The Legend of Bigfoot
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129 pages
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Bigfoot. Sasquatch. Skunk Ape. He's everywhere. The most well-known cryptid in American history, Bigfoot is as feared as he is loved. The subject of thousands of stories, this creature has been pegged as a monster terrorizing the woods, a supernatural entity stealthily living among us with an otherworldly agenda, or simply an animal trying to live a life of seclusion. With various theories and beliefs abounding, research and discussion have become a hobby for many, and even an occupation for some. In The Legend of Bigfoot: Leaving His Mark on the World, T. S. Mart and Mel Cabre reveal the myths, personal stories, and pop culture surrounding the legendary icon. Featuring more than 80 images recreating the Bigfoot's appearance from firsthand accounts and folktales, The Legend of Bigfoot showcases the many faces of the creature. Included are the Boston Bahumagosh, which is said to weigh up to 400 pounds, stand up to 10 feet tall, and terrorize the Boston area; the Honey Island Swamp Monster—also known as the Louisiana Wookie—who roams the Louisiana swamps with yellow or red eyes; and the Wendigo, placed between 7 and 15 feet tall with long, yellow fangs and yellow-tinted skin. Half phantom, half beast, the Wendigo lives in the forest and dates back to the earliest Native American legends. Featuring legends, culture, and history from across the globe, The Legend of Bigfoot brings the famed cryptid to life in this entertaining and accessible guide.


Bigfoot has captured America's attention, seeping into the cultural veins of our society. Over the years, the creature has morphed into a phenomenon because he is many things at once: a vulnerable animal, a supernatural wonder, a paranormal entity, a monster, a toy, a superhero, an intriguing creation.
He is a cultural icon.
But what is he really?
Is Bigfoot an animal, created in the same way as other animals, driven by an instinctual need for survival? A warm-blooded creation who potentially migrated across the Bering Strait and then across North America? Or, is Bigfoot a supernatural force, created with abilities far superior to humans? Perhaps, he exists in an unusual manner as a paranormal entity, sent from another place by a means humans haven't fully come to understand.
Maybe the beast is a figment in our mind, a monster born out of a fear living deep within our psyche—a product of our imaginations we hold onto for various reasons.
As we explore each possibility with an open mind and a sense of wonder, the goal is not to prove or disprove Bigfoot's existence, or to discredit one belief for another, but to enjoy the experience as we examine evidence and apply critical thinking (debate) that allows every reader to ask questions and draw conclusions. Everything that is not a fact is an interpretation grounded in biased opinion. And that's okay, too, as long as we understand our biases and the purpose they serve.
We'll be referring to Bigfoot as "he" throughout the text. Except where obvious, the pronoun is not meant to imply certain characteristics or traits exclusive to that gender. Frankly, no one knows the distinctions between a male and female Bigfoot.
Bigfoot as an Animal
There is a certain amount of documentation—yet no definitive proof—suggesting Bigfoot is a bipedal primate that lives in the remote areas across North America and other parts of the world. Some call this the Undiscovered Ape Theory.
Investigation confirms people confuse him with bears and other wildlife. Most of the observational evidence belongs to footprints and other casted body parts. Hair and scat samples have been tested and point to a creature that has not been scientifically identified. Do these belong to a Bigfoot? No one knows, but we can speculate.
While referring to Bigfoot as an animal, we'll keep in mind the major differences between humans and other animals. This will allow us to explore Bigfoot behaviors and apply the typical boundaries that exist.
Humans are capable of complex reasoning with a limitless variety of thoughts and words used in language. We can solve difficult problems using abstract thought, and we have the ability to self-reflect, analyzing data that helps in decision making.
If Bigfoot is an animal, then there are several characteristics and behavioral patterns we can assume based on all other animals.
Animals serve a purpose within the ecosystem
Animals depend on an ecosystem to survive. Since we find Bigfoot all over world, like humans, he would possess the ability to adapt within different biomes or habitats. The most prominent would be the Boreal forests and mountains of the Pacific Northwest and the temperate forest and grasslands of the Northeast, Midwest, Southern Appalachia, and the Deep South since these are the locations one might most likely see a Bigfoot in North America.
With no available data defining Bigfoot's behavioral patterns within a habitat, we can only speculate at his role in the ecological community based on scattered evidence. If scat (feces) found by researchers belongs to a Bigfoot and not some other animal or human, then evidence suggests he eats plants and berries. Other detailed encounters show that Bigfoot eats fish and livestock (See the Ruby Creek incident in section four). Based on these and other findings, we can assume that like a grizzly bear or cougar, Bigfoot is an apex predator who helps control the population of deer, elk, and other small mammals while also helping to propagate nature by dropping seeds in his scat and embedding them into the ground with his large feet.
Animals act on instinct
Animal instinct is a fixed, unlearned pattern of behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus or motivational need. If Bigfoot is an animal possessing instinct, then his fight-or-flight intuition might account for his adeptness at hiding and running from potential danger.
Instinct also drives communication. Animals use four methods to communicate: visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical.
Visual pertains to an animal's physical appearance. The dilation of a cat's eyes, the quirky dance of flamingos, and the grand display of antlers on a moose all send messages to those nearby. While no one has seen a Bigfoot dance, he has shown off a larger-than-life appearance to those who have seen him, and some researchers feel the stick structures and ground glyphs found within the regions of Bigfoot sightings represent a form of communication.
Stick structures are an arrangement of trees and sticks that nature could not have produced. When they occur in areas where other Bigfoot evidence is found, some researchers think they might represent a form of communication. Common structures include: Broken trees, twisted until they expose wood fibers on the inside; asterisks made up of multiple sticks of equal size or length arranged in a pattern; arches and loops of all sizes; and walking sticks where several sticks are strategically placed or propped against a tree. The scientists also believe ground glyphs—sticks made into symbols—could be intended to impress a mate or offer clues to their location, a territorial marker.


Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction

1. What Is Bigfoot?
2. Who's Who Among Bigfoot
3. History and Legends
4. Bigfoot Culture
5. Facts of Fiction
6. Bigfoot around the World

Bigfoot Culture Timeline
Notes
Chronological List of References
Index

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 13 octobre 2020
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781684350605
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 5 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0050€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

THE LEGEND OF BIGFOOT
THE LEGEND OF BIGFOOT
Leaving His Mark on the World
T. S. Mart and Mel Cabre
Illustrations by Mel Cabre
This book is a publication of
Red Lightning Books
1320 East 10th Street
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 USA
redlightningbooks.com
2020 by T. S. Mart and Mel Ayers
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992.
Manufactured in the United States of America
Cataloging information is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN 978-1-68435-139-8 (hardback)
ISBN 978-1-68435-140-4 (ebook)
1 2 3 4 5 25 24 23 22 21 20
This book is for Mom and Roger, who walked beside me down the roughest path .
- T. S. Mart
You knew how offbeat I was from the get-go. Thank you, Antoine, for being equally offbeat with me .
- Mel Cabre
CONTENTS
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
1 W HAT I S B IGFOOT?
2 W HO S W HO AMONG B IGFOOT
3 H ISTORY AND L EGENDS
4 B IGFOOT C ULTURE
5 F ACTS OR F ICTION
6 B IGFOOT AROUND THE W ORLD
Appendix: Bigfoot Culture Timeline
Notes
References
Index
PREFACE
B EFORE THE U NITED S TATES B ECAME A C OUNTRY , the legend of Bigfoot existed. The subject of thousands of stories, this creature has been viewed as a monster terrorizing the woods, a supernatural entity stealthily living among us with an otherworldly agenda, and simply an animal trying to live a life of seclusion. Theories and beliefs are vast. Research and discussion have become an occupation for some and a hobby for many others.
Alongside believers are skeptical fans who enjoy the idea of a large monster roaming forested areas. While hiking in the woods, these fans might imagine a pattern of fallen trees, visualize impressions in the soft ground, and joke about the possibilities. Around the campfire, they hear a shrill cry and think, What if We ve seen it on TV-Bigfoot showing up at the campsite of jerky-loving young adults. It s fun.
Prior to the rise of technology and mass media, story based in truth was at the heart of a good legend. Historical icons and their experiences influenced the culture of those times. It s not so different today, except information travels by commercials, movies, fictional books, video games, and so on, instead of by word of mouth. Because of this, there exists a new culture of Bigfoot fans, those who value entertainment as much as they value the monster himself.
Regardless of where you fall on the pendulum of believer to skeptical fan, if you find Bigfoot to be fascinating to any degree, this book is for you. Focusing on five different regions of America, we ll give a complete overview of Bigfoot and show how mainstream America has been influenced by various legends, the men who turned legend into reality, and the continuation of the fanciful idea of what-if. Whether you are serious, scared, or laughing, we hope you enjoy this resource for fans dedicated to America s favorite cryptid.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
T HERE ARE TIMES WHEN THE STARS ALIGN and all the pieces of a dream fall into place. As Mel and I were dreaming about writing this book as a mother-daughter team, our editor, Ashley Runyon-whom we didn t know at the time-was dreaming about publishing a cryptid resource for fans. Our agent, Cyle Young, who d never heard of a cryptid before he met any of us, strolled in between us. Thank you both for bringing us this opportunity, which has fulfilled one half of a lifelong dream. Ashley, you are the reason this book exists, and your advice and suggestions have helped make it shine. Thank you to Darja Malcolm-Clarke and the copyeditors who meticulously combed through and polished this book. You are amazing. Any and all remaining errors are our fault alone. To the design and production team-your creativity and attention to detail have soared beyond our expectations. Thank you for your excitement about this project.
Many people are far more educated on the subject of Bigfoot than we are. Many have no idea how they ve helped us, but we ve been reading, watching, and learning from your expertise. A few of these individuals are Loren Coleman, Seth Breedlove and the Small Town Monsters Crew, Lyle Blackburn, the late Mark A. Hall, and the late Ivan T. Sanderson.
Most importantly, we thank our friends and family, who tolerate our wild conversations. Thank you for your patience. You are loved and appreciated more than you know.
INTRODUCTION
G ROWING UP , M EL SPENT COUNTLESS HOURS DRAWING animals-and then turning them into monsters. One evening, when she was about eight, we were on our way to the drive-in, and a horsefly flew in the truck and bit her on the back. To divert her attention and help release the anger, I told her to draw me a picture of it. She wasted no time replicating the angry face of a horsefly, with horns and fangs. The world needed to know that horseflies were terrible monsters.
Not long after, Mel watched a documentary about Mothman. This was the first time she d heard the story, and it scared her so badly she didn t sleep well for several nights. It s not that she believed he was real, but the what-if was enough to cause her overactive imagination to dream up countless scenarios of doom.
Mel had already learned to cope with her fears by studying the object of focus. So, she thought, why not research Mothman? The discovery blew her away. She had no idea there was an entire world of unknown animals called cryptids or that scientist called cryptozoologists existed. From then on, she learned everything possible about the varying cryptids while studying the anatomy and behavioral characteristics of scientifically known animals. In her illustrations, she often combined the two to create mythical yet realistic creatures. Because of his majestic size and historical context, Bigfoot became one of her favorite subjects.
Fast-forward a few years. To heal from a traumatic, life-changing event, Mel and I took a year off work to regroup. In that year, we coauthored our first novel. The project emerged from a short story I had written for Mel s nineteenth birthday. At the time, Bigfoot occupied a permanent spot atop Mel s favorite cryptids list, so he had been given a starring role.
Outside a few pop-culture familiarities, I didn t know much about the cryptid. Writing that short story and then fleshing out the novel had been my first real encounters. As Mel and I visited popular Bigfoot sights and spoke with locals and individuals well versed on the topic, we found a mixture of people showing everything from serious Bigfoot intrigue to lighthearted skepticism. Interestingly, everyone (except those who claimed to have had a terrifying Bigfoot encounter) seemed to like the idea of a hairy hominid roaming the backwoods as long as he stayed there.
With degrees in social work and communications, I had always been fascinated with the way experiences and behaviors shaped people. As I became familiar with the Bigfoot subculture, I was intrigued by the dynamic composition-researchers, entertainers, hunters, entrepreneurs, men, women, young, and old. There seemed to be a slice of Bigfoot pie for everyone who wanted it.
After reading many books, watching videos, listening to podcasts, attending conferences, and browsing hundreds of websites, Mel and I finished our novel, but a new idea emerged through the process. While we found books that dove deep into Bigfoot lore, scientific studies, and regional encounters, there was no single book offering a comprehensive, objective look at Bigfoot while tapping into the dynamics of the subculture.
This book is a product of what Mel and I found to be most compelling in the world of Bigfoot. It s not a scientific or historical account, and it s not a compilation of personal encounters, yet it contains facets of all three fused together in a way that respects believers and skeptics but entertains and communicates the best of America s favorite cryptid. If you are a Bigfoot fan of any age, this book is your one-stop shop for all things Bigfoot. We hope you enjoy it.
T. S. Mart
THE LEGEND OF BIGFOOT
1
WHAT IS BIGFOOT?

