Intellectual Property and Development
360 pages

Intellectual Property and Development


YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
360 pages
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication


International policies toward protecting intellectual property rights have seen profound changes over the past two decades. Rules on how to protect patents, copyright, trademarks and other forms of intellectual property have become a standard component of international trade agreements. Most significantly, during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations (1986-94), members of what is today the World Trade Organization (WTO) concluded the Agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which sets out minimum standards of protection that most of the world's economies have to respect.
How will developing countries fare in this new international environment? Intellectual Property and Development brings together empirical research that assesses the effects of changing intellectual property regimes on various measures of economic and social performance - ranging from international trade, foreign investment and competition, to innovation and access to new technologies. The studies presented point to an important development dimension to the protection of intellectual property. But a one-size fits all approach to intellectual property is unlikely to work. There is need to adjust intellectual property norms to domestic needs, taking into account developing countries' capacity to innovate, technological needs, and institutional capabilities. In addition, governments need to consider a range of complementary policies to maximize the benefits and reduce the costs of reformed intellectual property regulations.
This book will be of interest to students and scholars of international law, particularly in the area of intellectual property rights, international trade, and public policy.



Publié par
Publié le 01 janvier 2005
Nombre de lectures 61
EAN13 9780821383483
Langue English


lessons from
recent economic research
Carsten Fink • Keith E. MaskusWBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page iiWBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page i
Lessons from Recent Economic ResearchWBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page iiWBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page iii
Lessons from Recent Economic Research
Edited by Carsten Fink
and Keith E. Maskus
A copublication of the World Bank
and Oxford University PressWBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page iv
© 2005 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
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Washington, DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
E-mail: feedback@w
All rights reserved.
1 2 3 4 07 06 05 04
A copublication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press.
198 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10016
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/
The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed here are those of the author(s)
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments
they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The bound-
aries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any
judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorse-
ment or acceptance of such boundaries.
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The material in this work is copyrighted. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in
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All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the
Office of the Publisher, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, fax 202-522-2422,
ISBN 0-8213-5772-7
Library of Congress Catologing-in-Publication Data
Intellectual property and development : lessons from recent economic research / edited by
Carsten Fink, Keith E. Maskus.
p. cm. – (Trade and development series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8213-5772-7 (pbk.)
1. Intellectual property—Economic aspects. 2. Law and economic development. I. Fink,
Carsten. II. Maskus, Keith E. (Keith Eugene) III. Series.
K1401.I5528 2004
Cover illustration photos: The World Bank/Curt Carnemark, Tran Thi Hoa, Trevor SamsonWBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page v
Editors’ Preface ix
Contributors xi
Abbreviations and Acronyms xiii
1 Why We Study Intellectual Property Rights
and What We Have Learned 1
Carsten Fink and Keith E. Maskus
2 How Stronger Protection of Intellectual Property
Rights Affects International Trade Flows 19
Carsten Fink and Carlos A. Primo Braga
3 The Role of Intellectual Property Rights
in Encouraging Foreign Direct Investment
and Technology Transfer 41
Keith E. Maskus
4 Intellectual Property Rights and U.S.
and German International Transactions
in Manufacturing Industries 75
Carsten Fink
5 Intellectual Property Rights and Licensing:
An Econometric Investigation 111
Guifang (Lynn) Yang and Keith E. Maskus
6 The Composition of Foreign Direct Investment
and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights:
Evidence from Transition Economies 133
Beata Smarzynska Javorcik
vWBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page vi
vi Contents
7 Entering the Jungle of Intellectual Property Rights
