule resulted in county government being limited to those powers expressly identified by the legislature. Hence, county government had little if any discretion and their very existence relied on the goodwill of the General Assembly.

Election Districts ca. 1776
For a brief period in the late nineteenth century, counties were legislated out of existence. In 1890 the constitutional provisions relating to counties were repealed by the General Assembly. However, the constitution of 1895 re-created counties and specified their duties and powers. In general those duties and responsibilities included the authorization or provision for schools, roads, bridges, and public buildings. Counties continued to have a limited role in local governance, being primarily an extension of state government.
During this period a county s legislative delegation (the state senator and representatives) was the de facto governing authority for county government. The South Carolina General Assembly could pass legislation directed at any single county. It also annually passed the supply bill, the county s operating budget. The delegation s power was further enhanced because the General Assembly tended to defer to individual county delegations in all matters related to the counties they represented.

Election Districts ca. 1790
Changes to the state constitution in 1973 (ratified as Article VIII) and passage of the Local Government Act of 1975 changed the landscape of county government in South Carolina by expanding and clarifying its duties, responsibilities, and authority. After these changes, the powers of county government were characterized typically as limited home rule because the General Assembly still retained the substantial authority to expand or restrict the powers of county government. For example, through the Local Government Fiscal Authority Act of 1997, the General Assembly clearly defined the limits of county government s authority to generate revenue to meet local needs.
In the early twenty-first century counties could best be described as general-purpose governments having general powers and providing a range of local services, such as law enforcement, construction and maintenance of roads and bridges, water and sewer service, collection and disposal of solid waste, land-use planning, public libraries, economic development, recreation, buying and selling property, entering into contracts, eminent domain, assessment of ad valorem property taxes, and establishing uniform service charges.
The 1975 statute authorized four forms of county government. The council form vests all responsibilities for making policy and administering county government in the county council. The council has both executive and legislative power. In the council-supervisor form, a supervisor is elected at large. The supervisor is both the chairman of county council and the chief administrative officer of the county. In the council-administrator form, the council hires an administrator who is the chief administrative officer of the county and is responsible for all departments for which the council has control. The council-manager form is similar to the council-administrator form with one major exception. In the council-manager form, the auditor and the treasurer may be appointed by council rather than elected. Once appointed, they report to the county manager. As of November 2004, the bulk of South Carolina s counties had the council-administrator form (thirty-four counties), followed by the council form (six), the council-supervisor form (four), and the council-manager form (two).
Unlike municipalities, created in response to the needs of a group of residents, counties were created as creatures of the state. Their power and authority are limited to what is approved by the General Assembly. County governments still provide and support state-level services. However, their powers and responsibilities have also increased so that today in many ways they are similar to municipal governments. As the needs and expectations of the citizens continue to change, county government in South Carolina can be expected to continue to evolve. Dennis Lambries
A Handbook for South Carolina County Officials . Columbia: South Carolina Association of Counties, 1999.
Hannum, Eleanor. The Parish in South Carolina, 1706-1868. Master s thesis, University of South Carolina, 1970.
Krane, Dale, Platon N. Rigos, and Melvin B. Hill, Jr. Home Rule in America: A Fifty-State Handbook . Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.
Long, John Hamilton, Gordon DenBoer, and Kathryn Ford Thorne. Atlas of Historical County Boundaries: South Carolina . New York: Scribner s, 1997.
Stauffer, Michael E. The Formation of Counties in South Carolina . Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1994.
Tyer, Charlie B., ed. South Carolina Government: An Introduction . Columbia: Institute for Public Service and Policy Research, University of South Carolina, 2002.
Abbeville County (508 sq. miles; 2010 pop. 25,417). Abbeville County was one of the six counties created in 1785 out of Ninety Six District. Its border to the north was the pre-Revolutionary War Indian boundary line. The Savannah and Saluda Rivers marked its eastern and western borders. The boundary with Edgefield County was surveyed from the mouth of Little River to Island Ford on the Saluda. Abbeville lost much of its area to Greenwood County in 1897 and gave up further territory in 1916 to McCormick County.