B igfoot has captured America s attention, seeping into the cultural veins of our society. Over the years, the creature has morphed into a phenomenon because he is many things at once: a vulnerable animal, a supernatural wonder, a paranormal entity, a monster, a toy, a superhero, an intriguing creation.
He is a cultural icon.
But what is he really?
Is Bigfoot an animal, having originated in the same way as other animals, driven by an instinctual need for survival? A warm-blooded creature who perhaps migrated across the Bering Strait and then across North America? Or is Bigfoot a supernatural force, created with abilities far superior to humans ? Perhaps he exists as a paranormal entity, sent from another place by means that humans haven t fully come to understand.
Maybe the beast is a figment in our minds, a monster born out of a fear living deep within our psyches-a product of our imaginations we hold onto for various reasons.
As we explore each possibility with an open mind and a sense of wonder, our goal is not to prove or disprove Bigfoot s existence or to discredit one belief or another. Instead, we aim to enjoy the experience as we examine evidence and apply critical thinking, allowing every reader to ask questions and draw conclusions. Everything that is not a fact is an interpretation grounded in biased opinion. And that s okay, too, as long as we understand our biases and the purpose they serve.
We ll be referring to Bigfoot as he throughout the text. Except where obvious, the pronoun is not meant to imply certain characteristics or traits exclusive to that gender. Frankly, no one knows the distinctions between a male and female Bigfoot.
B IGFOOT AS AN A NIMAL
There is a certain amount of documentation-yet no definitive proof-suggesting Bigfoot is a bipedal primate that lives in the remote areas across North America and other parts of the world. Some call this the undiscovered ape theory.
But people also confuse him with bears and other wildlife. Most of the observational evidence belongs to footprints and other cast body parts. Hair and scat samples that have been tested point to a creature that has not been scientifically identified. Do these belong to a Bigfoot? No one knows, but we can speculate.
While referring to Bigfoot as an animal, we ll keep in mind the major differences between humans and other animals.
Humans are capable of complex reasoning with a limitless variety of thoughts and words used in language. We can solve difficult problems using abstract thought, and we have the ability to self-reflect and analyze data that helps in decision-making.
If Bigfoot is an animal, we can assume he has some characteristics and behavioral patterns possessed by all other animals.
Animals Serve a Purpose within the Ecosystem
Animals depend on an ecosystem to survive. Since we find reports of Bigfoot all over the world, like humans, he would possess the ability to adapt within different biomes or habitats. The most prominent would be the boreal forests and mountains of the Pacific Northwest and the temperate forest and grasslands of the Northeast, the Midwest, Southern Appalachia, and the Deep South, since these are the locations one might most likely see a Bigfoot in North America.
With no available data defining Bigfoot s behavioral patterns within a habitat, we can only speculate at his role in the ecological community based on scattered evidence. If scat (feces) found by researchers belongs to a Bigfoot and not some other animal or human, then evidence suggests he eats plants and berries. Other detailed encounters show that Bigfoot eats fish and livestock (see the Ruby Creek incident in chapter 4). Based on these and other findings, we can assume that like a grizzly bear or cougar, Bigfoot is an apex predator who helps control the population of deer, elk, and other small mammals while also helping to propagate nature by dropping seeds in his scat and embedding them in the ground with his large feet.
Animals Act on Instinct
Animal instinct is a fixed, unlearned pattern of behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus or motivational need. If Bigfoot is an animal possessing instinct, then his fight-or-flight intuition might account for his adeptness at hiding and running from potential danger.
Instinct also drives communication. Animals use four methods to communicate: visual, auditory, chemical, and physical contact. 1
Visual pertains to an animal s physical appearance. The dilation of a cat s eyes, the quirky dance of flamingos, and the grand display of antlers on a moose all send messages to those nearby. While no one has seen a Bigfoot dance, he offers a larger-than-life appearance to those who have seen him.
Some researchers feel the stick structures and ground glyphs found within the regions of Bigfoot sightings represent a form of communication. These structures are an arrangement of trees and sticks that nature could not have produced. Common structures include broken trees, twist ed until they expose wood fibers on the inside; asterisks made up of multiple sticks of equal size or length arranged in a pattern; arches and loops of all sizes; and walking sticks where several sticks are strategically placed or propped against a tree. The scientists also believe ground glyphs-sticks made into symbols-could be intended to impress a mate or offer clues to their location, a territorial marker.

