BLOOMSBURG UNIVERSITY ENGLISH COURSES—FALL 2011
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BLOOMSBURG UNIVERSITY ENGLISH COURSES—FALL 2011

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Description

  • leçon - matière potentielle : the texts
  • cours - matière potentielle : work
  • cours - matière potentielle : the semester
  • expression écrite
  • cours - matière potentielle : writing
  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : about the reading
  • leçon - matière potentielle : journal
  • cours - matière potentielle : students
  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : practice
  • revision - matière potentielle : with an eye
  • leçon - matière potentielle : first half of the course
  • exposé
  • cours - matière potentielle : grade
  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : classes
  • cours - matière potentielle : requirement
  • leçon - matière potentielle : responses
  • revision
  • cours magistral
  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : process
  • leçon - matière potentielle : a text within the professional conversation
  • cours - matière potentielle : work
1 BLOOMSBURG UNIVERSITY ENGLISH COURSES—FALL 2011 English courses help students improve their communication skills, gain insight into human nature, and broaden their knowledge of other times and other places. Many of the courses also satisfy general education requirements. In particular, --all courses listed meet requirements for Group A (Humanities) --* indicates courses that may be used as alternates to Composition 2 (20.201) in fulfilling the second required writing course.
  • cultural clashes
  • human process
  • regular reading responses
  • variety of literary works
  • literacy practices of a social group
  • creative writing
  • fiction
  • practices
  • literature
  • course

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Nombre de lectures 21
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

MEDICAL
GEOLOGY/GEOCHEMISTRY
PILLALAMARRI ILA
Earth Atmospheric & Planetary Sciences
Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139
IAP 2006: 12.091 Credit Course: January 9 - 23, 2006
Session 3A - January 18, 2006
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091
Session 3A: P. ILASession 3A: P. ILA 11Session 3                              January 18, 2006
Objective
Session 3A 
Overview of Analytical Techniques:
Atomic Absorption and Emission 
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
Electron Microprobe  ‐Wavelength and Energy
Dispersive X‐ray Spectroscopy
Session 3B
11AM‐12PM:
(EAPS ‐Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory) 
Concepts of Sample Preparation 
Hands on Experience with  instruments for           
Trace Element Determination  by Neutron 
Activation Analysis –
Hand out of review quiz
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006  12.091  2
Session 3A: P. ILAIntroduction
Analytical technique is a tool to determine
• abundances of elements

• information about minerals

• information about organics

May be categorized as
• inorganic and organic

• qualitative and quantitative

• spectroscopic and classical

January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091 Session 3A: P. ILA 3Introduction …
• Qualitative means – identification.

• Quantitative means - determining the

abundance.
The basic concept of quantitative analysis:
Take a material, with known abundances, called
the standard.
Using the known amount of abundance(s) in the
standard, estimate the abundance(s) in the
unknown called the sample, maintaining all the
conditions and parameters same for the sample
and the standard.
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091 Session 3A: P. ILA 4Spectroscopic vs. Classical Techniques
• Spectroscopic analytical techniques utilize
electromagnetic radiation interaction with the
materials for analysis.
• Classical techniques utilize physical properties:
color, conductivity, density,
electric charge, mass,
refraction, volume
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091 Session 3A: P. ILA 5Electromagnetic Radiation –
Spectroscopic Techniques
Electromagnetic radiation consists
of two sinusoidal waveforms ,
namely electric and magnetic, c,
propagated along the same axis
in planes perpendicular to each
other.
other.
The electromagnetic wave has
two properties:
Energy E
Energy E
Wavelength λ (or frequency υ) )
E = hc / λ = h υ
E = = h
The blue curve indicates the electric vector and orange curve
the magnetic vector component.
h is Planck’s constant, ’
c is velocity of light
Figure by MIT OCW.
Light is a well known example of
electromagnetic radiation.
Figure 1. Components of electromagnetic radiation
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091 Session 3A: P. ILA 6Figure 2. Calibration Curve
Quantitative analysis
involves
determination of a
calibration curve by
measuring the
analytical signal as a
function of known
concentrations of the
standard(s), conducted
in a range of values.
Figure 2. Calibration curve for quantitative analysis
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091 Session 3A: P. ILA 7Figure 3.
Electromagnetic Spectrum and Spectroscopic
Techniques
Based on Figure 3.1 , pp 78, A Handbook of Silicate Rock Analysis, P. J. Potts.
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091 Session 3A: P. ILA 8Spectroscopic Techniques …
• The different energies of the photons in the

electromagnetic spectrum are representative of
different types of interactions in the atoms and
molecules; and are detected and measured by
different types of spectroscopic techniques.
• Microwave and infrared spectroscopy use the

properties of molecular rotations and
vibrations..
• Ultra violet and visible light spectroscopy utilize

absorption and emission of energies of outer
electron transitions.
• X-ray fluorescence – inner electrons

• Gamma rays – nuclear transitions.
• Gamma rays – nuclear transitions.
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091 Session 3A: P. ILA 9Figure 4A.
Pictorial depiction of Atomic Nucleus – Electron
Orbitals
K shell orbital (2 electrons)
L shell orbital (8 electrons)
M shell orbital (18 electrons)
Nucleus
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091
January 18, 2006: IAP 2006 12.091
10
Session 3A: P. ILASession 3A: P. ILA 10