Equity and Growth in a Globalizing World
338 pages

Equity and Growth in a Globalizing World


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338 pages
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication


▪ What has been the evolution of poverty and equity during the recent globalizing decades?
▪ How have poor countries fared on the Millennium Development Goals?
▪ What role does wealth inequality play in the level and efficiency of investment and, hence, in economic growth?
▪ Is gender equity a smart pro-growth strategy as well as a pro-poor one?
▪ How is equality different from equality of opportunity, and should policy makers pursue one, the other, or both?
▪ In formulating distributional strategies, should the middle class be integrally considered, or should the focus be entirely on the poorest of the poor?
▪ What are the precise impacts of globalization on poverty and equity, and what are the policy implications of these impacts?
▪ Is the problem with globalization that a key element is missing-the globalization of labor employment?
▪ What is the role of international migration in the evolution of equity within and between nations?
This book has been prepared for the Commission on Growth and Development to evaluate the state of knowledge on the relationship between poverty, equity, and globalization. It considers a range of questions on poverty and equity within nations, and the policy frameworks that can best address distributional concerns as the basis for a growth strategy. It also examines the important issue of equity between nations, in particular the possible role of international migration in alleviating this inequity.
Written by prominent analysts in their fields, 'Equity and Growth in a Globalizing World' seeks to create a better understanding of the interactions between globalization, growth, and different dimensions of equity and poverty, and to inform policy makers of possible policy levers to address central concerns in the debates in this area.


Publié par
Publié le 18 mai 2010
Nombre de lectures 21
EAN13 9780821381816
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo


