Arctic Dogs - A Complete Anthology of the Breeds -
150 pages
English

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150 pages
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Arctic Dogs - A Complete Anthology of the Dog gathers together all the best early writing on the breeds from our library of scarce, out-of-print antiquarian books and documents and reprints it in a quality, modern edition. This anthology includes chapters taken from a comprehensive range of books, many of them now rare and much sought-after works, all of them written by renowned breed experts of their day. These books are treasure troves of information about the breeds - The physical points, temperaments, and special abilities are given; celebrated dogs are discussed and pictured; and the history of each breed and pedigrees of famous champions are also provided. The contents were well illustrated with numerous photographs of leading and famous dogs of that era and these are all reproduced to the highest quality. Books used include: The Kennel Encyclopaedia by J. Sidney Turner (1908), Dogs Of The World by Arthur Craven (1931), Hutchinson's Dog Encyclopaedia by Walter Hutchinson (1935) and many others. This Volume contains information on Arctic breeds, including: The Esquimaux, the Samoyed, the Sled Dog and various others.

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Date de parution 01 décembre 2020
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EAN13 9781528762922
Langue English

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Arctic Dogs
- A Complete Anthology of the Breeds -
1850-1940
Vintage Dog Books 2010
This book is copyright and may not be reproduced or copied in any way without the express permission of the publisher in writing
ISBN No. 978-14455-2567-9 (Paperback) 978-14455-2687-4 (Hardback)
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