Before the Revolutionary War, the most significant early settlement in this area was in the Long Canes, the name early given to the watershed of Little River and its main tributary, Long Cane Creek. Beginning in 1756, the Calhoun family and other settlers from Virginia took up land grants along these streams. In the 1760s, under the direction of Governor Thomas Boone, colonies of poor Protestants (Scots-Irish) settled the township of Boonesborough at the headwaters of Long Cane Creek.
Most settlers joined the Whig or patriot cause in the Revolution. The best-known patriot leader was Andrew Pickens, who was aided by such neighbors and friends as Andrew Hamilton and Robert Anderson. Pickens resided near the center of what later became Abbeville County, and it was through his influence and that of Andrew Hamilton, who bought his land, that the site of a courthouse for the new county was located near Pickens s blockhouse, or fortified post. Dr. John de la Howe, one of the commissioners appointed to choose the location, was given the honor of naming the county. Some surmise that he may have been born in Abbeville, France, but it is known only that he was a native of France.

Robert Mills later called Abbeville the original seat of learning in the upper country, and it quickly distinguished itself as the mother of some very famous Carolinians. The most notable of these native sons was John C. Calhoun, but there were others who won acclaim, such as Langdon Cheves, Patrick Noble, James L. Petigru, as well as adopted sons George McDuffie and Moses Waddel, whose Willington Academy drew students from throughout the South. Schools in Cokesbury and Due West also attracted students from a wide area.
The coming of cotton planting to the upcountry after the 1790s accelerated the introduction of slavery to Abbeville District and increased migration westward of small farmers. In 1790 one-fourth of the white families owned slaves. By 1850 two-thirds owned slaves and slaves comprised two-thirds of the population. Ten planters owned more than one hundred slaves, and one planter, George McDuffie, owned more than two hundred. This wealth manifested itself in the fine homes on plantations and in the town of Abbeville, which flourished in the 1850s.
Following the election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860, Abbeville held one of the earliest public meetings in support of secession, and an Abbeville native, Francis H. Wardlaw, is considered by many to have authored the Ordinance of Secession. The Civil War brought bitter losses. At least 349 men from the district died in the war. Safely removed from the battlefields, the district attracted refugees from the coast and from the West.
Emancipation destroyed much of the planters wealth. The postwar economy chiefly rested upon small farmers, largely through the expansion of tenant farming and sharecropping. In the 1850s the Greenville and Columbia Railroad ran through the eastern end of the district with a branchline from Hodges to Abbeville. In the 1880s the Savannah Valley Railroad connected the western part of the county with Augusta and Anderson. In the 1890s the Seaboard Air Line connected Abbeville and Greenwood with cities to their north and south. In 1895 the businessmen of Abbeville organized the Abbeville Cotton Mill Company and later secured the financing of northern textile magnate S. M. Milliken, which ensured its success.
In the first decade of the twentieth century, Calhoun Mills, a textile corporation under the experienced leadership of James P. Gossett and Judge W. F. Cox, from neighboring Anderson County, built a mill and village at the junction of the Savannah Valley Railroad and the Seaboard. The resulting town of Calhoun Falls soon became the second largest town in the county. The town of Due West ranked third with its male and female colleges, respectively Erskine College and Due West Female College.
During the twentieth century Abbeville County s agriculture experienced a transition from cotton to cattle, and its dependence on textiles gave way to more diversified industry and small businesses. In later years its population stabilized, with most concentrated in and around the city of Abbeville. By 1990 whites were a two-thirds majority of the county residents.
The creation of an industrial park and the aggressive pursuit of new investments resulted in the arrival of industries such as Pirelli Cable Corp., Flexible Technologies, Karistan-Bigelow, and West Point Pepperell. However, the absence of an interstate highway limited industrial expansion.
Despite a century of change, Abbeville County still managed to retain its rural character. The Long Cane District of the Sumter National Forest was established in 1936, featuring a recreation area around Parsons Mountain with a lake, trails, and camping as well as hunting and swimming. Lake Secession on Rocky River was completed in the 1940s and is owned by the city of Abbeville. Lake Russell, a Corps of Engineers hydroelectric project on the Savannah River, was completed in 1984 and is mostly in the county. The Calhoun Falls State Park is one mile north of Abbeville, just off the Savannah River Scenic Highway. With such an abundance of outdoor recreational opportunities, Abbeville County annually attracts hunters, fishermen, and nature lovers of all kinds. Lowry Ware
Ferguson, Lester W. Abbeville County: Southern Life-Styles Lost in Time . Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint Company, 1993.
