The Education System in Malawi
414 pages
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The Education System in Malawi

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'The Education System in Malawi', an Education Country Status Report (CSR), is a detailed analysis of the current status of the education sector in Malawi, the results of which have been validated by the government of Malawi. Its main purpose is to enable decision makers to orient national policy on the basis of a factual diagnosis of the overall education sector and to provide relevant analytical information for the dialogue between the government and development partners. The analysis incorporates data and information from multiple sources, such as school administrative surveys by the Ministry of Education, household surveys, and a tracer survey created especially for this study. This CSR, developed by a multi-ministerial national team supported by UNESCO Pôle de Dakar, the World Bank, and GTZ specialists, updates the previous one drawn up in 2003 and consists of eight chapters, including a chapter on higher education. The analysis provides key monitoring and evaluation inputs for the overall education sector, particularly under the framework of the implementation of the National Education Sector Plan.

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Publié par
Publié le 25 février 2010
Nombre de lectures 16
EAN13 9780821381984
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 3 Mo

WORLD BANK WORKING PAPER NO. 182
The Education System
in Malawi
THE WORLD BANKWORLD BANK WORKING PAPER NO. 182
Theducationystem
inalawi



























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14 13210

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ISBN3:78213198
eISBN:78213199
ISSN:7265878 DOI:0. 1596/9782131984

Libraryfongressatalogi ngnublicationata

Theducationystemn Malawiountryta tuseport.
.m.
SBN78213198
1.ducationMa lawi..orldank.
L A1551.E3852010
370. 96897dc22
2009045470







Contents
Forewordromheinisterfducation ,overnmentf alawi..........................xviii
Forewordromhe Worldank ............................................................................................xx
Acknowledgments...............................................................................................................xxiv
Acronymsndbbr eviationsxxvi
Executiveummary ........................................................................................................... x xviii
Policyecommendationsatrixy Subecto r............................................................lii
Technical,ntrepreneurial,nd VocationalducationndrainingTEVET)....lviii
Higherducation ............................................................................................................ l xiii
1.emographics,ocialevelopment, ndacroeconomicondit ions......................1
Summaryfhe hapter....................................................................................................1
Demographics.....................................................................................................................2
Socialevelo pment4
Macroeconomiconditions ...............................................................................................5
2.nrollment Patterns............................................................................................................12
Summaryfhe Chapter..................................................................................................12
Theducationystem inalawi ...................................................................................13
Coveragenrimaryndecondary ducation:choolingndurvival
Profiles........................................................................................................................18
Understandingropoutstherima ryevel............................................................26
3.ducationxpenditure andinancing ............................................................................32
Summaryfhe Chapter32
Totalublicecurrentxpenditure forducation ......................................................34
Publicecurrentxpenditure yevelfchool ing.................................................. 38
Publicecurrentnitostsb yevelfc hooling42
Householdinancing ....................................................................................................... 46
Donorinancing forheducationector 2005–2008) ...............................................51
Comparisonsofchoolonstr uctionosts..................................................................52
4.nternalfficiency,earningu tcomes,ndanagement ssues............................54
Summaryfhe Chapter..................................................................................................54
Internalfficiencyfheducat ionystem .................................................................57
Qualityndearningut comes.................................................................................... 64
Administrationanagemen t..........................................................................................76
PedagogicalManagement:ransformingnputsnto earningutcomes.............. 96
iii

