Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean

Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean


222 pages
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Equality of opportunity is about leveling the playing field so that circumstances such as gender, ethnicity, place of birth, or family background do not influence a person's life chances. Success in life should depend on people's choices, effort and talents, not to their circumstances at birth. 'Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean' introduces new methods for measuring inequality of opportunities and makes an assessment of its evolution in Latin America over a decade.
An innovative Human Opportunity Index and other parametric and non-parametric techniques are presented for quantifying inequality based on circumstances exogenous to individual efforts. These methods are applied to gauge inequality of opportunities in access to basic services for children, learning achievement for youth, and income and consumption for adults.



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Publié le 12 novembre 2008
Nombre de lectures 71
EAN13 9780821377468
Langue English
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Inequality of
in Latin America
and the Caribbean
Ricardo Paes de Barros
Francisco H. G. Ferreira
José R. Molinas Vega
Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi
Foreword by Marcelo M. GiugaleMeasuring Inequality
of Opportunities in
Latin America and the Caribbean Measuring
Inequality of
Opportunities in
Latin America and
the Caribbean
Ricardo Paes de Barros,
Francisco H. G. Ferreira,
José R. Molinas Vega, and
Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi
Mirela de Carvalho, Samuel Franco,
Samuel Freije-Rodríguez, and
Jérémie Gignoux
AND THE WORLD BANK© 2009 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
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ISBN: 978-0-8213-7745-1 (Paperback) ISBN: 978-0-8213-7747-5 (Hardcover)
eISBN: 978-0-8213-7746-8 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7745-1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Measuring inequality of opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean.
p. cm.
Prepared by Ricardo Paes de Barros and others.
ISBN 978-0-8213-7745-1 -- ISBN 978-0-8213-7746-8 (electronic)
1. Latin America—Economic conditions—1982– 2. Caribbean Area—Economic condi-
tions—1945– 3. Latin America—Social conditions—1982– 4. Caribbean Area—Social con-
ditions—1945– 5. Equality—Latin America. 6. Equality—Caribbean Area. 7. Children—
Government policy—Latin America. 8. Children—Government policy—Caribbean Area.
I. Barros, Ricardo Paes de, 1954– II. World Bank.
HC125.M38 2008
Cover design: ULTRAdesignsLatin American Development
Forum Series
This series was created in 2003 to promote debate, disseminate informa-
tion and analysis, and convey the excitement and complexity of the most
topical issues in economic and social development in Latin America and
the Caribbean. It is sponsored by the Inter-American Development Bank,
the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean, and the World Bank. The manuscripts chosen for publication
represent the highest quality in each institution’s research and activity out-
put and have been selected for their relevance to the academic community,
policy makers, researchers, and interested readers.
Advisory Committee Members
Alicia Bárcena Ibarra, Executive Secretary, Economic Commission for
Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations
Inés Bustillo, Director, Washington Office, Economic Commission for
José Luis Guasch, Senior Adviser, Latin America and the Caribbean
Region, World Bank; and Professor of Economics, University of Cali-
fornia, San Diego
Santiago Levy, Vice President for Sectors and Knowledge,
Inter-American Development Bank
Eduardo Lora, Principal Adviser, Research Department, Inter-American
Development Bank
Luis Servén, Research Manager, Development Economics Vice
Presidency, World Bank
Augusto de la Torre, Chief Economist, Latin America and the
Caribbean Region, World Bank
v Other Titles in the Latin
American Development
Forum Series
China’s and India’s Challenge to Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?
(2009) by Daniel Lederman, Marcelo Olarreaga, and Guillermo E. Perry,
Does the Investment Climate Matter? Microeconomic Foundations of
Growth in Latin America (2008) by Pablo Fajnzylber, José Luis Guasch,