Lander, Ernest McPherson. Tales of Calhoun Falls . Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint Company, 1991.
Ware, Lowry. Old Abbeville: Scenes of the Past of a Town Where Old Time Things Are Not Forgotten . Columbia, S.C.: SCMAR, 1992.
Aiken County (1,073 sq. miles; 2010 pop. 160,099). Aiken County was created in 1871 from parts of Barnwell, Edgefield, Lexington, and Orangeburg Counties. Named for William Aiken, first president of the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company, it ranks fourth in land area among South Carolina counties. Bounded on the west by the Savannah River, the county lies at the western end of the state s Sandhills region, whose poor soils necessitated the development of alternatives to farming. These nonagricultural alternatives defined much of the county s history.

European settlement began in the late 1600s with the arrival of hunters and Indian traders. Early milestones included the building of Fort Moore in 1716 and the establishment of New Windsor township in the 1730s. Edgefield and Winton (later Barnwell) Districts were established in the region in 1785. These districts later claimed the commercial boomtown of Hamburg in 1821 as well as much of the South Carolina Railroad in the 1830s. Aiken, destined to be the seat of Aiken County, was chartered in 1835 and owed its existence to the railroad. Many early residents were refugees from the heat and disease of Charleston summers, and the town gained a reputation as a healthy retreat for sufferers of respiratory ailments. A pivotal event in the area s economic history was the construction of William Gregg s cotton mill at Graniteville in the late 1840s. Other entrepreneurs followed Gregg s example, and by 1900 a string of textile factories occupied the banks of Horse Creek.
The Reconstruction era saw the formation of Aiken County in 1871. The new county quickly became infamous for racial violence and electoral corruption. The large black population of postbellum Hamburg made the town a Republican stronghold and a thorn in the side of militant white Democrats. Tensions culminated during the election campaign of 1876, in which Aiken County witnessed bloody race riots at Hamburg and Ellenton, as well as the birth of the Red Shirts, whose rough tactics thrilled whites, alarmed blacks, and ultimately defeated the Republicans and ended Reconstruction in the state.
Ironically, this volatile era also saw the arrival of wealthy northern families who found that Aiken County s mild winters and sandy soil made it an ideal winter sports resort. Led by Thomas and Louise Hitchcock of Long Island, New York, and William C. Whitney of Boston, prominent businessmen and their families pursued a vigorous leisure centered around equine sports. Many built large cottages, and members of this winter colony continued their annual visits well into the twentieth century. Their legacy lives on in Aiken s equestrian activities, including drag hunts, horse shows, polo, and the Triple Crown horse races every March.
The first half of the twentieth century brought little change to the county, with cotton mills remaining the only significant employment option for struggling rural residents. The town of North Augusta, across the river from Augusta, Georgia, emerged at the turn of the century and also catered to winter colonists with its elegant Hampton Terrace Hotel. Peaches, which William Gregg had grown fifty years earlier, became a commercial crop in the Ridge area of the northern part of the county with the advent of refrigerated railroad cars.
While county towns became known for leisure and the northern section for its peaches, the Horse Creek Valley gained notoriety for its textile mills and labor militancy. The first major strike among southern textile operatives occurred at Graniteville in 1876. Ten years later the Knights of Labor were active in the valley, and strikes erupted periodically in the first decades of the twentieth century. The inauguration of President Franklin Roosevelt in 1933 sparked a sharp increase in union membership among valley workers, and thousands went on strike that fall for higher wages and better working conditions. When violence broke out, Governor Ibra C. Blackwood called in the National Guard and federal labor officials arrived to mediate the dispute. They urged workers to return to the mills but did not order owners to rehire them. The results were job losses and evictions from company houses for many strikers.