iv Contents
5.quitynd Dispar ities..................................................................................................... .101
Summaryfhe Chapter................................................................................................101
Disparitiesmongocial roups .................................................................................102
Equitynistributionfublic Resourcesor Education.........................................114
6.echnical,ntrepreneur ial,ndocationalducation ndraining.....................118
Summaryfhe Chapter118
Introduction.................................................................................................................. ...119
Enrollment.......................................................................................................................121
Equity...............................................................................................................................124
Costsndinancing ....................................................................................................... 127
Internalfficiencynd Quality.....................................................................................135
Governancessuesnd Institutionalet p................................................................ 141
7.igher Education...............................................................................................................147
Summaryfhe Chapter................................................................................................147
Theenesisndrowthf Higherducationn Malawi........................................148
Higherducationnrollments andieldsof Study..................................................149
Financing..........................................................................................................................158
Internalfficiency 169
Equitynighe rEducation ...........................................................................................175
Governancend Management......................................................................................177
8.xternal Efficiency............................................................................................................182
Summaryfhe Chapter................................................................................................182
Educationnduman Developmentn Malawi........................................................183
Relevancefducationorhe Laborarke t............................................................187
Appendixes.................................................................................................................... .........206
Appendix.1:emographicandocial evelopmentIndicators...........................207
Appendix.2:ontext Index,ethodologyf Calculation.....................................211
Appendix.1:ducationystem tructure .................................................................212
Appendix.2:Enrollm entrends................................................................................213
Appendix.3:opulationstimates orhealawi SR......................................... 215
Appendix.4:rossectionalchooling ProfilesccordingoMISndN
PopulationData.......................................................................................................224
Appendix.5:HowoeadEducational yramids?.................................................226
Appendix.6:actorsxplaininghy SomehildrenNeveroorimary
Education..................................................................................................................228
Appendix.7:odelesultoretention Explanation,asednMISata......231
Appendix.8:uantitativefficiency fducationxpenditure ........................... 232
Appendix.1:xpenditureyypend ourcefundi ng..................................235
Contents v
Appendix.2:inistriesithome ducationctivitiesndducation
Institutionsutsidefhe Ministryfducation .............................................. 237
Appendix.3:ecurrentndapital AllocationsoCDnd Adultiteracy...... 238
Appendix.4:djustmentethodologyor omparingistributionf
Recurrentxpenditureyevel fducation ....................................................239
Appendix.5:omparativeatanxpenditurereakdownnigher
Education..................................................................................................................240
Appendix.6:eachers’alariesnri maryndecondaryducationy
Categoryfeachers .............................................................................................. 241
Appendix.1:nternalfficiencynd ResourcesManagement............................... 242
Appendix.2:SACMEQevels efinitions ...............................................................247
Appendix.3:xaminationPass Ratesnalysis ........................................................248
Appendix.4:onsistencynesour cellocations .................................................. 251
Appendix.5:eacher Training....................................................................................253
Appendix.1:nternalfficiencyables yender256
Appendix.2:ispa rities..............................................................................................257
Appendix.1:EVETecurrent nitostndinancial Managementssues...264
Appendix.2:therEVET ndicators .......................................................................265
Appendix:igher Education.....................................................................................272
Appendix.1:urationf Jobearch ..........................................................................283
Appendix.2:esultsfhempact fducationnocialehavior
Calculations..............................................................................................................284
Appendix.3:atesfeturnf Educationnvestments:alculationMethod.... 288
Appendix.4:mploymentnd Incomeata ............................................................ 293
Appendix:racerStudyfEVETnd Higherducationom pleters................... 295
Part:enerala ckground.................................................................................................29 7
1.ntr oduction............................................................................................................... ..297
2.bjectivesfhe tudy...............................................................................................298
3.ethodolog y 299
PartI:igherducationra certudy .............................................................................301
Introduction:heontextfhe Universityystemn Malawi...............................301
1.ethodolog y 302
2.esultsfraduat etudy .........................................................................................304
3.esultsfr opouttudy...........................................................................................313
4.ummarynd Conclusions........................................................................................315
5.onclusionsnd Recommendations........................................................................316
PartII:EVETrace rtudy ..............................................................................................318
Introduction:heontextfheEVET Systemn Malawi.....................................318
1.ethodolog y............................................................................................................... 319vi Contents
2.esultsfEVE Ttudy............................................................................................. 320
4.ummarynd Conclusions........................................................................................331
PartV:inal emark s........................................................................................................ .334
References.................................................................................................................... ...........335