VDB
www.vintagedogbooks.com
Contents
Containing chapters from the following sources:
The New Book Of The Dog - A Comprehensive Natural History Of British Dogs And Their Foreign Relatives, With Chapters On Law, Breeding, Kennel Management, And Veterinary Treatment. Vol. IV. Robert Leighton. 1907
The Kennel Encyclopaedia - Vol. II. COL To KAN. J. Sidney Turner. 1908
About Our Dogs - The Breeds And Their Management. A. Croxton Smith. 1931
Dogs Of The World - The Author And Dogs - History And Origins Of Man s Best Friend - Care And General Management - Feeding - Rearing - Exhibiting - Common Diseases, Etc. Arthur Craven. 1931
Hutchinson s Dog Encyclopaedia - An Invaluable Work Of International Importance (Alphabetically Arranged For Easy Reference) On Breeds Of Dogs Of Every Country, With Full Veterinary Advice In Cases Of Accidents Or Ailments, Etc., On Their Care And Home Treatment, Contributed By The Most Eminent Authorities. Volume I - A To Fo. Walter Hutchinson. 1935
The Illustrated Book Of The Dog. Vero Shaw. 1879.
The Twentieth Century Dog (Non Sporting) - Compiled From The Contributions Of Over Five Hundred Experts. Vol. I. Herbert Compton. 1904
Breeding, Training, Management, Diseases, Etc, Of Dogs; Together With An Easy And Agreeable Method Of Instructing All Breeds Of Dogs In A Great Variety Of Amusing And Useful Performances, Including 31 Illustrations Of The Different Breeds Of Dogs. Francis Butler. 1857
House Dogs And Sporting Dogs - Their Varieties, Points, Management, Training, Breeding, Rearing And Diseases. John Meyrick. 1861
Hutchinson s Dog Encyclopaedia - An Invaluable Work Of International Importance (Alphabetically Arranged For Easy Reference) On Breeds Of Dogs Of Every Country, With Full Veterinary Advice In Cases Of Accidents Or Ailments, Etc., On Their Care And Home Treatment, Contributed By The Most Eminent Authorities. Volume I - A To Fo. Walter Hutchinson. 1935
British Dogs - Their Points, Selection, And Show Preparation - With Illustrations Of Typical Dogs. W. D. Drury. 1903
Breeding, Training, Management, Diseases, Etc, Of Dogs; Together With An Easy And Agreeable Method Of Instructing All Breeds Of Dogs In A Great Variety Of Amusing And Useful Performances, Including 31 Illustrations Of The Different Breeds Of Dogs. Francis Butler. 1857
Hunting Dogs - Describes In A Practical Manner The Training, Handling, Treatment, Breeds, Etc., Best Adapted For Night Hunting As Well As Gundogs For Daylight Sport. Oliver Hartley. 1909
The Show Dog - Being A Book Devoted To Describing The Cardinal Virtues And Objectionable Features Of All The Breeds Of Dogs From The Show Ring Standpoint, With Mode Of Treatment Of The Dog Both In Health And Sickness. H. W. Huntington. 1901
The Twentieth Century Dog (Non Sporting) - Compiled From The Contributions Of Over Five Hundred Experts. Vol. I. Herbert Compton. 1904
The Kennel Encyclopaedia - Vol. II. COL To KAN. J. Sidney Turner. 1908
Hutchinson s Dog Encyclopaedia - An Invaluable Work Of International Importance (Alphabetically Arranged For Easy Reference) On Breeds Of Dogs Of Every Country, With Full Veterinary Advice In Cases Of Accidents Or Ailments, Etc., On Their Care And Home Treatment, Contributed By The Most Eminent Authorities. Volume II - Fo To Oz. Walter Hutchinson. 1935
Dog Shows And Doggy People. C. H. Lane. 1902
The Twentieth Century Dog (Non Sporting) - Compiled From The Contributions Of Over Five Hundred Experts. Vol. I. Herbert Compton. 1904
The Kennel Encyclopaedia - Vol. III. Ken To Spa. J. Sidney Turner. 1910
Dogs And How To Know Them - With Notes As To Their Care And Management And Other Information. Including A Standard Of Excellence And A Complete List Of Books On Dogs From 1800 In The British Museum. Edward C. Ash. 1925
The Practical Dog Book - With Chapters On The Authentic History Of All Varieties Hitherto Unpublished, And A Veterinary Guide And Dosage Section, And Information On Advertising And On Exporting To All Parts Of The World. Edward C. Ash. 1930
About Our Dogs - The Breeds And Their Management. A. Croxton Smith. 1931
Dogs Of The World - The Author And Dogs - History And Origins Of Man s Best Friend - Care And General Management - Feeding - Rearing - Exhibiting - Common Diseases, Etc. Arthur Craven. 1931
Hutchinson s Dog Encyclopaedia - An Invaluable Work Of International Importance (Alphabetically Arranged For Easy Reference) On Breeds Of Dogs Of Every Country, With Full Veterinary Advice In Cases Of Accidents Or Ailments, Etc., On Their Care And Home Treatment, Contributed By The Most Eminent Authorities. Volume III - P To Z. Walter Hutchinson. 1935
The Book Of Dogs. Stanley West. 1935
SAMOYEDE DOGS HARNESSED TO ANTARCTIC SLEDGE.
THE NEAR MIDDLE DOG IS MRS. RINGER S OUSSA.
ARCTIC AND OTHER DRAUGHT DOGS.