Cougar and Bigfoot, apex predators of the Pacific Northwest .
Sounds associated with Bigfoot include whistles, grunts, howls, screams, whoops, and terrifying noises that aren t typical of known wildlife. Researchers believe these noises might represent communication between the creatures. Others have heard stick breaks, thumps, vibrations, and knocks, which they theorize is a Bigfoot banging a stick against a tree or another object. They have also recorded softer cooing sounds, perhaps an affectionate exchange that provides social bonding.

X structure. Photograph taken by Rick Reles, North Carolina BFRO investigator. Used with permission .
Many individuals who experience firsthand encounters with Bigfoot speak of a rank odor. Could this be a chemical communication in which Bigfoot releases pheromones to mark his territory, exert dominance, or offer a warning?
The last method of animal communication occurs through physical contact. Social grooming is an important way to bond among many animal species, primates in particular. Hitting, slapping, and kicking are also effective ways to send a message, but no one has gotten close enough to observe the social dynamics of Bigfoot. However, people in the vicinity of Bigfoot report having had rocks lobbed or thrown in their direction. As these come from an unknown source, researchers believe this might be the animal s attempt at saying hello, offering a warning, or expressing their curiosity.
Animals Adapt to Their Environments
Let s take bears as an example. There are several varieties, most able to interbreed. Because of location, environmental influence, and adaptation through natural selection, bears vary by region. Perhaps it s the same with Bigfoot. Cast footprints show three-, four-, and five-toed footprints. People report seeing different colors and lengths of fur. If Bigfoot is an animal, then he possesses the ability to adapt within different environments.
Animals Form Hunting Patterns Based on Diet
All animals eat to live. While design, technique, and diet vary, carnivores typically hunt meat. These animals are classified by either how much meat they eat or what type of meat they prey on. Their bodies are not as well equipped to digest plant matter and require the nutrition found in large animals like deer and elk and smaller insects, like grubs and ants.
Possessing keen eyesight and smell, carnivores hunt by ambushing or trapping prey. Typically strong and fast, they are designed with claws, strong jaws, and long, sharp teeth that help them grab and rip apart their prey.
Herbivores are animals that eat plants. They spend much of their life grazing or browsing for food. Designed with wide molars and strong jaws, these animals chew and grind fibrous plant material. They also have a more complex digestive system. Some herbivores, like gorillas and the Japanese macaque, also have strong, sharp teeth designed for fighting, not feeding. This might account for why some individuals have seen fangs on the Bigfoot they encountered.
Omnivores eat plants and meat. It s thought Bigfoot may fall into this category. Because of his size and muscle mass, he likely requires large amounts of protein. But during the Six Rivers National Forest Expedition of 1997 and the BFRO Expedition of 2000, researchers think Bigfoot took fruit from bait stations and oatmeal packets from a researcher s backpack (see chapter 4 for more details). Beyond this, no one has observed Bigfoot hunting or catching food.
Animals Live to Procreate
As animals mature, they instinctually seek a mate. If we presume Bigfoot is an animal, then he would do the same, potentially leaving the forested hills or the confinements of his territory. What if he mistook a human for another Bigfoot because of the similarities in size and movement? Would he wander in close for a better look? Occasionally, hunters and investigators find multiple sets of footprints, which leads to the speculation of family groups. In most cases, however, they find only one set of footprints.

