Geometry and Geography
3 pages

Geometry and Geography

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Geometry and Geography Tom Davis March 12, 2011 1 Pedagogical Advice I have been leading mathematical circles using this topic for many years, and it seems to work well for both young and old students. The youngest group I've tried it on is third graders, and it works equally well for high school students. Of course the selection of questions and the presentation varies, depending on the level of the students.
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Publié par
Nombre de lectures 42
Langue English


Developing P urposesfor Reading
The key stepin a Directed Reading/Thinking Activ ityis develop ingp urposesfor reading. Purposes or questions represent the directionaland motivating influences that get readers started, keep them on course, and produce the vigor and potency andp ushto carry them through to the end.
Purposes forreading represent the keyelement in versatility. Versatile readers adjust rate of reading according to theirp urposesfor reading,and to the nature and difficulty of the material b eingread. By focusing onp urposesfor readingfrom the v ery b eginningof formal instruction, the reader acquiresan attitude toward reading and an app reciationof the use and value of p urposesfor directingthe reading act.In the earlyp hasesof the instructional program the y oungreaders willnot be particularly articulate about what they are doing and how they are doing it,b utb yrep eatedex p eriencethey will, as they mature, begin tosee how to be delib erate.Of allthe reading skilersatility is the one thats, vauthorities and teachers and readers find mostfrequently lacking.That studentscomplete highschool and college without accomp lishingthis high order readingskilmethodology fromreflects the use of inapprop riate the very beginning of reading instruction.
Direct edReading/Thinking Act ivit y( DRTA)
The directed reading/thinking activity (DRTA) encourages readers to engage actively ina three-step comprehension cycle. 1. Sample the text. 2. Make p redictions. 3. Sample the text toconfirm or correct previous predictions. To use the DRTA, teachers give students a text selection and ask themto read the title, a few sampled lines of text, and examine the pictures to develop hyp othesesab outthe text. C hildrengenerate hyp othesesas they read from the text and from their own exp eriential b ackgrounds.
Teachers may adapt the DRTA in sucha way as to samplethe most important elements of a narrativ eor exp osition b asedon the text structureemp loy ed.If the children are assigneda narrativ eor storyto read, the DRTA could be based on the important elements of a story grammar or map, assuggested by Beck andM cKeown(1981). Theseelements include setting, characters, initiating events, problems, attempts to solve problems, outcomes or resolutions. Forex amp le,consider the sampleDRTA lesson constructed using the story C loudyW ith a C hanceof Meatb allsb yJudi B arrett(1978).
E xampleDRTA Lesson
The teacher b egins the lesson b yshowing the book andsay ing:
The title of the b ookwe're going to read todayis Cloudy With a C hanceof Meatb alls.W hat do thistitle and the picture make you think the storyis about?
Jo h nabout anold man that: Itmight bemeatballsmakes a magic spell onthe sky so that come down when he wants to eat them. L isawant rains downabout a place where any kind of food youmight bethink it: Ifrom the sky. T e ache r: Let'sread and see how close yourpredictions are.
T h ete ache rth e nre ad s u n til th eto wno fCh e wan d swallo wis de scrib e d . T e ache rdo you stillagree with yourpredictions?: Now, Ch ildre nsounds like it's going to be about a place like Lisadescribed.: It T e ache r: Whatthink so?makes you Je ssica: Becausetalked at all about an old man, the author only described thethey haven't town and how food rained down for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. T e ache r: Wouldyou like to live in a town like Chewandswallow? S u santhink itwould be fun because then you wouldn't have to wait foryour mom: I to cookdinner. Youcould just catch some extrafood and eat when you were hungry.
T yle rlike barbecuedif it rained something heavywouldn't like it cuz what would happen: I ribs andyou got hit on the head and got knocked out or died.
T e ache r: town? Je ff: Maria:
Tyler broughtup a good point.Could there besome problems with living in this
It could rain heavythings and hurt you.
If there were a stormof ice creamor something mushyit would get really messy.
T e ache r: Good,now that you're thinking about what a place like Chewandswallow would be like, let's read onto see whathappens in the town.
S h ere ad s u n til th ewe athe rtake s atu rnfo rth ewo rse.
T e ache r: Nowis going to happen in the story?what doyou think Jame sfood for breakfast, lunch, and dinnerand then: It'sabout a town that rains one day the food starts coming down funny.
T e ache r:
What doyou mean by funny?
Jame smuch food started coming down.think that maybe too: I T e ache r: Whatthink that maybe toomakes youmuch food started coming down? Jame sin the picture there is too much spaghetti in the road and the cars: Well, can't move. T e ache r: Good,now let's continue reading to see if you are right.
The teacher now reads until the story describes a tomato tornado and then stops and asks questions again.
T e ache r: So,the town of Chewandswallow?what happens in Kaylalike peanut butter,: Allof it is yuckydown. Somefood starts comingkinds of mayonnaise, and brussels sprouts.And sometimes justtoo much of it comes down, like when they had a tomatotornado. Everythingwas a mess because the food was going crazy. T e ache rso?the town willdo aboutdo you thinkdo you thinkit? Why: What F ran ka magician to put a spell on the clouds so that the weatherthink that they will hire: I willget straightened out because sometimes in the stories theycan do that.
Haro ld: would do.
I think that they have toleave if they can, before they all die.That's what I
Nan cyaskthey canto find out who is in charge of making it rain so thatthink they need: I themto stop it and make things go backto normal.
T e ache rNow I want you all to decide which of those you think is: Thoseare good answers. the mostlikely to happen and let's continue reading.
T h ete ach e r re ad s th ere sto fth eb o o k.
T e ache rsolvedyou thought they would do?Did you like how they: Didthe people do what theirproblem? Haro ld: Yes,that's what I thought they should do. F ran kcalled on somebody to help themso thattheyI still think they should've: No, wouldn't have to leave Chewandswallowand have to buy groceries in the store.
A DRTA could alsob eex tendedfor usewith exp ositorytex tssuch asthose found in the classroom science, health, and social studies textb ooks.
Source: Reutzel, Ray D.and Robert B. Cooter, Jr.,TeachingChildren toRead:FromBasals toBooksNew York: MacmillanPublishing Co.,1992 Video tapes available fromLanguage Arts Supervisor.
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