Unmeet we should do
As the doings of wolves are ,
Raising wrongs gainst each other
As the dogs of the Norns ,
The greedy ones nourished
In waste steads of the earth.
L AY OF H AMDIR .
T HE uncivilised Polar tribes, both those who inhabited the Siberian tundras, and the Eskimos of America and Greenland, had discovered long before Arctic expeditions had begun, a safe and easy means of traversing the barren, trackless regions of the frozen North: namely the sledge drawn by dogs They were a semi-nomadic people, moving their habitations at certain seasons of the year in accordance with the varying facilities for procuring food, and the need for a convenient method of locomotion by land and the absence of any other animal fitted for the work of hauling heavy burdens very naturally caused them to enlist the services of the dog. Nor could a more adaptable animal have been chosen for travelling over frozen ground and icebound seas, had these inhabitants of the frigid zone been at liberty to select from the fauna of the whole earth. Had the horse been possible, or the reindeer easily available, the necessity of adding fodder to the loaded sleds was an insuperable difficulty; but the dog was carnivorous, and could feed on blubber, walrus skin, fish, bear, or musk ox, obtained in the course of the journey, or even on the carcases of his own kind; and his tractable character, the combined strength of an obedient pack, and the perfect fitness of the animal for the work required, rendered the choice so obvious that there can hardly have been a time when the Arctic peoples were ignorant of the dog s value.
The Eskimos are not an artistic race; but the few ancient records rudely inscribed on rock or bone give proof that in the very earliest times their sledges were drawn by dogs. In the sixteenth century Martin Frobisher, who voyaged to Greenland in search of gold, and the early navigators who penetrated far into the Arctic seas to seek a north-west passage, observed with interest the practical uses to which the wolf-like dog of the north was put. In later times the European explorers recognised the advantage of imitating the Eskimo method of locomotion in circumstances which made the use of the sailing boat impossible, and the modern explorer into Arctic regions regards his teams of sledge dogs as being as much a necessary part of his equipment as fuel and provisions.


SAMOYEDE CH. OLAF OUSSA.
PROPERTY OF MRS. FREDERIKA RINGER.
It was in Siberia that the sledge dog was first applied to the service of Polar exploration. Already in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the Russians undertook very extensive sledge journeys, and charted the whole of the Siberian coast from the borders of Europe to Behring Strait. But this means of covering great distances with dog-drawn sledges attained its highest development under McClintock. While the Russians, however, travelled with a large number of dogs and only a few men, McClintock and other adventurous Britons used few dogs and many men. The American explorer, Lieutenant Peary, saw the wisdom of employing as many dogs as possible, often having a hundred and more together. Nansen, who knew the utmost importance of having good sledge haulers, took as large a kennel as he could accommodate, and added many of his own later breeding to be ready for his great drive in search of the Pole. Thirty of them were Ostiak dogs, but as many more were of the East Siberian breed which are better sledge workers than those of the West. Nansen owed the success of his expedition to his canine companions; without them his memorable journey with Johansen would have been impossible. The hardships of this adventure into the polar loneliness were severe upon the dogs, and many had to be killed in turn to provide food for their comrades of the trace.
On Wednesday evening Haren was killed; poor beast, he was not good for much latterly, but he had been a first-rate dog, and it was hard, I fancy, for Johansen to part with him; he looked so sorrowfully at the animal before it went to the happy hunting-grounds, or wherever it may be that draught dogs go to; perhaps to places where there are plains of level ice and no ridges and lanes. There are only two dogs left now-Suggen and Kaifas-and we must keep them alive as long as we can, and have use for them. *


A HARD-WORKING ESKIMO FOREGOER.
PROPERTY OF THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY.
Nansen s dogs were mostly of the white or white and black Samoyede breed. Peary s were of the larger and more wolf-like Eskimo race. Both travellers have much to say in their published records of the working capabilities of their dogs, and from them and the writings of other Arctic and Antarctic explorers one gathers much that is enlightening concerning the nature of the various breeds.