Equity and Growth
in a Globalizing World
Ravi Kanbur
Michael Spence
Editors Equity and Growth
in a Globalizing WorldEquity and Growth
in a Globalizing World
Edited by Ravi Kanbur and Michael Spence
Contributions by Ann Harrison
Ravi Kanbur Stephan Klasen
Michael Spence Simon Maxwell
Abhijit Banerjee Margaret McMillan
Agnès Bénassy-Quéré Andrew Morrison
Nancy Birdsall Jean-Philippe Platteau
François Bourguignon Lant Pritchett
Stefan Dercon Dhushyanth Raju
Antonio Estache Mark Rosenzweig
Francisco H. G. Ferreira Nistha Sinha
Jérémie Gignoux Amedeo Spadaro
Jan Willem Gunning
Gordon Hanson
COMMISSION ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT© 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development /
The World Bank
On behalf of the Commission on Growth and Development
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: www.worldbank.org
E-mail: info@worldbank.org
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 13 12 11 10
This volume is a product of the Commission on Growth and Development, which
is sponsored by the following organizations:
Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID)
Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Swedish International Development Corporation Agency (SIDA)
U.K. Department of International Development (DFID)
The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
The World Bank Group
The fi ndings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily
refl ect the views of the sponsoring organizations or the governments they represent.
The sponsoring organizations do not guarantee the accuracy of the data
included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other
information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on the
part of the sponsoring organizations concerning the legal status of any
territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
All queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be
addressed to the Offi ce of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street
NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: pubrights@
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8180-9
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8181-6
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8180-9
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for.Contents
Preface xi
Workshop Participants xv
About the Editors and Contributors xvii
Acknowledgments xxv
Abbreviations xxvii
1 Equity within and between Nations 1
Ravi Kanbur and Michael Spence
2 The Millennium Development Goals:
An Assessment 17
François Bourguignon, Agnès Bénassy-Quéré, Stefan Dercon,
Antonio Estache, Jan Willem Gunning, Ravi Kanbur,
Stephan Klasen, Simon Maxwell, Jean-Philippe Platteau,
and Amedeo Spadaro
3 Globalization, Growth, and Distribution:
Framing the Questions 41
Ravi Kanbur
Contents v 4 Investment Effi ciency and the Distribution
of Wealth 71
Abhijit V. Banerjee
5 Gender Equality, Poverty Reduction,
and Growth: A Copernican Quest 103
Andrew Morrison, Dhushyanth Raju, and Nistha Sinha
6 Inequality of Opportunity for Education:
Turkey 131
Francisco H. G. Ferreira and Jérémie Gignoux
7 The (Indispensable) Middle Class
in Developing Countries 157
Nancy Birdsall
8 Outlining a Research Agenda on the
Links between Globalization and
Poverty 189
Ann Harrison and Margaret McMillan
9 Global Wage Inequality and the
International Flow of Migrants 205
Mark R. Rosenzweig
10 International Migration and Development 229
Gordon H. Hanson
11 The Cliff at the Border 263
Lant Pritchett
Index 287
2.1 Millennium Development Goals 18
2.1 Change in Poverty (MDG1) between 1990 and 2006,
Fragile States (CPIA Defi nition) 22
2.2 Improvements in MDGs between 1990 and 2006,
Nonfragile States (CPIA Defi nition) 23
2.3 Heterogeneity across MDGs 25
2.4 Correlation of Annual Growth Rates, 1990–2006 28
vi Contents2.5 Correlation between Growth and Change in Primary School
Completion Rate, Sub-Saharan Africa Countries, 1996–2006 29
4.1 Parametric Returns to $0–$1,000 in Capital, Mexico 83
4.2 Distribution of Profi ts per Hectare 86
4.3 Profi t-Wealth Ratios and Weather Variability, by
Wealth and Class, Indian ICRISAT Villages 88
4.4a Capital Stock—Net Cohort Effect, Gounders and Outsiders 95
4.4b Capital-Export Ratio, Capital-Production Ratio—Net
Cohort Effects, Gounders and Outsiders 95
6.1 Enrollment-Age Profi les by Gender and Region 137
6.2 Enrollment-Age Profi les by Type of Area 139
6.3 Enrollment-Age Profi les by Mother’s Education 140
6.4 Enrollment-Age Profi les by Number of Children 141
6.5 Enrollment-Age Profi les by Quartiles of the Asset Index 142
6.6 Enrollment-Age Profi les for One Highly Disadvantaged
and One Highly Advantaged Group 145
6.7 Distribution of Standardized Turkish Reading Test
Scores under Three Alternative Assumptions about Selection
into PISA Participation 151
7.1 Ratios of Income or Consumption per Capita by Ventiles of
the Distribution of Selected Countries, ca. 2005 166
7.2 Proportion of Total Income/Consumption Held by
Middle Class, 1990 and 2005 170
7.3 Income Histograms for Selected Countries and Years 171
7.4 Middle-Class Size versus Income (Alternate), 1990 and 2005 181
8.1 Average Income and Net Food Exports by Decade in
Repeated Cross-Section of Developing Countries 199
8.2 Correlation between Poverty and Protection (Tariffs) 200
9.1 Relationship between Log Skill Price (One Skill) and
Log of College Plus Skill Price 216
9.2 Predicted 1996 Annual Earnings of High School
and College Graduates Based on NISP Skill Prices,
Selected Countries 218
9.3 Predicted 1996 Earnings Based on NISP Skill Prices
by Schooling Level and Schooling Return, Bangladesh
and the Republic of Korea 220
10.1 Persistence in Emigration Rates, 1990 and 2000 236
10.2 Emigration Rates and Per Capita GDP, 2000 237
10.3 Emigration Rates for the More Educated, 2000 238
10.4 Persistence in Emigration of the Highly Educated,
1990 and 2000 239
Contents vii10.5 Selection of Emigrants in Terms of Education, 2000 240
11.1 New States Added Each Year, by Region, 1943–94 269
11.2 Differences in Trade Flows between British Columbia
and Ontario and Texas 270
11.3 Wage Profi les to Estimate the Wage Gap 272
11.4 View of the Flatland of Goods and Capital from the
Cliff against Labor Mobility 278
11.5 Comparing Wage Gaps across Borders to Wage
Gaps within Spatially Integrated Labor Markets 280
4.1 Asset Groups and Loans, Six Villages in Kerala and
Tamil Nadu 76
4.2 OLS and IV Estimates of the Effects of Income on
Consumption, Three Regions of Côte d’Ivoire 80
4.3 Farm-Size Productivity Differences, Selected Countries 87
6.1 Circumstances at Birth and Enrollment at Age 15: A Partial
Correlation Analysis 143
6.2 Reduced-Form Regression of Standardized Test Scores on
Circumstances 148
6.3 Opportunity Share of Inequality in Educational
Achievement with Correction for Selection into PISA
Participation at Age 15 152
7.1 Assets of Income/Consumption Groups, Selected Countries 168
7.2 Gini Coeffi cients of Income/Consumption of Middle Class,
Selected Countries, 1990 and 2005 168
7.3 Distribution Statistics, Selected Countries, 1990 and 2005 174
7.4 Average Education of Household Head, by Class,
Selected Countries and Years 176
7.5 Number of Household Members, Poor, Middle Class,
and Rich, Selected Countries and Years 177
7.6 Household Characteristics for Occupation/Pay Period,
Selected Countries 178
7.7 Absolute Size of Middle Class and Middle Class plus Rich 179
A7.1 Summary Statistics and Income Ratios for Selected
Countries, 2005 184
9.1 Characteristics of Global Earnings Data Sets 214
9.2 Test of Mincer Model: Fixed-Effects-Country Log Wage
Regression Coeffi cients from NIS Using Bartik School Quality
Data and Log of Hourly Wage for Men at Last Job before
Coming to the United States 215
viii Contents

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