and J. Humberto López, editors
The Impact of Private Sector Participation in Infrastructure: Lights,
Shadows, and the Road Ahead (2008) by Luis Andres, José Luis Guasch,
Thomas Haven, and Vivien Foster
Innovative Experiences in Access to Finance: Market-Friendly Roles for
the Visible Hand? (2009) by Augusto de la Torre, Juan Carlos Gozzi, and
Sergio L. Schmukler
Job Creation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Trends and Policy
Challenges (2009) by Carmen Pagés, Gaëlle Pierre, and Stefano Scarpetta
Remittances and Development: Lessons from Latin America (2008) by
Pablo Fajnzylber and J. Humberto López, editors
Fiscal Policy, Stabilization, and Growth: Prudence or Abstinence? (2007)
by Guillermo Perry, Luis Servén, and Rodrigo Suescún, editors
Investor Protection and Corporate Governance: Firm-Level Evidence
across Latin America (2007) by Alberto Chong and Florencio López-de-
Silanes, editors
Natural Resources: Neither Curse nor Destiny (2007) by Daniel Leder-
man and William F. Maloney, editors
Raising Student Learning in Latin America: Challenges for the 21st
Century (2007) by Emiliana Vegas and Jenny Petrow
Beyond Survival: Protecting Households from Health Shocks in Latin
America (2006) by Cristian C. Baeza and Truman G. Packard
Emerging Capital Markets and Globalization: The Latin American
Experience (2006) by Augusto de la Torre and Sergio L. Schmukler
The State of State Reform in Latin America (2006) by Eduardo Lora,
Beyond Reforms: Structural Dynamics and Macroeconomic Vulnerability
(2005) by José Antonio Ocampo, editor
Privatization in Latin America: Myths and Reality (2005) by Alberto
Chong and Florencio López-de-Silanes, editors
Keeping the Promise of Social Security in Latin America (2004) by
Indermit S. Gill, Truman G. Packard, and Juan Yermo
Lessons from NAFTA: For Latin America and the Caribbean (2004) by
Daniel Lederman, William F. Maloney, and Luis Servén
Globalization and Development: A Latin American and Caribbean
Perspective (2003) by José Antonio Ocampo and Juan Martin, editors
Is Geography Destiny? Lessons from Latin America (2003) by John Luke
Gallup, Alejandro Gaviria, and Eduardo Lora
The Limits of Stabilization: Infrastructure, Public Deficits, and Growth
in Latin America (2003) by William Easterly and Luis Servén, editors
About the Authors
Ricardo Paes de Barros holds a PhD in Economics from the University of
Chicago and a Post PhD from the International Growth Center at Yale
University. Since 1979, he has been a researcher at the Instituto de Pes-
quisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA) where he has been conducting research
on inequality, education, poverty, and labor markets in Brazil and Latin
America. He has been a visiting professor at Yale University and a Director
of Social Studies of IPEA. He has been awarded the Haralambos Simedio-
nis and Mario Henrique Simonsen prizes, and admitted by the President
of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva into the Ordem Nacional do Mérito
Francisco H. G. Ferreira is a Lead Economist with the Development
Research Group at the World Bank and has published widely on both the-
oretical and empirical issues related to inequality. Chico (as he is known)
is a coeditor of the Journal of Economic Inequality and a former editor
of Economía (the journal of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic
Association—LACEA). He was a codirector of the team that wrote the
World Development Report 2006, on equity and development. He holds
a BSc (Economics), MSc, and PhD from the London School of Economics,
and was a professor of economics in Rio de Janeiro between 1999 and
José R. Molinas Vega is a Senior Economist with the Poverty Reduction
and Economic Management Unit in the Latin America and the Caribbean
Region at the World Bank. His research interests include social capital,
rural development, the political economy of social service delivery, eco-
nomics of education, poverty analysis, and applied macroeconomics. He
has been Academic Director of the Master’s Program in Economics and
professor of development economics and macroeconomics at the Catholic
University of Asunción (Paraguay). Before joining the World Bank, he was
Director of Instituto Desarrollo in Asunción. José holds a PhD in econom-
ics from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He has been a Visiting
Fellow at the Kellogg Institute of the University of Notre Dame.