YOUNG SAMOYEDES BY PETER THE GREAT-ALASKA.
BRED BY THE HON. MRS. McLAREN MORRISON.
The Samoyede, or Laika, is the smaller dog, and the less powerful, as it is also the more decoratively beautiful, with its thick fur of pure snowy white. Some of them are entirely black with a white patch on the chest, and many of the white ones have black about the head, while occasionally brown or fawn occurs; but unblemished white is the colour most admired, giving distinction to the black nose and the bright dark eyes. With its pointed muzzle, and sharply erect ears, its strong, bushy tail, and short body, the dog is obviously of Spitz type, but the wolf nature is always more or less apparent, and one cannot doubt that the white Arctic wolf has contributed largely to its origin. In height the Samoyede is from 18 to 22 inches; weight about 60 lb.
The Eskimo, although less comely in appearance, is larger by a few inches, and zoologically a more interesting dog, as being much more nearly allied to the wolf. Personally he is a sturdy, well-boned animal, with excellent body qualities, and admirable limbs. His resemblance to his wild relative is accentuated by his long, snipy muzzle, and his erect triangular ears, although it may be noted that his Eskimo owner has a fancy for the ear carried low. The eyes are set obliquely, like those of the wolf, and the jaw is formidable, with excellent dentition. With a strong, arched neck, a broad chest, and muscular quarters, he is apparently made for work, and for accomplishing long journeys, with tireless endurance. His tail is long and bushy, and in the adult is usually carried over the back. His coat is dense, hard and deep, especially on the back, where it may be from two to four inches in length, with a woolly undercoat to resist the penetrating snow and cold. It is longer about the neck and the thighs, but shorter on the legs and head. In colour it is the same as that of the wolf, black or rusty black with lighter greyish markings on the chest, belly and tail. Often a pure white dog may be seen, as Peary s Lion, who was very little different from the Siberian breed, and in all there is the characteristic light spots above the eyes. The height of the Eskimo dog may average 22 inches at the shoulder.
Many lupine traits are observable in the Eskimo dog. He does not habitually bark, but has a weird wolfish howl; and he is remarkable for his thievishness and his destructiveness towards smaller animals. Possibly he inherits from the wolf, with whom he is so often crossed, his facility, noticeable even in imported specimens of his kind, in picking the flesh from a fish as cleanly as if the bones had been scraped by a surgical instrument. One wonders if dogs bred in civilisation would lose this facility. They are irregular in their feeding, and are content if they get a good meal thrice a week, and for lack of better food they will devour almost anything, from a chunk of wood to a coil of tar rope, their own leather harness, or a pair of greasy trousers. In the severest Arctic weather they do not suffer from the cold, but they are subject to diseases uncommon in civilised kennels. Paralysis of the legs, and convulsions, are deplorably frequent, but the worst complaint is the epidemic madness which seems to attend them during the season of protracted darkness. True rabies are unknown among the Eskimo and Indian dogs, and no one bitten by an afflicted dog has ever contracted the disease.
Characteristic of the Eskimo dog is the fact that each team has its king, who is not always the strongest, but usually the most unscrupulous bully and tyrant. In North Greenland a marriage between a dog and a bitch of this breed is binding for life. They are monogamous, and any interference with the sanctity of the marriage tie results in a fight to the death.


MR. H. C. BROOKE S FAMOUS ESKIMO ARCTIC KING.
The ordinary load taken over good ground by a team of six Eskimo dogs is 800 lb., at a rate of seven miles an hour. The speed necessarily depends upon the ground, the weight of the sledge, and the condition of the dogs. Kane was carried for seven hundred miles at a rate of fifty seven miles a day, but the record speed of a dog sledge was made in the rescue of a sailor in Lieutenant Schwatka s expedition. The man was seen at a distance of ten miles across an ice-covered bay, just before nightfall. To leave him there involved his death from frostbite, and two Eskimo natives with a double team of forty dogs were sent to fetch him. The runners were iced and the men armed with knives to cut adrift any dog who might lose his footing, and be dragged to death, for there was no stopping when once started. They did the ten miles in twenty-two and a half minutes.


WEST SIBERIAN (OSTIAK) SLEDGE DOG.
IMPORTED WITH OTHERS FOR ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION.
Photograph by W. P. Dando, F.Z.S .
Probably the dogs employed for draught in Northern America are generally more expert at their work than those used by the Arctic explorers. The Hudson Bay hauling dogs have been known to do more than 2,000 miles on a winter journey, and forty miles a day has been an average record for a good team with a load of, say, a hundred pounds in weight.
The Eskimo is largely used in the North West, but a half breed is considered better. Many area cross between the Eskimo and the wolf, but the superlative dog for hauling is the offspring of the Eskimo and what is known in Canada as the Staghound. For speed, strength, and staying power, these are second to none. Many breeds, however, are employed, including the pure Newfoundland, who is too heavy and clumsy for winter travelling. The Hare Indian, or Mackenzie River dog, was formerly used, and even the Greyhound and the Spaniel. The Huskies so frequently referred to in Jack London s Call of the Wild, are of the Eskimo and wolf cross, and the Giddies are of similar parentage, bred specially by the Indians for hauling purposes. These last are willing workers, but vicious brutes, who fight their way through summers of semi-starvation and winters of too much ill-treatment, hunger and the lash.