The macaque s diet consists of fruit, plants, insects, and small rodents. His intimidating canines are for fighting not eating. Susan Flashman/ Shutterstock Photo .
Animals Use Their Habitats to Create a Home
Within habitats animals build homes that accommodate their design and purpose. A bird builds a nest carefully designed to hold her fragile eggs; a bear finds a den to serve as a safe place to hide her vulnerable cubs. A spider builds a web that allows it to hunt without leaving its home. Cougars use an outcropping of rocks or a dense thicket to hunt. This is the same habitat in which a deer will live in to eat, hide its young, and prepare for a quick escape through tangled brush.
If Bigfoot, like most animals, live to protect their young, then they would stay in habitats that offer shelter, food, and protection-caves, thickly forested areas, and rock outcroppings near a fresh water source.
Bigfoot researchers and cryptozoologists believe Bigfoot is out there, potentially in large numbers, scattered across the country. It s mentioned within the arena of Bigfoot investigation that not all reports are of the same creature. However, if scat samples, recordings, and cast footprints are valid, then Bigfoot is a large, bipedal creature that is strong and has keen sensory perception. He possesses the ability to hunt and kill but also forage. In rare instances, records show Bigfoot has interacted with humans but otherwise remains hidden, adapting to whatever environment he lives in.
B IGFOOT AND THE S UPERNATURAL
For various reasons, many people disregard the animal theory yet believe Bigfoot is very real. Evidence that prompts this belief centers on the number of eyewitness accounts without the existence of a body. How has this creature been able to avoid captivity for so many years?
Infrasound-The Fear Frequency
Some researchers believe Bigfoot possesses the ability to emit infrasound, a low frequency sound wave beneath the normal limit of human hearing. Infrasound travels over long distances, passing through dense forests, buildings, and even mountains. The lower the frequency, the farther the sound can travel.
Elephants use infrasound to communicate over many miles. This function is necessary for their survival, as the sound waves allow them to locate one another for reproductive purposes and to avoid dangers. Elephants don t just hear with their ears; they can hear or perceive vibrations with their foreheads and their feet. Earthquakes and tsunamis are generators of infrasound. Long before a storm hits their area, elephants will hear the infrasound waves. Sensing the oncoming danger, they run for higher ground.
Tigers also possess infrasound capabilities. Bioacousticians are scientists who study the pitch, volume, and duration of animal sounds to learn about their behavior. A study published in a 2000 article by ScienceDaily identified that tigers have an ability to not only intimidate their prey (which includes humans) with their roar but also paralyze them.

FUN FACT: To humans, giraffes appear to be silent animals, but scientists have discovered they communicate with their young using moans and grunts at a frequency humans cannot hear.
Beyond the paralyzing effects of a tiger, infrasound can have a range of negative effects on a person, including nausea, feelings of dread or panic, memory loss, emotional distress, hallucinations, blurred vision, and even loss of consciousness.
According to a 2003 article in the Sydney Morning Herald, British scientists conducted a controlled experiment at a London concert in which they played music containing infrasound produced by an extralow bass. They mixed in pieces without the added infrasound, then asked participants to describe their reactions to the different scores. A variety of abnormal feelings-anxiety, sorrow, and chills-were identified to coincide with the infrasound-infused music.
The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health published studies in 2003 and 2005 on how low frequency noise affects functionality in humans. Findings showed that moderate levels of low frequency noise could adversely affect vision, concentration, and levels of irritability.
In several Bigfoot encounters, people reported hearing a deep, powerful growl along with experiencing a period of disorientation to the point of unconsciousness. Researchers studying infrasound question whether Bigfoot might possess an ability to mix frequencies and use infrasonic blasts to cause adverse effects in humans. If so, this might explain why hunters on the trail of Bigfoot have captured footprints but no body. For many, it also explains empty trail cameras. If the Bigfoot can detect man-made technologies, then he would possess the ability to avoid them.
Electricity-an Ominous Power
In his 1895 book, The Pacific Forest Reserve and Mt. Rainier , E. S. Ingraham, explorer, mountaineer, and author who was also the first superintendent of the Seattle school system, tells of an experience he had while descending into the steam caves of a crater near the summit of Mount Rainier in Washington State.
In the chapter The Old Man of the Crater, Ingraham states he and his companion descended into the crater and explored. He writes, [I felt] a peculiar sensation of the body, such as a person feels when standing upon an insulated stool with his hand holding the pole of an electrical machine slightly charged. After exploring for several hours, the two left the crater. A short while later, the author returned alone. He writes of an odd feeling: I was soon within the influence of a mysterious glow all tended to try my nerves and fill my mind with strange forebodings. Then he caught sight
of a figure of strange and grotesque appearance. The crown of his head was pointed, with bristled hair pointing in every direction. The nails of its fingers and toes were long and pointed and resembled polished steel more than hardened cuticle. The palms of its hand and the sole of its feet were hard and calloused. In fact, the whole body, while human in shape, seemed very different in character from that of the human species. Gradually an electric glow covered the entire body with light-centers at the ends of those pointed nails, the eyes, and the top of the head. It began to rub its feet rapidly upon the floor of the cave. This increased the glow of its body and caused the light-centers to shine with increased brilliancy. It seemed to receive some vital fluid from the earth that at once gave new vigor to its whole system.
It has been discussed that Bigfoot might gather seismic energy into their body and convert it into an electrical charge. If Bigfoot were able to produce an electromagnetic field, researchers speculate this might be what causes intense fear, the experience of missing time, trance states, a sense of being watched, and paralysis. A few individuals reported a sensation of electricity in the air similar to the fuzzy, static feeling one gets when placing one s hand in front of a television screen. Accompanying symptoms are different for each person, varying from feeling nervous and unwelcome to nauseated and paralyzed.
Many reports of equipment failure and dead batteries often accompany alleged Bigfoot sightings. As do glowing eyes, which, for the purposes of this book, differ from reflective eyes. Reflective eyes require a source of light. Glowing eyes do not. While some speculate glowing eyes are because of bioluminescence, others think this can t be true because bioluminescence is involuntary. Bigfoot would have a hard time hiding with bioluminescence. Perhaps tied to his ability to emit an electrical charge is the ability to control a glow in his eyes.
Orbs
A second anomaly a few Bigfooters have experienced are flashes of bright light, slightly off the ground but not in the sky. These typically range in size from a baseball to a beach ball. People have seen this light as a bluish-white or yellow orb that floats or moves as it passes through an area, much in the way a drone might be used. They say the lights tend to appear before, during, or after a Bigfoot sighting. Some report that the flashes increase as Bigfoot moves. At first, researchers thought these were lightning balls-glowing spheres that move freely through the air. After further study, they dismissed the idea. Even if the orbs were a trick of perception, they appeared to be intelligently controlled, as if Bigfoot wielded them with a purpose.
Invisibility
On occasion, people have reported hearing heavy bipedal footsteps near them in the forest but seeing nothing. To explain this phenomenon, some researchers speculate Bigfoot uses a highly sophisticated camouflage that allows him to blend into the environment. After studying an alleged tuft of Bigfoot hair found in the wild, researchers reported the existence of many kinds of hairs-different colors, textures, and levels of transparency. They concluded that if viewed from different angles, under specific lighting, Bigfoot might create the illusion of disappearing.
Some man-made materials, called metamaterials, can control electromagnetic waves. Metamaterial cloaking allows certain types of electromagnetic radiation, like light, to bend around an object, giving the appearance that the object isn t there. In certain circles of study, it s believed that if Bigfoot were his own energy source, then he could channel light around his body to ensure onlookers would not see him. Rather, they would see what stood behind him. If conditions are not optimal, then Bigfoot might be seen, which could explain the brief intermittent glimpses of firsthand encounters.