The cold war that followed World War II brought dramatic change. Construction of a billion-dollar nuclear weapons facility, the Savannah River Plant (later Site), in Aiken and Barnwell Counties brought as many as 25,000 jobs to the region, including many science and engineering positions. The sheer number of new arrivals overwhelmed Aiken County s infrastructure, schools, and housing, while cultural differences created tensions between bombers and natives. Thus the 1950s were a time of unprecedented adjustment for the county, whose population soared from 53,137 to 81,038 during the decade. By the end of the century, Aiken County reflected the impact of the bomb plant with income, education, and nonnative population figures well above state averages. In the 1970s higher education came with the opening of the Aiken campus of the University of South Carolina as well as Aiken Technical College.
Environmental concerns and the end of the cold war in the early 1990s halted nuclear production at the Savannah River Site and reduced the workforce to about twelve thousand. However, new capital investment in the 1980s and 1990s helped offset the loss of SRS jobs. Industrial diversity maintained the county s economic vitality. Many Horse Creek textile mills closed after 1950, but the largest of them, Graniteville, underwent ownership changes and modernized its operations. Other large employers included Kimberly-Clark, Advanced Glassfibers (formerly Owens Corning), and Bridgestone-Firestone. The county s newest industry, assisted living facilities, catered to senior citizens who came from across the country to Aiken to retire. While most of the county remained rural, farming employed only a small proportion of its people. Peaches, timber, soybeans, cotton, and livestock were the main commodities. In 1998 the county had 729 farms encompassing 134,000 acres, and its crop and livestock production (not including thoroughbred horses) was valued at $59 million. Entering the twenty-first century, Aiken County s population was concentrated in Aiken and North Augusta and along the corridor linking the two. Other communities included New Ellenton and Jackson abutting the Savannah River Site, and the rural towns Wagener, Salley (home of the Chittlin Strut ), and Perry in the eastern part of the county. James O. Farmer, Jr .
Cole, Will. The Many Faces of Aiken . Norfolk, Va.: Donning, 1985.
Farmer, James O., Jr. A Collision of Cultures: Aiken, South Carolina, Meets the Nuclear Age. Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1995): 40-49.
Lawrence, Kay. Heroes, Horses, and High Society . Columbia: R. L. Bryan, 1971.
Vandervelde, Isabel. Aiken County: The Only South Carolina County Founded during Reconstruction . Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint Company, 1999.
Allendale County (408 sq. miles; 2010 pop. 10,419). Formed in 1919, Allendale is South Carolina s youngest county, yet it contains the oldest known human habitation in the state. Archaeological investigations in Allendale have found evidence of human settlement dating back more than sixteen thousand years. These prehistoric people used Allendale Chert in making stone tools.
Europeans began arriving in the area in the 1750s, settling at Matthews Bluff on the Savannah River and Jackson s Branch, a tributary of the Salkehatchie. Other families settled along the headwaters of the Coosawhatchie and its tributaries. In 1759 they organized Coosawhatchie Church, which became Beech Branch Baptist Church. Cattle herding and farming were the mainstays of the pioneer economy.

During the Revolutionary War, armies marched up and down the Savannah River and partisan fighters conducted raids. The Pipe Creek Light Horse, a patriot cavalry force consisting of men from what came to be Allendale and Hampton Counties, established a camp at Matthews Bluff. In March 1779, patriots fleeing the disastrous Battle of Brier Creek in Georgia floated on logs or swam across the Savannah River; their commander, General John Ashe, took refuge at Matthews Bluff. In April 1781, the Battle of Wiggins Hill near Burtons Ferry ignited bloody conflict among neighbors.
After the Revolution, the area became more settled, with Baptists, Lutherans, and Methodists each establishing churches in the vicinity. Great Salkehatchie Baptist Church at Ulmer was organized in 1790. St. Nicholas Lutheran Church was founded around 1800. A log building housed Swallow Savannah Methodist Church around 1816. The buildings of Smyrna Baptist Church, organized 1827, and Antioch Christian Church, organized 1833, remained standing at the start of the twenty-first century.
In the antebellum era, Allendale made up the southern third of Barnwell District. With the arrival of cotton and the cotton gin in the 1790s, landowners adopted the plantation system and slaves soon made up the majority of the population. Steamboats, pole boats, and cotton boxes plied the Savannah River during the era, and Allendale was the site of several boat landings. One steamboat line stopped at Matthews Bluff, while a competitor stopped at neighboring Cohens Bluff. Boats also stopped at Johnson s Landing and Little Hell.