ESKIMO FARTHEST NORTH.
SURVIVOR OF ONE OF THE PEARY EXPEDITIONS.
Photograph by Mr. W. H. Strick .
In the Hudson Bay territory four Huskies are harnessed to the sled in tandem order, the harness consisting of saddles, collars, and traces. The leader, or foregoer, sets the pace, and changes his course at a word from the driver, who, whatever his nationality, speaks to his team in the patois of the North. Hu and Choic, anglicised to you and chaw, are the words necessary to turn the foregoer to right or left. The team is started by the command Marche. The sled or steer dog is the heaviest and strongest of the team, trained to swing the ten foot long sled away from all obstacles. Some of the Indians and the Eskimos have a separate trace for each dog, which enables the team to spread out fanwise, when travelling over thin ice; but for land journeys the tandem method is better alike for speed and for safety. In the North West the harness is made of moose skin, and is often decorated with ribbons and little bells. The dogs seem to enjoy the tinkling, and if the bells are taken away from them they sulk, and do not go half so well. As a protection against frozen snow the dogs feet are provided with skin shoes. Their food consists of dried and fresh fish, dried and fresh meat, blubber, pemmican and imported dog biscuit, according to the yield of the country.
In summer the dogs are turned loose, and go off by themselves in packs, but before the winter comes on they return to their old masters, usually accompanied by puppies.
Both the Samoyede and the Eskimo dog may occasionally be seen at shows in England. The former, indeed, appears to be becoming popular as a ladies pet, probably on account of its great beauty. The puppies of the Samoyede are more delightfully pretty than those of perhaps any other breed, and are always attractive to visitors who see them in the litter classes. They are like fluffy balls of pure white wool.
Mrs. Kilburn Scott, the Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, Mrs. Ringer, and Mrs. Everitt, are among the ladies who have given most attention to the breed. Mrs. Ringer s Ch. Oussa and Ch. Olaf Oussa are perhaps the best specimens of the white variety seen within recent years, and Mrs. Morrison s Alaska and Rex Albus are an admirable pair. Of the black or black-and-white variety Mrs. Morrison s Peter the Great and Mrs. Everitt s imported Malchik have been among the most notable.


THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY S NORTHERN TRANSPORT CONVEYING COMMODITIES OF TRADE.
Photograph supplied by the courtesy of Col. W. M. Macpherson. 8 th Regt. R. R., Quebee .