The area in and around Pennsylvania s Chestnut Ridge is a hotbed for Bigfoot sightings .
B IGFOOT AND THE P ARANORMAL
Portals and Interdimensional Travel
In the 1970s, a couple of Bigfoot researchers correlated Bigfoot sightings with UFOs. As interest in the topic grew, more and more scientists joined in the UFO/Bigfoot discussion. In most reports, eyewitnesses described the following but not always in the same order: an object with strange lights hovered in the sky, observers saw a creature lurking nearby before or after the sighting, and they found unusual footprints in the vicinity. Sometimes the object landed, and hairy bipeds descended a platform into the forest.
But some ufologists and paranormal researchers are keener to believe window areas throughout the world exist to connect our reality to parallel dimensions. This has led many to speculate whether UFOs and Bigfoot are interdimensional travelers.
By shifting up and down through the electromagnetic spectrum, researchers believe Bigfoot can materialize and dematerialize as they please. The Mach effect, a principle in physics, is thought to create momentary tears in the electromagnetic membrane separating our universe from a parallel one. If true, it might allow for Bigfoot to step from one world into another.
Discussion surrounding the supernatural abilities of Bigfoot continues as more and more sightings take place without consequential proof of Bigfoot s existence.
The Sasquatch People
A select group of people believe Sasquatch are highly evolved nature people who are also interdimensional ultraterrestrials. As the spiritual keepers of Mother Earth, Sasquatch live in the bodies of hairy giants. Researchers in this area of study believe the Sasquatch people were brought to Earth millions of years ago by their friends, the Star People. Earth belongs to the Star People, and this is one way they care for the planet.
These humanlike beings have a profound psychic ability well beyond anything humanity can comprehend. Appearing as translucent apparitions, the Sasquatch people have mastered astral traveling and the ability to speak telepathically to the chosen light workers -honest, compassionate, and trustworthy people chosen to communicate their message to the outside world.
The Sasquatch avoid humans because of their weapons and methods of deception. Kinder to their fellow creatures and the environment, these nature people are the ultimate environmentalists, and their message is to communicate how modern humanity is destroying the planet.
Light workers say the Sasquatch are a complex group, a secret society with a counselor of elders who make the decisions. One message given to the light workers by an elder reads: My people was created as part of a cosmic plan to allow ancient souls of star beings to incarnate on this young planet and help it evolve into an intergalactic outpost of consciousness, while discovering many resources and life forms (Kamooh, Sasquatch Elder Brother).
The Forest Demon
While different field research organizations continue to endorse a biological description of Bigfoot, others believe the absence of a body might indicate a spiritual being, a forest demon. People are seeing something. Is it possible a demon would embody Bigfoot to terrorize people, play mind games, or entice men and women to compromise values and morality in a quest for something outside their reach?
Is pursuing Bigfoot a faithful quest or one riddled with selfish desires, threatening to steal a bit of humankind s soul? Each person speaks for him- or herself and the motivations that drive him or her in the quest to discover the unknown, but as we ll see in later chapters, money, fame, and fortune have driven much of the Bigfoot-seeking culture. Discovering Big-foot can become an all-consuming quest to find or prove the truth. What if the truth is something entirely different? Are people being led down a dark path of deception away from truth? In his book Operation Trojan Horse, John Keel wrote, Demonology is not just another crackpot-ology. It is the ancient and scholarly study of the monster and demons who have seemingly coexisted with man throughout history. Thousands of books have been written on the subject. The manifestations and occurrences described in this imposing literature are similar, if not entirely identical, to the UFO phenomenon itself. The devil and his demons can, according to literature, manifest themselves in almost any form and can physically imitate anything from angels to horrifying monsters with glowing eyes.
B IGFOOT AS A M ONSTER
Monsters are scary. Fascinating. Fun. Millions of people enter haunted houses and watch horror movies to encounter these creatures. Why? What makes a person want to see (from a safe zone) a monster terrorizing innocent people? Is there something wrong with humans, or is it natural to crave this excitement? As we explore our reasons for inventing monsters, we ll examine how Bigfoot fits into the monster world and if that s where he belongs.
Various definitions for monster have these descriptors in common: frightening, destructive, strange, disgusting, crafty, killer, cruel, repulsive, and man-made. They re also described as operating outside morality, violating the laws of nature, and-interestingly enough-having a literary and cultural heritage.
The common denominator in each of these descriptors, except the last, is fear. Fear is the unpleasant emotion caused by those things listed in the previous paragraph. But why? Why do we fear these things? Our perspective and level of fear are rooted in our personal experiences and how those experiences have affected our mind, body, and soul.
As we look at these three areas and think about Bigfoot, we ll examine whether this creature is a monster and whether firsthand encounters could be the psyche s manipulation of a frightening situation.
The Body-Physical Reactions to Fear
The film The Legend of Boggy Creek came out in 1972 and is categorized as a drama, horror, and mystery. With mild violence and gore, it has severely intense and frightening scenes. The low-budget film was a success (read more in chapter 4: Bigfoot Culture ). Scary, ferocious Bigfoot films exist in abundance. At the writing of this book, there are twelve pages of Bigfoot horror films on Amazon. Why do so many people love horror in movies and literature and during Halloween?
In movies and literature, writers strive to give the viewer or reader a visceral experience. It s what keeps you watching or reading. The way they tell the story through a point-of-view character allows you to experience the unfolding events alongside the protagonist. You get to be victorious over the monster, or you get to be the monster. What is it about the human condition that desires this entertainment?
The physical reasons we entertain the company of a monster are straightforward. It s fun, and the adrenaline rush leaves us feeling good after the event is over. It s biochemical. We get to laugh ourselves silly in a haunted house or sit in a theater hanging between the desire to watch a gruesome scene unfold or bolt for the exit. Fight or flight.
How about the real people who encountered the Fouke Monster in The Legend of Boggy Creek? They weren t laughing. When the gruesome, hairy creature chased them into the house and threatened their lives, the fear was real. It s not likely that the individuals who experience such horrific events enjoy horror films. Our experiences shape our fears.
If you were a five-year-old scared out of your wits while watching Halloween during a storm with a strange babysitter who threatened to call Michael Myers if you didn t sleep, then you might attach a stronger feeling of fear to horror films. This could carry over into adulthood.
Conversely, if you tour a haunted house with a group of friends and have the time of your life despite the terrorizing efforts of monsters, you are likely to associate haunted houses with fond memories. Dr. Glen Sparks of the Brian Lam School of Communication at Purdue University explains this as the excitation transfer process. Adrenaline intensifies the emotions we attach to specific events. For some, negative emotions are resistant to being extinguished, and high levels of fright should be avoided.
Perceiving Bigfoot as a monster may depend on how a person has learned to experience frightening situations.
The Mind-Emotional and Mental Reactions to Fear
Could there be a place deep in our psyche that fears such monsters and, as a result, manipulates signals as they travel from our optic nerves to the brain s visual cortex, causing shadows to twist into fearful beings who lurk behind trees and rocks? Could he be the monster under our bed, a subliminal function of our psyche that represents deep-seated fears?
The emotional response to fear is highly personalized. Because fear involves some of the same chemical responses in our brains as positive emotions such as happiness and excitement, feeling fear under certain circumstances can have lasting effects unless addressed.
Could this be why there are so many Bigfoot horror films that paint Bigfoot as a bloodthirsty monster? When Bigfoot is categorized in this way, it affords viewers a sense of control and makes the possibility of the creature s existence seem less real. Or could it be the opposite? Movies about Bigfoot are the resources we use to learn about him, and what we feed our mind becomes our reality.