Exhaustion and Parallel Importation 171
Carsten Fink
8 Parallel Imports in a Model of Vertical Distribution:
Theory, Evidence, and Policy 189
Keith E. Maskus and Yongmin Chen
9 Developing and Distributing Essential Medicines
to Poor Countries: The DEFEND Proposal 207
Mattias Ganslandt, Keith E. Maskus, and Eina V. Wong
10 Patent Protection, Transnational Corporations,
and Market Structure: A Simulation Study
of the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry 227
Carsten Fink
11 Strengthening Intellectual Property Rights in Lebanon 259
Keith E. Maskus
12 Intellectual Property Rights and Economic
Development in China 295
Keith E. Maskus, Sean M. Dougherty, and Andrew Mertha
8.1 Wholesale Price and Parallel Imports 195
8.2 Profits and Trade Costs 197
8.3 Social Surplus 198
2.1 Definition of High-Technology Aggregate 24
2.2 Maximum Likelihood Estimates for Total Nonfuel Imports 27
2.3 Maximonfuel Exports 29
2.4 Maximum Likes for High-Technology Imports 31
2.5 Maximelihood Estimatigh-Tecy Exports 33
3.1 Total FDI Flows, Selected Countries (US$ million) 44
3.2 Net Receipts on Royalties, License Fees, Business Services,
and Direct Investment Income, Selected Countries (US$ million) 46
3.3 U.S. FDI Position in Selected Countries (US$ million) 47WBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page vii
Contents vii
3.4 U.S. FDI Position by Major Sector in Selected Countries,
1994 (US$ million) 49
3.5 Indicators of Multinational Activity in U.S. High-Technology
Industries, 1989 52
3.6 Percentage of Firms Claiming that the Strength or Weakness
of IPRs Has a Strong Effect on Whether Direct Investments
Will Be Made, by Type of Facility, 1991 57
3.7 Percentage of Firms Claiming that Intellectual Property
Protection Is Too Weak to Permit Types of Investment, 1991 58
3.8Elasticities ofModes ofSupply with Respect to Domestic
Characteristics and Policies 64
4.1 U.S. International Transactions in Total Manufacturing:
Ordinary Least Squares Estimates 83
4.2 U.S. International Trotal Manufacturing:
Maximum Likelihood Estimates 84
4.3 U.S. International Transactions in Individual Manufacturing
Industries: OLS Estimates 86
4.4 U.S. International Transactions in Four Manufacturing Industries:
Pooled Ordinary Least Squares Estimates 89
4.5 U.S. Arm’s-Length Exports and Sales by Affiliates in Total
Manufacturing: OLS Estimates 92
4.6 U.S. Arm’s-Ly Affiliates in Individual
Manufacturing Industries: OLS Estimates 93
4.7 U.S. Arm’s-Length Exports and Sales by Affiliates in Three
Manufacturing Industries: Pooled OLS Estimates 95
4.8German Total Exports and FDI Stocks in Four Manufacturing
Industries: Pooled OLS Estimates 98
4.9 German Receipts for Patents, Inventions, and Processes in Six
Manufacturing Categories: Tobit Maximum Likelihood Estimates 101
5.1 Summary Statistics and Correlation Coefficients (NT = 69) 121
5.2 Estimation of Determinants of Licensing Volumes 122
5.3 Fixed-Effects Model with Heteroskedasticity-Consistent
Standard Errors 128
6.1 Measures of IPR Protection 141
6.2 IPR Index Based on IIPA Special 301 Watch List
Recommendations 142
6.3 Probit Results with Ginarte-Park Index of Patent Rights
Protection 145
6.4 Probit Results with IPR Index 148
6.5 Bivariate Probit with Sample Selection: Manufacturing
versus Distribution Projects (Ginarte-Park Index) 152
6.6 Bivariate Probit w Manufacturing
vs. Distribution Projects (IPR Index) 156WBIP_FM.qxd 12/3/04 3:27 PM Page viii
viii Contents
6.A.1 Results of OLS Regressions 160
6.A.2 Multinomial Logit Results: Manufacturing versus
Distribution Projects versus No FDI 162
8.1 Summary of Exhaustion Regimes 193
8.2 Product Categories 201
8.3 Estimation of Vertical Pricing Model 203
9.1 Deaths and DALYs Caused by HIV/AIDS, TB, and Malaria,
1999 (thousands) 211
9.2 International Price Comparison for a Selection of HIV/AIDS
Drugs: Prices in South Africa, Sweden, and the United States,
March 2001 (in US$) 213
9.3 International Price Compar HIV/AIDS
Drugs: Prices as a Share of GDP Per Capita (percent) 214
10.1 Quinolones: Overview 239
10.2 Hypotensives: Overview 240
10.3 Quinolones—Calibrated Weight Parameters 242
10.4 Hypotensives—Calibrated Weight Parameters 243
10.5 Quinolones—Average Profit Margins (percent) 243
10.6 Hypotensives—Average Profit Margcent) 244
10.7 Quinolones—Simulation 246
10.8Hypotensives—Simulation 247
10.9imulated Consumer Welfare Losses
(Rs thousands) 249
10.10 Hypotensives—Simulated Consumer Welfare Losses 250
11.1 Static Effects of Stronger Patent and Trademark Protection
on Pharmaceuticals Firms 270
11.2 Simulated Effects of Stronger Copyrights on Software 279
11.3 Effects of Stronger Copyrights on Printing and Publishing 284
11.4 Stroopyrights on Music and Video,
and Film Industries 287
12.1 Estimates of Percentage Piracy Rates for Copyright
Goods, 1996–97 304
12.2 Patent Applications by Type and Nationality, 1990–2000 315
12.3 Patent Grants by Type and Nationality, 1990–2000 316
12.4 Patenting Indicators for Top 11 Patenting Regions, 1985–96 317
12.5 Trademark Applications and Registrations 318
12.6 Trking Indicators for Top 10 Trademarking
Regions, 1996 319
12.7 International Comparisons of Science and Technology
Indicators, Recent Years 320
12.8Science and Technology Indicators by Region,1995321

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