BELGIAN DRAUGHT DOGS.
The Eskimo has never been fashionable as a companion, but some excellent specimens of the breed have been imported from time to time. Perhaps Mr. W. K. Taunton s Sir John Franklin was as perfectly typical as any. Mr. H. C. Brooke s Arctic King, a Hudson s Bay dog, was another good one of the pure strain, brought from his native land as a puppy by a Dundee whaler. He was 22 inches at the shoulder, in colour grey with white points. Arctic King was frequently exhibited in Great Britain and France, and was the winner of over seventy first prizes. Farthest North, who also belonged to Mr. Brooke, and later to Miss Ella Casella, was the last surviving dog member of the historic pack used by Lieutenant Peary in his crossing of Greenland. He was very much like Arctic King, but taller and more gaunt and wolf-like. He was also less of a savage bully. With other dogs he was ill-tempered, but with humans most affectionate and gentle. He died in January, 1902-curiously enough for a dog that had lived most of his life within the Arctic circle-from the effects of a chill on the liver. His outer self is preserved in a glass case in the Natural History Museum at Kensington.
Other notable Eskimo dogs of recent years have been Mr. Temple s Boita, a huge dog; Mr. H. C. Brooke s Arctic Imperator, bred at the Zoo; Mr. Temple s Arctic Queen; Arctic Prince-a black son of Arctic King, Mr. Stoneham s Eric, and Messrs. Brooke and King s imported pure white bitch Greenland Snow, who is still alive.
* The quotation is from Nansen s Farthest North, and the implication in the last phrase is a doubt as to whether the two travellers or the two dogs would be the survivors.
ESKIMOS.
I T was only towards the end of the last century that the Eskimo was first seen in England. Being a native of Polar regions it was found excessively difficult to keep him in a Southern climate; still harder did it become to rear and breed any offspring. Nevertheless, through careful observation, attention to detail and great watchfulness, a few litters have been secured, though in most instances the puppies have not been long lived. Recently, however, some fine and typical dogs have been reared,-notably Royal Arctic Prince, who is now four years of age and takes the leading place on the Show bench, having several first and special prizes to his credit.
It will scarcely be questioned that this breed is the nearest approach to a wild animal of any of the canine tribe; indeed, the border line dividing a good Eskimo from a wolf, especially an Arctic wolf, is very narrow, so much so as to cause some people seriously to allege that the two are similar. This misconception in relationship has possibly arisen through the inter-breeding by Greenlanders and others of the one with the other. It is known that a dog will cross with a wolf, with prolific results; and it is acknowledged that in recent years inhabitants of the Far North have often carried this into practice. Still, there is a pronounced difference and distinction between the Eskimo and the wolf. Evidence for arriving at this conclusion, and confirming the opinion that the former was always a separate, independent and distinct race of dog, is forthcoming, being specially noticeable in the broad, thick-set shoulders, the chest, and in the back, which is far wider than the wolf s. The tail likewise is another differentiating feature. The more cloddy character, too, of the body and legs gives further emphasis to this view, as does also the skull, which differs considerably in being not so high in the crown, a little broader between the ears, and not so tapered towards the nose.