Tables
Table:TRnublicchoolsy Levelfducation (2007).............................................xl
Table:igherducationeachers’verage Salary,snitsfDPer
CapitaorountriesithDPerap itaowerhanS$5002007rast
yearvaila ble)...............................................................................................................xlvii
Table:nnualveragencomend Expectednnualncome ccordingo
Levelfduca tion.........................................................................................................xl ix
Table.1:volutionnealDP rowth,nflation,ndxchangeate
(MK/US$)............................................................................................................................6
Table.2:volutionnotalovernment Revenuendxpenditurendeficit..........7
Table.3:DPerapitandomestic ResourcessPercentageofDPor
SADCountriesca. 006)................................................................................................8
Table.4:nnualxternalid orducationsercentagefDP(2004–2006
Average)........9
Table.1:nrollmentrendser Educationevel1998–2007) ....................................... 15
Table.2:choolingoveragey Levelfducation (2000–2007)..................................17
Table.3:nternationalompa risonnERSADC ountries) ......................................18
Table.4:ercentfepeaters nrimaryducationccordingoifferent
Dataourcesin ).......................................................................................................... 19
Table.5:onstructionfurvi valrofile ..........................................................................23
Table.6:harefchools andupilsccordingohe umberftandards
Supplied............................................................................................................................26
Table.7:ercentagef upilshoannotontinue noheexttandard
inheamechool, 2006–07(in) ................................................................................27
Table.8:aineasonsor roppingutfchooleclaredychooleads
(in)........................................................................................................................ ..........29
Table.9:aineasonsor Droppingutfchool,eclaredyupilsin).......... 29
Table.1ducationublicec urrentxpenditure ............................................................ 3 5
Table.2:ercentages orducationnublicecurrentExpenditure,ADC
countries..................................................................................................................... .......35
Table.3:reakdownfotalublic ecurrentxpenditureyaturef
Spendingndyevelf Educationin ).................................................................3 7
Table.4:reakdownfublicecurrent Expenditurerevised7/08udget)
byevelf Schooling........................................................................................................39
Table.5:istributionfecurrent xpenditureyevelfchooling,ADC
Countries,2008rastear vailable) .........................................................................40
Table.6:ublicecurrentUnit Costsyevel fchooling...........................................4 3
Table.7:rimaryndecondaryub licRecurrentnitosts,ADCountries
(2007rastear available)............................................................................................44
Contents vii
Table.8:igherducationeachers’verage alary,snitsfDPer
CapitaorountriesithDPerap itaowerhanS$5002007rast
yearvaila ble)..................................................................................................................45
Table.9:tudenteacheratiosn Publicchools, 007.................................................46
Table.10:stimatedreakdownfhe ouseholdxpenditureyevelf
Educationndouseholdnit osts,007 .................................................................47
Table.11:ecompositionfousehold Educationxpenditurein )....................... 49
Table.12:rossountryomparison ofistribution ofouseholdducation
Expenditure......................................................................................................................50
Table.13:harefducationno useholdxpenditureyuintileof
Householdncome ........................................................................................................... 50
Table.14:onorinancingnd ExtraudgetaryrantsoducationMK
Millions)............................................................................................................................51
Table.15:nitonstructionostsnri marychoolonstruction US$)...................52
Table.1:rendnepetitionates ytandardnrimarychoolsfll
Types1999nd006) in)..........................................................................................60
Table.2:epetitionatesyormnec ondarychoolsfllypes2006)
(in)........................................................................................................................ ..........60
Table.3:ropoutates therimaryeveln Allypesfchools1999nd
2006)in ).................................................................................................................. .....62
Table.4:ropoutatestheecondary evelnllypesfchools2006)
(in) ..........62
Table.5:nternalfficiency Coefficientnrimaryndecondarychooling
(1999/00–2006/07)............................................................................................................. 63
Table.6:eadingEnglish)ndat hematicscoresndercentagef
Studentseachinginimumndesira bleevelsfeadingastery
(SACMEQnd II)..........................................................................................................6 5
Table.7:eavingchoolxaminatione sultstherimaryevelychool
Typen (2006)...............................................................................................................67
Table.8:CEndSCE Examinationesults2006) ....................................................... 6 8
Table.9:CEndSCE Examinationsassatesychoolypesn2006)..........68
Table.10:eterminantsfSLE Resultstheationalevel2006)—
MarginalEffect.................................................................................................................71
Table.11:eterminantsfSCE
MarginalEffect..75
Table.12:eachertatus yocationin),overnmentundedrimary
Schools2007) ................................................................................................................ ...78
Table.13:eacheristributionyender andocationin),overnment
Fundedrimarychools 2007).....................................................................................78
Table.14:eacherualifications ndrainingtatusyocationndender
(in),overnmentundedri marychools (2007).................................................79
Table.15:ypesfrainingmongrai nedeachersin),overnment
Fundedrimarychools 2007)79
Table.16:easonsorttritionmongov ernmentundedrima rychools.......... 80
Table.17:TRyocationnllovernment undedchools1999nd007)........80
viii Contents
Table.18:TRsndlassize, tandards–8,novernmentundedublic
Schools2000nd 2007)...................................................................................................82
Table.19:egreefandomnesstivis ionevel,overnmentunded
Schools2007) ................................................................................................................ ...85
Table.20:ookllocationytandardsn Governmentidedchools2007)..........87
Table.21:ookllocationoherence ytandardsnovernmentided