During the Civil War, General William T. Sherman s army marched through Allendale County. Union troops spared the Erwinton Plantation house because it was being used as a hospital for malaria sufferers. Brigadier General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick set up headquarters for his Union cavalry at Roselawn. Confederates staged their strongest resistance against Sherman s march to Columbia at Rivers Bridge on the Salkehatchie; the resistance crumbled when Union troops crossed at Bufords Bridge and attacked the Confederates right flank. In the post-Civil War era, the area continued to rely on an agricultural economy and an African American labor force. As late as 2000, African Americans made up almost 75 percent of the population.
Allendale County was formed in 1919 from parts of Barnwell and Hampton Counties because of the inconvenience of traveling to the courthouse in Barnwell or Hampton. The first courthouse was all but destroyed by fire in May 1998. Construction on a new courthouse incorporating the exterior shell of the old began in August 2002.
In the mid-twentieth century, the local economy benefited from travelers along U.S. Highways 301 and 321. Construction of the Savannah River Site, a nuclear weapons production plant, brought more economic opportunity to the area. Robert E. McNair practiced law in Allendale from 1948 until he became governor in 1965. The Salkehatchie Regional Campus of the University of South Carolina opened in Allendale in 1965. However, the opening of Interstate 95 deflated the tourism economy, the end of the cold war led to downsizing at the Savannah River Site, and an agricultural depression drove many farmers out of business. A handful of manufacturers, however, provided some light through the economic gloom, including Scotsman, Clariant, Mohawk, Collum s Lumber, International Apparel, Fairfax Dimension, and Corbett Plywood.
Allendale County entered the twentieth-first century facing a series of economic and social challenges. The county had the lowest per-capita income and the lowest median household income in South Carolina during the final two decades of the twentieth century. More than one third of the individuals and well over one fourth of the families lived in poverty. Half of the families had a female householder with no husband present. In the 1990s, 26 percent of births in the county were to teenage mothers. The county also had the highest infant mortality rate and the lowest percentage of high school graduates in the state. In 1999 the South Carolina Board of Education authorized the state to assume management of the Allendale County schools until goals for improvement were met. Daniel McDonald Johnson
Lawton, Alexania Easterling, and Minnie Reeves Wilson. Allendale on the Savannah . Bamberg, S.C.: Bamberg Herald Printers, 1970.
Anderson County (718 sq. miles; 2010 pop. 187,126). Colonel Robert Anderson was a popular Revolutionary War veteran who served with General Andrew Pickens and who subsequently had three South Carolina places named for him. The first was a briefly prosperous river town named Andersonville, then followed Anderson District and the town of Anderson.
Due to population increases in the South Carolina upstate during the early 1800s, the General Assembly in 1826 divided the large district of Pendleton into two smaller districts: Anderson and Pickens. The town of Pendleton continued for many years as the largest town in Anderson District, larger even than the new courthouse seat. There had been disagreements over just where the new courthouse would be situated, and courts continued to be held in Pendleton for several years.
Antebellum Anderson District was dominated by small farms, which grew grains, raised livestock, and produced increasing amounts of cotton. Plantation agriculture reached Anderson District as well, but not to the degree found in the lower portions of the state. By 1830 25 percent of the district s population was slaves. Transportation improvements brought more substantial change both before and after the Civil War. The Greenville and Columbia Railroad arrived in the mid-1850s, spurring the creation of the new towns of Belton, Honea Path, and Williamston. Later in the century, the towns of Iva and Starr came into being along the line of the Savannah Valley Railroad from Augusta, Georgia.
Industrial development in Anderson County began in earnest in the decades following the Civil War, and gradually replaced agriculture as the foundation of the county economy. Several textile mills commenced operations in the 1870s, although one, the Pendleton Manufacturing Company, had started in 1838. Piedmont, which originated as Garrison Shoals on the Saluda River, opened its first mill in 1876. Downstream on the Saluda River, the first of four mills belonging to the Pelzer Manufacturing Company began in 1881. Over the next few years, cotton mills developed in Anderson, Belton, Honea Path, Iva, and Williamston.