G REENLAND S NOW
The dog is to be found in Greenland, Lapland, Northern Siberia and Kamtschatka. He is also often seen in Norway and Sweden, but is seldom found far South. To the few specimens imported into or bred in Great Britain, the most trying period of the year is, of course, between May and September, when it is found exceedingly difficult to preserve them.
In his own country the life of an Eskimo in more respects than one (as the winter darkness in the Far North extends to nearly nine months) is not all sunshine. At the best of times he has greatly to rough it. In a large degree, particularly during the summer months, he has to seek and provide his own food; for during that period he is frequently turned out by his master, running wild in the surrounding districts, to return to the homestead, when winter again sets in, for shelter and provision. His transport services during the few warmer weeks of the year are not much in requisition; for it is over the hard frozen ice and snow that his invaluable aid is mainly requisitioned. The strength and power possessed by these dogs, and the loads they will draw, as well as the long distances they will cover, are truly remarkable.
To Greenlanders, Laplanders and the inhabitants of Arctic countries the services of these dogs cannot be fully estimated. Without them travelling would be practically impossible and the natives would be unable to convey the products of their hunting and fishing pursuits.
The sledges are generally made of boards roughly fastened together and lashed with thongs of deer skin. The harness used on the dogs is manufactured also out of the latter material. The natives differ slightly in their methods of inspanning, but usually a team for ordinary purposes consists of eight animals. When journeying alone, or with a comparatively light burden, only four are sometimes requisitioned. On the other hand, should the load be heavy, as many as ten, twelve and even more are harnessed together. According to the requirements of the owner, the dogs are yoked in pairs, two and two abreast, or are fastened to a tripod of poles. Every pack contains a leader -the dog who is the best trained, most obedient, and tractable. The office is one of great responsibility; for the dog has to ensure rapid movement as well as to keep all the rest under strict control and avoid their quarrelling and fighting on the way. Thus much depends on him and he fully realizes his importance. All the dogs, however, invariably take equal delight, pride and interest in their work and go at it with great zest and energy. In tethering, care should always be taken to keep the dogs well apart, and the tripod poles are often resorted to for the purpose-they assist in separating the dogs and preventing disturbances. The reins are fastened to a collar round the neck. The dogs all answer to their names and more often than not obey readily the behests of the driver. Should they not, a stick or a whip is seldom used; for tractable as these dogs are they are also ferocious and will endure little if any correction. This trait is also noticeable in dogs bred in this country. Once beat an Eskimo and it is as much as your life is worth ever to go near that dog again. Even years after the dog will remember the occasion and will recognise his assailant immediately. Consequently, should the owner find it necessary to adopt coercion, he is accustomed to administer his correction by throwing his stick or a stone at the delinquent. The dogs themselves, in cases of laziness, will assist him; for an idler quickly gets enlivened by a sharp bite on the tail from his comrade behind, and should a neighbouring dog consider that his companion is not bearing his full share of the work he soon lets his opinion be known. Many travellers have confirmed the fact that these dogs will do journeys of between fifty-five and sixty miles a day, even with a heavy load behind them. A team of only four or five will draw as much as 350 lbs. to 400 lbs. a distance of quite thirty-five and sometimes forty miles a day.
When the journey is ended the dogs are let loose and allowed to roam at will. They sleep (after a good feed which they wash down with gulps of snow) in the open, even in the very depth of the Arctic winter. They will, however, make concave burrows in the snow in which they semi-bury themselves in order to avoid the cutting and biting winds. An unwary person going out at night not infrequently stumbles over or into these holes.
The height of an Eskimo should be about twenty-three or twenty-four inches at the shoulder. He should not be lanky in the leg or too long in the back but of cobby appearance. When in the collar, there is generally a tendency to lean forward a little as in the attitude of traction. The head is held erect except when he is in harness and under way-then he carries it low with nose towards the ground. A strong neck very slightly arched is adorned with a stylish, rigid frill standing well out. His skull is not wolf-shaped but a trifle broader between the ears and eyes:-this point, however, is somewhat hidden by the long hair that grows in peak-shaped style on the crown. The sockets of the eyes are not large and the optic itself has a somewhat treacherous expression, the nature of which the writer has not seen in any other dog. Decked with soft hair, the inside also being well coated, the ears, which are comparatively small, are kept pricked and inclined a little forward: they are cat-shaped in appearance but of far thicker substance. The nose is inclined to be pointed, though not of a foxy type, the nostrils being fairly large, and endowed with a very keen scent. The muzzle is sharp and strong. The canine tusks are especially well developed; the molars, too, are above the average size. In every instance the tongue is red, the roof of the mouth being mostly, though not always, dark. The fine, broad chest and heavy shoulders should be moderately sloped and display the natural power given to the dog for drawing heavy weights. His