What Works in Conservation 2021
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Does the creation of artificial reefs benefit subtidal benthic invertebrates?
Is the use of organic farming instead of conventional farming beneficial to bat conservation?
Does installing wildlife warning reflectors along roads benefit mammal conservation?
Does the installation of exclusion and/or escape devices on fishing nets benefit marine and freshwater mammal conservation?

What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation.

This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 2526 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. The 2021 edition containssubstantial new material on bat conservation, terrestrial mammal conservation and marine and freshwater mammals, thus completing the evidence for all mammal species categories. Other chapters cover practical global conservation of primates, amphibians, bats, birds, forests, peatlands, subtidal benthic invertebrates, shrublands and heathlands, as well as the conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility, management of captive animals and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.

This is the fourth author-approved edition of What Works in Conservation, which is revised on an annual basis.



Publié par
Date de parution 02 août 2021
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781800642751
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 4 Mo

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What Works in Conservation
Edited by William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith

© 2021 William J. Sutherland

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work; to adapt the work and to make commercial use of the work providing attribution is made to the authors (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information:
Sutherland, W.J., Dicks, L.V., Petrovan, S.O., and Smith, R.K. What Works in Conservation 2021. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2021. https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0267
In order to access detailed and updated information on the license, please visit https://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/1490#copyright
Further details about CC BY licenses are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
All links were active at the time of publication unless otherwise stated.
Digital material and resources associated with this volume are available at https://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/1490#resources and http://www.conservationevidence.com
What Works in Conservation Series | ISSN: 2059-4232 (Print); 2059-4240 (Online)
ISBN Paperback: 978-1-80064-272-0
ISBN Hardback: 978-1-80064-273-7
ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-80064-274-4
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 978-1-80064-275-1
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 978-1-80064-276-8
DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0267
Funded by Arcadia, DEFRA, ESRC, MAVA Foundation, NERC, Natural England, Robert Bosch Stiftung, Synchronicity Earth, South West Water and Waitrose Ltd.
Cover image: A close up shot of the underside of a Dwarf Cavendish ( Musa acuminata ) by Ben Clough, CC BY-SA 3.0. Wikimedia http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dwarf_cavendish_leaf_2.jpg . Cover design: Heidi Coburn

Introduction 1
Who is What Works in Conservation for? 1
The Conservation Evidence project 1
Which conservation interventions are included? 2
How we review the literature 3
What does What Works in Conservation include? 4
Expert assessment of the evidence 4
Categorization of interventions 6
How to use What Works in Conservation 6