Typhon, the father of all monsters .
The Soul-Spiritual and Intellectual Reactions to Fear
Why are monster origins found in literature? Why did people write about these figures? We ll go into more depth on the origin of monsters in the History and Legends chapter of this book, but for now, let s dwell on the notion that people often teach and learn better when thoughts and ideas use parables or story form. Creative people best express themselves through their art. For storytellers, the written word anchors a story in time. Thus, many monsters found their way to the page when early school ars wanted to teach, share a message, or entertain a thought. Monsters were the perfect representation of evil.
Our nature is to live our lives with an element of monster lurking about. Around the time Homer and Hesiod were recording gruesome stories about Cyclops, the Chimera, and Typhon, the Prophet Isaiah was writing about what many believe to be a real monster who d been roaming the earth since the beginning of time. The Bible and Torah tell the story of Satan as a serpent tempting Adam and Eve. In the Koran, Iblis is a jinn or genie but acts as the same evil predator. In each case, an angel fell from God s grace and took the form of a monster to deceive humankind. His intent-to kill and destroy. Now the serpent was more subtil than any of the wild animals the Lord God had made (Genesis 3:1, KJV). This devilish monster influenced the early writings of Dante s Inferno (AD 1320) and John Milton s Paradise Lost (AD 1667).
Over time, imaginations broadened, and the monster world grew. What better way to express these beliefs than through figments of our imagination? Every culture has its own monster that stands out to represent societal fears and unfulfilled desires. Does Bigfoot represent that for America?
O THER
Other interpretations of Bigfoot suggest a humanoid ape, a missing link, or a wild man. While any of these could fall into the previous categories, let s imagine them as their own entities.
Humanoids have human characteristics. A few eyewitnesses report a traditionally large, hairy figure with a humanlike face, bipedalism, and opposable thumbs. He can think, act, and reason like a human. Possibly smarter than humankind, he keeps himself hidden from society so he can live away from the chaos.
The missing link alludes to the theory of evolution, suggesting apes and humans evolved from a common ancestor over time and that Bigfoot fits somewhere between primates and modern man. Or at some point an apelike creature with compatible DNA once reproduced with a human to create a hominid that may account for one Bigfoot-type reported across the country.
A wild man could live in the woods or mountains undetected, and big feet are not unheard of. Jeison Orlando Rodriguez Hernandez of Venezue la is recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as having the largest human foot of anyone presently living. At sixteen inches, he wears a size 26 shoe. This is about the average size of a Bigfoot. Considering the thousands of footprints found throughout North America, the wild men would consistently need to have exceptionally large feet if they were the Bigfoot.
Based on the categories above, do you think Bigfoot is an animal, supernatural or paranormal being, or a man-made monstrous figure? Can any person answer this? Not yet, but we can speculate, draw conclusions, and have fun keeping in mind that, for now, Bigfoot still belongs to the kingdom of cryptids.
2
WHO S WHO AMONG BIGFOOT