By 1920 Anderson County had nineteen textile mills, trailing only Spartanburg and Greenville. The county also had eight cottonseed oil mills, two fertilizer factories, two machine and foundry companies, and 6,086 automobiles (only Greenville County had more). Despite the industrial boom, farm to market roads were improved as well, as there were 8,910 farms in Anderson, the most in the state and nearly 400 more than in second-place Orangeburg County. More than 80 percent of the county remained in farmland, with cotton, corn, oats, and wheat as the primary crops.

Government contracts helped the Anderson County textile industry thrive during World War II. But by the 1990s, foreign competition and decreasing demand had taken its toll on county textile mills, forcing many to cease operation. However, over the same period, diversification helped maintain a healthy manufacturing base. Owens Corning Fiberglass opened a sizable manufacturing facility south of the city of Anderson in 1950, taking advantage of natural gas and ample water supplied to produce its glass-woven products. Industrial growth in Anderson has been among the highest in the nation. Major firms at the start of the twenty-first century included four Milliken and Company plants, two Michelin Tire Corporation plants, Robert Bosch automotive components, BASF Fibers Division, Electrolux Company, several auto-parts-related firms, and a Santee Cooper electric plant. The county also contained twenty-two foreign firms from Canada, Western Europe, and Japan, which were recruited by an energetic county development board that stressed the quality of Anderson County s labor force.
The county s geography altered in the 1960s when the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers completed the Hartwell Dam and Reservoir at a cost $104 million to provide electricity, flood control, and recreation. Located on the Savannah River and its tributaries, the reservoir covers 56,000 acres and has a 960-mile shoreline. The lake brought changes. Land values soared, fine homes were built, and recreation and tourism added millions of dollars to the economy. Lake Hartwell, historic Pendleton, and the Anderson Jockey Lot and Farmers Market became major tourist attractions, thanks in large measure to the access created by the thirty-seven miles of Interstate 85 that cut through the county.
In June 2000 the National Civic League selected Anderson County as one of its ten All-American communities. Highlighted projects included the Hanna-Westside Extension Campus, a career center established in Anderson School District Five; the Alliance for a Healthy Future, an $11.5 capital campaign involving six nonprofit agencies; and the Anderson Sports and Entertainment Center, a complex of athletic fields, outdoor theater, and recreation facilities surrounding the Civic Center of Anderson. The county used the theme Making News, Making Progress. Hurley E. Badders
Anderson County Tricentennial Committee. Anderson County Honors the State of South Carolina on Her 300th Birthday: Souvenir Program . Anderson, S.C.: Anderson County Tricentennial Committee, 1970.
Badders, Hurley E. Anderson County: A Pictorial History . Norfolk, Va.: Donning, 1999.
Dickson, Frank. Journeys into the Past . Anderson, S.C.: Dickson, 1975.
Vandiver, Louise Ayer. Vandiver s History of Anderson County . Rev. ed. Anderson, S.C.: R. M. Smith, 1970.
Bamberg County (393 sq. miles; 2010 pop. 15,987). Bamberg County, located in the inner coastal plain in south-central South Carolina, was formed from the southeastern section of Barnwell County in 1897. It is named for Francis Marion Bamberg (1838-1905), the grandson of John Bamberg, who arrived in the area in 1798 and was thought to have originally come from Bavaria before stopping in Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary War period.

The Bamberg area was originally populated by the Edisto tribe of the Muskhogean Indians. German, Swiss, Scots-Irish, English, and Huguenot settlers began arriving during the mid-eighteenth century. The 136-mile South Carolina Railroad, completed in 1833, passed through the area, and a railroad water tank marked the beginning of the town of Bamberg, which would become the county seat. During the Civil War, the combatants included the Bamberg Guards, commanded by Captain Isaac S. Bamberg. The namesake for the county, Francis M. Bamberg, enlisted as a private and after the war was appointed a general on Governor Wade Hampton s staff. In February 1865 Confederate soldiers lost a skirmish to General William T. Sherman s troops at Rivers Bridge, near a site that became Rivers Bridge State Park.