1.1 Threat: Residential and commercial development 11
Legal protection of species 11
Protect brownfield or ex-industrial sites 12
Restrict herbicide, fungicide and pesticide use on and around ponds on golf courses 12
1.2 Threat: Agriculture 13
1.2.1 Engage farmers and other volunteers 13
Engage landowners and other volunteers to manage land for amphibians 13
Pay farmers to cover the costs of conservation measures 14
1.2.2 Terrestrial habitat management 14
Manage silviculture practices in plantations 14
Manage cutting regime 14
Manage grazing regime 15
Maintain or restore hedges 15
Plant new hedges 15
Reduced tillage 15
1.2.3 Aquatic habitat management 15
Manage ditches 15
Exclude domestic animals or wild hogs from ponds by fencing 16
1.3 Threat: Energy production and mining 17
Artificially mist habitat to keep it damp 17
1.4 Threat: Transportation and service corridors 18
Close roads during seasonal amphibian migration 18
Modify gully pots and kerbs 19
Install barrier fencing along roads 19
Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings 19
Use signage to warn motorists 20
Use humans to assist migrating amphibians across roads 20
1.5 Threat: Biological resource use 21
1.5.1 Hunting and collecting terrestrial animals 21
Reduce impact of amphibian trade 21
Use legislative regulation to protect wild populations 22
Commercially breed amphibians for the pet trade 22
Use amphibians sustainably 22
1.5.2 Logging and wood harvesting 22
Retain riparian buffer strips during timber harvest 23
Use shelterwood harvesting instead of clearcutting 23
Leave coarse woody debris in forests 23
Use patch retention harvesting instead of clearcutting 24
Leave standing deadwood/snags in forests 24
Use leave-tree harvesting instead of clearcutting 24
Harvest groups of trees instead of clearcutting 25
Thin trees within forests 25
1.6 Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance 26
Use signs and access restrictions to reduce disturbance 26
1.7 Threat: Natural system modifications 27
Regulate water levels 27
Mechanically remove mid-storey or ground vegetation 28
Use herbicides to control mid-storey or ground vegetation 28
Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime (forests) 28
Use prescribed fire or modifications to burning regime (grassland) 29
1.8 Threat: Invasive and other problematic species 30
1.8.1 Reduce predation by other species 30
Remove or control fish by drying out ponds 30
Remove or control fish population by catching 31
Remove or control invasive bullfrogs 31
Remove or control invasive viperine snake 31
Remove or control mammals 31
Remove or control fish using Rotenone 32
Exclude fish with barriers 32
Encourage aquatic plant growth as refuge against fish predation 32
Remove or control non-native crayfish 32
1.8.2 Reduce competition with other species 32
Reduce competition from native amphibians 33
Remove or control invasive Cuban tree frogs 33
Remove or control invasive cane toads 33
1.8.3 Reduce adverse habitat alteration by other species 33
Control invasive plants 33
Prevent heavy usage/exclude wildfowl from aquatic habitat 34
1.8.4 Reduce parasitism and disease – chytridiomycosis 34
Use temperature treatment to reduce infection 35
Use antifungal treatment to reduce infection 35
Add salt to ponds 35
Immunize amphibians against infection 36
Remove the chytrid fungus from ponds 36
Sterilize equipment when moving between amphibian sites 36
Treating amphibians in the wild or pre-release 36
Use gloves to handle amphibians 36
Use antibacterial treatment to reduce infection 37
Use antifungal skin bacteria or peptides to reduce infection 37
Use zooplankton to remove zoospores 37
1.8.5 Reduce parasitism and disease – ranaviruses 38
Sterilize equipment to prevent ranaviruses 38
1.9 Threat: Pollution 39
1.9.1 Agricultural pollution 39
Create walls or barriers to exclude pollutants 39
Plant riparian buffer strips 39
Reduce pesticide, herbicide or fertilizer use 40
Prevent pollution from agricultural lands or sewage treatment facilities entering watercourses 40
1.9.2 Industrial pollution 40
Add limestone to water bodies to reduce acidification 40
Augment ponds with ground water to reduce acidification 41
1.10 Threat: Climate change and severe weather 42
Deepen ponds to prevent desiccation 43
Use irrigation systems for amphibian sites 43
Artificially shade ponds to prevent desiccation 43
Protect habitat along elevational gradients 43
Provide shelter habitat 43
1.11 Habitat protection 44
Retain buffer zones around core habitat 44
Protect habitats for amphibians 45
Retain connectivity between habitat patches 45
1.12 Habitat restoration and creation 46
1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat 46
Replant vegetation 46
Clear vegetation 47
Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites 47
Create refuges 47
Restore habitat connectivity 48
Change mowing regime 48
Create habitat connectivity 48
1.12.2 Aquatic habitat 48
Create ponds (amphibians in general) 49
Create ponds (frogs) 50
Create ponds (natterjack toads) 50
Create ponds (salamanders including newts) 50
Create wetlands 50
Deepen, de-silt or re-profile ponds 51
Restore wetlands 51
Create ponds (great crested newts) 51
Create ponds (green toads) 52
Create ponds (toads) 52
Remove specific aquatic plants 52
Restore ponds 52
Remove tree canopy to reduce pond shading 53
Add nutrients to new ponds as larvae food source 53
Add specific plants to aquatic habitats 53
Add woody debris to ponds 53
Create refuge areas in aquatic habitats 53
1.13 Species management 54
1.13.1 Translocate amphibians 54
Translocate amphibians (amphibians in general) 54
Translocate amphibians (great crested newts) 55
Translocate amphibians (natterjack toads) 55
Translocate amphibians (salamanders including newts) 55
Translocate amphibians (toads) 56
Translocate amphibians (wood frogs) 56
Translocate amphibians (frogs) 56
1.13.2 Captive breeding, rearing and releases 57
Release captive-bred individuals (amphibians in general) 58
Release captive-bred individuals (frogs) 58
Breed amphibians in captivity (frogs) 58
Breed amphibians in captivity (harlequin toads) 59
Breed amphibians in captivity (Mallorcan midwife toad) 59
Breed amphibians in captivity (salamanders including newts) 59
Breed amphibians in captivity (toads) 59
Head-start amphibians for release 60
Release captive-bred individuals (Mallorcan midwife toad) 60

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