fore-legs are, like the hind ones, sinewy, bony and strong; they should be as straight as those of a hound, but much thicker, diminishing somewhat towards the paws. The hair covering the legs is short and smooth, without the slightest show of feather. One notices, if it is possible, even more power and muscle in the hind legs, the muscle being prominently conspicuous on the thighs. The ribs are not very deep but are broad, allowing the lungs to have plenty of play-so important for the purposes to which the dog is put. The chest is well rounded. The back should be perfectly straight (not too long in proportion to the size of the animal) and flat and broad even to the tail root. The loins should be hard, strong, and well arched. The tail ought to be very fine, long and exceedingly bushy, bending in a graceful curve (but on no account doubled or twisted) over the back: it should be an immense, massive bush of exceedingly long, harsh, dense hair standing out well. In weight, a good specimen ought at least to be 60 lbs.
The Eskimo possesses a coat peculiarly his own. The like is not to be found in any other kind of dog, and it is undoubtedly one of the most striking characteristics of the breed. Consisting of an outer and an inner coat, the hair of each is of quite opposite texture. Close to the body clings a dense undercoat, soft, thick and fur-like, usually of a lighter hue. Penetrating through this is a heavy outer coat of very long, hard, stiff hair (almost of a bristly nature) of two distinct shades. Commencing on the dome of the head (between the ears) this long hair, standing almost straight on end, forms quite a hog-like ridge along the full length of the back. Round the neck, as already observed, a fine frill is exhibited. The reason for the dog being provided with a garment of such a character is, obviously, to assist him in withstanding the terrible exposure he has to undergo in his native land. From the hide the Greenlanders, Kamtschatkans and Northerners make corselets and other articles of clothing; and from the intestines thread is made.
In colour there is not much variation. A silver grey is very attractive to many; white with black patches also finds many admirers. A pure white coat is exceedingly fine (and is very rare) and when obtained is remarkably handsome; in appearance it strongly resembles that of a Polar bear, and is very similar to the touch. Dark red is a colour not infrequently met with and is pleasing to the eye. A brown or a dirty black is occasionally seen, but is not favoured. The lower portion of the chest, together with the belly and extremities of the legs, are, invariably, of a lighter tint than the rest of the body.
The Eskimo commands a great deal of attention at Shows and is much admired by the general public. The finest specimen we have ever seen in the British Isles (and in every respect the most typical dog) was Arctic King (who is here illustrated) the winner of over one hundred and twenty first and special prizes. Though in every respect symmetrical, he was an exceedingly powerful dog. He was born on the 1st July, 1892, and died on the 1st May, 1904, at the advanced age of twelve years-a record life for an Eskimo kept away from an arctic climate. His skeleton is in the British Museum (Natural History Section). He sired several exceedingly good dogs, notably Royal Arctic Prince, who is the finest dog now extant. From Arctic King no throw back ever emanated, thus showing the pure nature of his strain and origin. Of other good dogs mention may be made of Eric, Boita, Sir John Franklin, Myouk, Regal Arctic Imperator, Chimmo, Livingstone Franklin, Jubilee Boita, and Regal Arctic Star.
In bitches, Arctic Queen was, by far, the most typical; and we have the opportunity of reproducing an illustration of a picture (painted by Miss Maud Earl) of her with Arctic King. She was of the silver grey tint like her companion. She was a splendid mother but not much of a breeder. She took numerous first prizes in her time and passed away in August, 1900. Next to her must be placed Greenland Snow, the only pure white Eskimo seen in the United Kingdom, or indeed, in Southern Europe. She was imported in 1902 and is alive at the present time. A prolific breeder and splendid mother, she has produced some very typical offspring which have done well on the bench. Other bitches of considerable merit were Regal Arctic Princess, Lady Boita, Regal Arctic Snow, Regal Arctic Imperatrix and Lady Franklin. It may be added that the first Eskimo supposed to have been introduced into England was a dog named Zouave, imported in the year 1876.
A peculiarity of the Eskimo (and one which indicates further the semi-wild nature of this dog) lies in the fact that it does not bark. The dog is quite incapable of doing so. Instead, he issues a spasmodic sort of plaintive moan, intermittently (usually at the change of the moon), which lasts for uncertain periods (occasionally only for a day or two; at other times for a whole week), after which he never utters a sound for weeks together and often not for a month or two.
The Eskimo never becomes really domesticated in the sense that other dogs do. He is always restless and irritated when confined in a cage or yard: he loves to be at large and enjoy the right of independence. Hence, he is always chafing on his chain and not infrequently becomes irritable when led. The dog should not, however, be permitted at large or taken about except on a strong chain; for he retains an apparently inborn tendency to attack other animals, however large, and will, without hesitation, tackle, and perhaps kill, a cow or even a bull. In the Far North they frequently quarrel amongst themselves and constantly set about one another. In such cases it is highly dangerous to interfere or attempt to conciliate or separate them: they will, without exception, fight to a finish, and, more often than not, when the victim has expired, the others will gather round and demolish the carcass.

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