The first newspaper, the Chronicle , was established in 1880. Two years later a bridge was built across the Edisto River to attract trade from Orangeburg County. The site was near a later bridge on U.S. Highway 301. By the 1890s cotton fed the region s economy, aided by such enterprises as the Bamberg Cotton Mill and later the Bamberg Cotton Oil Mill. Carlisle Fitting School, founded in 1892 at Bamberg as a branch of Wofford College, became a prep school for boys. It closed in 1977.
On January 19, 1897, voters approved the creation of Bamberg County. By year s end, a courthouse and county jail had been built at the town of Bamberg. The nearby town of Denmark was another important urban center in the new county.
During World War I twenty Bamberg County citizens were killed, while the influenza epidemic at home claimed several prominent residents. The county produced 35,000 bales of cotton in 1918, but after the boll weevil appeared in 1921, production fell to 4,000 bales. Many farmers turned to dairying and tobacco growing, although tobacco prices also fell. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, thirteen county banks closed and Bamberg was one of twenty-seven South Carolina counties with an unemployment rate of more than 30 percent. In a nationally hailed experiment in 1927 to control mosquito larvae, Howell s Old Mill was sprayed with Paris green. During World War II the county again lost twenty servicemen. A prisoner-of-war camp was located at Rhoad Park in Bamberg.
The economy recovered somewhat after the war. Many residents were employed at the nearby Savannah River atomic energy plant and at related industries. A county hospital was completed at Bamberg in 1952. The location of U.S. Highway 301 through the county, including the town of Bamberg, boosted the economy. A radio station began operations in 1957.
The 1900 census, the county s first, showed 17,296 residents. After an increase in 1920, the county s population has generally declined ever since. The population loss and federally mandated changes in legislative districting in 1974 eroded the rural county s once significant political influence. Court rulings and federal legislation shifted political power toward black voters, who outnumbered whites by a margin of just under two to one by 2000. In 1978 Rufus Grigsby and W. H. Nimmons became the first African Americans elected to Bamberg County Council. The Democrats, with a strong African American base, have maintained predominance in the county, which has never voted for a Republican presidential candidate.
Early in the twenty-first century, despite a declining agricultural economy, Bamberg County remained a heavy producer of corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, and sorghum. Non-agricultural interests were hurt by the diversion of traffic from U.S. Highway 301 to new interstate routes. The area has sought to capitalize on recreation and tourism opportunities through the South Carolina Heritage Corridor project. The county s publicized sites include Rivers Bridge State Park, Best Friend Rail Trail, the Denmark railroad depot and train museum, Broxton Bridge plantation, a hunting preserve, the author William Gilmore Simms s plantation home, and various fishing spots. The county has an airport with a three-thousand-foot runway. Located in the Denmark area are Voorhees Junior College, a predominantly black Episcopal institution, and Denmark Technical College. Major towns include Bamberg with a 2000 population of 3,733, Denmark with 3,328, and Ehrhardt with 614. Robert A. Pierce
Bamberg County Committee, Inc. Bamberg County Celebrating South Carolina s Tricentennial, 1670-1970 . [Bamberg, S.C.], 1970.
Lawrence, Margaret Spann. History of Bamberg County, South Carolina, Commemorating One Hundred Years (1897-1997) . Spartanburg, S.C.: Reprint Company, 2003.
Barnwell County (548 sq. miles; 2010 pop. 22,621). Barnwell District, now Barnwell County, was created in 1798 from the area formerly known as Winton County. Located at the southwestern edge of South Carolina, the district originally encompassed 1,440 square miles but lost most of its territory to the creation of Aiken County (1871), Bamberg County (1897), and Allendale County (1919). The district was named for John Barnwell of Beaufort in recognition of his military service to South Carolina.
For its first 150 years, the Barnwell economy had an agricultural base. Thick pine forests blanketing the district slowed the expansion of agriculture somewhat, but by 1850 only neighboring Edgefield District produced more cotton than Barnwell. Cotton wealth led to a concomitant rise in the district s slave population. Although whites comprised almost 80 percent of the Barnwell population in 1800, they had become a minority by 1850. The district s wealth of waterways, including the Savannah, Edisto, and Salkehatchie Rivers and their many tributaries, were significant sources of timber and lumber for lowcountry markets.

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