Schools2007)in )........................................................................................................ 88
Table.22:eacherharacteristics novernmentundedecondarychools
byypefchool2007) in)...................................................................................... 90
Table.23:eacherttritionyeasont theecondaryevel (2007)...........................91
Table.24:TRyypesfchools andocation,overnmentunded
Secondarychools (2007)................................................................................................ 92
Table.25:ecapfheunds Allocatedoecondaryc hools......................................9 3
Table.26:elationshipetweenhe Wagenitostndheumberf
Studentstherimary evel........................................................................................94
Table.27:elationshipetweenheag enitostTeachersnly)andhe
Numberftudentsthe econdaryevel ................................................................ 95
Table.1:ocialtructureyighest Levelfducationndomparison
Group,5–24earsl din)......................................................................................102
Table.2:enderarityndexes tifferentducation Levels,000–2007 .................103
Table.3:ercentagefupils ReachinginimumandDesirableevelsf
ReadingasterySACMEQ I) ....................................................................................105
Table.4:eavingchoolxaminatione sultstherimaryevelyender
(2006)...............................................................................................................................106
Table.5:CEndSCExamination Resultstheecondaryevelby
Gender2006) ................................................................................................................. 106
Table.6:ifferencesfccessnd CompletionatesnPrimarynd
Secondaryducation .....................................................................................................107
Table.7:urvivalatesndransition Acrossevelsin )....................................... 110
Table.8:ercentagefupils ReachinginimumandDesirableevelsf
ReadingasterySACMEQ I) ....................................................................................113
Table.9:istributionfublic Educationpendingccordingoheighest
LevelttendedPseudoohort f00hildren) ..................................................... 114
Table.18:enefit ncidence ................................................................................................117
Table.1:ynopsisfifferentEVET Providerypesn Malawi...............................119
Table.2umberfegular ndaralleltudentsnechnicalolleges2007).......122
Table.3:ourcesfEVETundingy Trainingrovider System............................. 128
Table.4:otalublicpending forEVET007/08M K).............................................129
Table.5:ummaryerraineef PublicAllocationso TCs,007/08 .........................130
Table.6:xpenditurenC007/08Revisedudget )yubprograms in).........131
Table.7:EVETAncomero m003–2007MK )............................................................132
Table.8:EVETAxpendituretruct ure2002/03o006/07 (in)............................ 133
Table.9:ualificationsfeachers nCs2007) ........................................................... 140
Table.1:nrollment,ctualu mber,ndumberper 00,000nhabitants.............149
Table.2:ieldsf Study2008) ..........................................................................................152
Table.3:ostgraduatetudents yieldsftudynd ollege2008) ...................... 156 Contents ix
Table.4:omparisonfeesnublic andrivateniversities (inK)...................160
Table.5:urplusndeficit nxpenditure s................................................................. 164
Table.6a:nitost Perxpenditureategory:NIMA (inK)...............................166
Table.6b:nitosterxpenditure Category:ZUNIin K)................................166
Table.7:taffrofilenublic ndrivate Universities................................................169
Table.8:ualificationsftaff nublicnstitutions ...................................................170
Table.9:tudent/Staffatios or008 .............................................................................. 171
Table.10:umulativeniversityr aduateutput2003–2007) ................................. 172
Table.11:nrollmentfomen yieldsftudy (2008)...........................................176
Table.1:imulatedet Impactfducationnocial BehaviorsnMalawi ............ 184
Table.2:mpactfother’s Educationnariousdu ltehaviorsShare
forheifferentycles) in) ....................................................................................187
Table.3:istributionforkforce yevelfducationndypef
Employmentnercentagesor5ears ldndver 2004)...............................188
Table.4:nnualveragencomend xpectednnualnco meccordingo
Levelfchooling .......................................................................................................... 1 89
Table.5:onthseededyEraduates oroperlyCarryutrofessional
Tasks................................................................................................................................193
Table.7:mploymenttatus fEVETompleters ...................................................... 194
Table.8:mploymentofllinds) RatefEVETraduatesreavers,
Aged5–34nd5–59nifferent Africanountriesin ).................................. 195
Table8.9:PositionfTEVETCompleterstFirstmploymentndimeftudy
(in% )........................................................................................................................ ........198
Table.10:rivatendocial RatesfReturn oducation ...........................................200
Table.11:ORnalawi Comparedoelectedtherfrican ountries................ 200
Table.12:ercentagef irmshateportabor egulationsndkillevels
oforkerssajorr Severeonstraintn Malawi............................................202
TableA.1:16earldopulations %fotal,ADC Countries2008)..............208
TableA.2:opulationivingelowoverty inesndinindex2005r
Closestear)in )........................................................................................................2 08
TableA.3:rphans0–17ears)ue oIDS,ADCountries 2007)..................... 209
TableA.4:fricanontext ndexes ..................................................................................209
TableA.5:therocialev elopmentndicators ............................................................ 210
TableA.1:utreachopulationy iteracyrogra ms.................................................. 214
TableA.2:xpectedchoolge opulationor006nd 2007,SOrojections..... 217
TableA.3:ifferencesfstim ates2006) ....................................................................... 222
TableA.4:omparisonf Somechoolingndicators Accordingoheources
ofatasedor theopulationstima tes2006) .....................................................223
TableA.5:volutionfrossntake RateAccessateotandard)ince
2000..................................................................................................................................225
TableA.6:odelorcces sateotandardsing ouseholdurveyata.......228
TableA.7:aineasoneclaredoravin geverttendedchoolin)............ 229
TableA.8:esultsfconometricM odelxplainingetentionatethe
Schoolevel .................................................................................................................. ..231
TableA.9:SRndchoolifexpectancy alculationoralawi 2007)...............232