Diaspora for Development in Africa
358 pages

Diaspora for Development in Africa


YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
358 pages
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication


The diaspora of developing countries can be a potent force for development, through remittances, but more importantly, through promotion of trade, investment, knowledge and technology transfers. The book aims to consolidate research and evidence on these issues with a view to formulating policies in both sending and receiving countries.



Publié par
Publié le 26 avril 2011
Nombre de lectures 29
EAN13 9780821386194
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo


Sonia Plaza and Dilip Ratha, EditorsDIASPORA FOR
Sonia Plaza and Dilip Ratha
Editors© 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: www.worldbank.org
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 14 13 12 11
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel-
opment / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or
the governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The
boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work
do not imply any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of
any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all
of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of
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For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request
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All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed
to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433,
USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Diaspora for development in Africa / edited by Sonia Plaza and Dilip Ratha.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-8213-8258-5 — ISBN 978-0-8213-8619-4
1. African diaspora—Economic aspects. 2. Africans—Foreign countries—Economic aspects.
3. Economic development—Finance—Africa. 4. Africa—Emigration and immigration—
Economic aspects. 5. Emigrant remittances—Africa. 6. Entrepreneurship—Africa. 7. Migration
for Development in Africa (Program) I. Plaza, Sonia. II. Ratha, Dilip.
DT16.5.D536 2011
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8258-5
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8619-4
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8258-5
Cover illustration by: Diana Ong/SuperStock by Getty Images
Cover design by Drew FasickContents
Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Contributors xv
Abbreviations xxiii
Harnessing Diaspora Resources for Africa 1
Sonia Plaza and Dilip Ratha
1 Diasporas of the South: Situating the African
Diaspora in Africa 55
Jonathan Crush
2 Another Link in the Chain: Migrant Networks and
International Investment 79
David Leblang
3 Return Migration and Small Enterprise Development
in the Maghreb 103
Flore Gubert and Christophe J. Nordman
4 Diaspora Bonds: Tapping the Diaspora during
Difficult Times 127
Suhas L. Ketkar and Dilip Ratha
5 African Diaspora Associations in Denmark:
A Study of Their Development Activities and Potentials 145
Lars Ove Trans and Ida Marie Vammen
6 The Financial Consequences of High-Skill Emigration:
Lessons from African Doctors Abroad 165
Michael A. Clemens
7 France’s Codevelopment Program: Financial and
Fiscal Incentives to Promote Diaspora Entrepreneurship
and Transfers 183
Marion Panizzon
8 The Migration for Development in Africa Experience
and Beyond 231
Ndioro Ndiaye, Susanne Melde, and
Rougui Ndiaye-Coïc
9 Reinforcing the Contributions of African Diasporas
to Development 261
Chukwu-Emeka Chikezie
10 Migration and Productive Investment:
A Conceptual Framework 283
Valeria Galetto
1 Defining Diasporas 3
2 The Role of Embassies in Enabling Diasporas 35
5.1 Danish Senior Citizens 150
5.2 The Ghanaian Female Chief 159
8.1 Different Modalities of Transfer of Intellectual
and Socioprofessional Resources 237
8.2 MIDA Great Lakes – Enhancing the Capacity
of the University of Goma 241
8.3 How the Democratic Republic of Congo and
Rwanda Include the Diaspora and Migration
Communities in Country Policies and
Action Plans 249CONTENTS vii
1 Top Sources of African Immigrants in the
United States, 2010 5
2 Migration and Trade Go Hand in Hand 9
3 Investments in Business and Housing
Funded by Remittances from Within and
Outside Africa 11
1.1 Official Levels of Migration, South Africa,
1990–2002 61
5.1 Types of Development Activities 152
6.1 Percentage of African-Born Doctors in the
United States Who Received Their Medical
Doctor Degrees in Their Countries of Birth 169
6.2 Time Elapsed between Receipt of Doctor of
Medicine Degree and Arrival in Canada or the
United States, for Those Who Received Their
Doctor of Medicine Degree in Their African
Country of Birth 170
6.3 Annual Remittances to Country of Birth
for Physicians Born in Africa, Residing in
Canada and the United States in 2006,
Including Nonremitters 172
8.1 MIDA Framework 232
8.2 Profiles of the 1,100 Candidates Registered
in the MIDA Great Lakes Database 235
10.1 Migration Prevalence Ratio, San Juanico
and Xhániro, 1950–2005 309
10.2 Share of Avocado Producers among
Household Heads, San Juanico, 2005 310
1 The Potential for Diaspora Savings in African
Countries, 2009 15
2 Countries Permitting and Prohibiting Dual
Citizenship for Adults 25
1.1 Cumulative Global Migration Flows, 2005 57
1.2 Global African Migrant Stock by Region 58
1.3 Migrant Stock in South Africa, 2001 61viii CONTENTS
1.4 SADC Countries of Origin of Migrants to
South Africa, 2001 62
1.5 Variable Estimates of Southern African
Development Community Migrant Stock
in South Africa 63
1.6 Demographic Profile of African Diaspora in
South Africa, 2001 64
1.7 Regional Distribution of South African Diaspora 66
1.8 Major Countries of South African Diaspora 66
1.9 Phases of South African Immigration to
Australia, Canada, and New Zealand 67
1.10 Health Professionals in the South African
Diaspora, Circa 2000 69
1.11 Comparing the Diasporas 70
1.12 Use of Remittances in Countries of Origin 72
2.1 Effect of Organizations, Institutions, and
Information on Cross-Border Investment 88
2.2 Endogeneity 93
2.3 Information and Heterogeneous Investments 95
2.4 External Voting Rights 96
3.1 Overseas Destination and Mean Duration of
Stay of Returnees 107
3.2 Characteristics of Return Migrants 109
3.3 Characteristics of Return Migrants by
Employment Status 112
3.4 Employment Status during Migration,
by Last Country of Immigration 116
4.1 Comparison of Israeli and Indian Diaspora Bonds 132
4.2 Countries with Large Diasporas Abroad 135
5.1 Development Activities in Relation to
Membership Composition 154
5.2 Funding Sources in Relation to Membership
Composition 154
5.3 Typology of the Associations Involved in
Development Activities 157
7.1 French Migration Pacts 204
9.1 Correlating Productivity Drivers with Forms
of Diaspora Capital 270

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