I n his book Bigfoot! The True Story of Apes in America , cryptozoologist Loren Coleman lists the twenty most likely places to glimpse the hairy bipedal. Of the twenty locations, eight are in the Pacific Northwest, four are in the Deep South, four are in the Midwest, two are in the Northeast, and two are elsewhere. While none of the locations are in the Appalachian South, we chose it as one of our focal areas because reports of encounters and a history rich in Bigfoot legend abound in the southern Appalachian states.
As we profile the various Bigfoot found in different regions, we ll list the names that appear most often. But since there are so many Bigfoot and names, we left out a few. Also, please keep in mind that eyewitness accounts and evidence found are not always consistent within the same region. We accessed available reports and attempted to profile various Bigfoot with as much accurate and unique detail as possible.

B IGFOOT IN THE N ORTHEAST
Similar to the classic Bigfoot in appearance, this type is said to have a more humanlike face. They have less facial hair but more hair over the body. Bigfoot of the Northeast have a history of being aggressive and violent and of eating humans. Daylight sightings are a common occurrence.
T HE A GROPELTER

Hair/Fur: short black hair
Height: 3 feet
Body Appearance: slender, wiry body; arms like muscular whips
Facial Features: villainous ash-gray face of an ape
Demeanor: mischievous, evil; hurls branches and pieces of bark at loggers with a perfect and powerful aim
Diet: woodpeckers, hoot owls, and doty wood
Location: lives in hollow conifer trees from Maine to Oregon
Tidbit: A creature of logger history, he was the subject of many prankster stories the loggers would tell to haze the new guys. Babies are said to be born on February 29 and arrive in odd numbers.
B OSTON B AHUMAGOSH
Hair/Fur: light-gray to dark-brown matted fur
Height: up to 10 feet
Weight: 400 pounds
Characteristics: dirty smell
Demeanor: shy
Diet: small wildlife, tubers, and berries
Foot Size: large feet
Location: area surrounding Boston, possibly a wanderer who drifted in from the Berkshires or the Hockomock Swamp
G ENOSKWA

Hair/Fur: rock-hard skin. Early legends tell of a humanlike beast that rubbed against trees, covering himself in sap. He then rolled on the ground in stones, sticks, and leaves.
Height: 9 to 11 feet
Weight: 800 to 1100 pounds
Body Appearance: tree-trunk-sized neck and massive shoulders
Facial Features: humanlike
Characteristics: agile and fast, smells of skunk and dead animals
Demeanor: aggressive, with a tendency to throw rocks; known to decapitate victims by twisting off their heads
Diet: cannibal and carnivore
Location: woodlands of the Northeast
Tidbit: In Iroquois folklore, this creature is also known as Ot ne yar heh , or Stone Giant. He is said to be a member of a powerful tribe from the wilderness. In pop culture, the Genoskwa appears in the novel Skin Game , by Jim Butcher.
S TONEMAN

Hair/Fur: dark or reddish brown
Height: 7 to 9 feet
Body Appearance: similar body type as classic Bigfoot, long arms
Facial Features: less facial hair, humanlike face, round head
Characteristics: heavy breathing
Demeanor: aggressive
Foot Size: distinctive curved five-toed footprint, 15 inches lo

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