Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization
312 pages

Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization


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312 pages
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication


Until the 1990s, the main users of safeguards and antidumping laws were Australia, Canada, the European Union, and the United States. Since then, many countries have implemented such laws, leading to a proliferation in antidumping and safeguard activity across the world. This timely book documents the political economy surrounding the implementation of these laws in seven Latin American countries and provides details on the institutions created, implementation of the laws, and subsequent activity. It finds that, in the larger political context, antidumping and safeguards are a necessary quid pro quo to certain important sectors to obtain much more liberalized trade policies for the general economy.



Publié par
Publié le 05 décembre 2005
Nombre de lectures 24
EAN13 9780821363096
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo


J. Michael Finger • Julio J. NoguésSafeguards
and Antidumping
in Latin American
Trade LiberalizationSafeguards
and Antidumping
in Latin American
Trade Liberalization
Fighting Fire with Fire
Edited by J. Michael Finger
and Julio J. Nogués
A copublication of Palgrave Macmillan
and the World Bank©2006 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
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Washington, DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
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All rights reserved.
A copublication of The World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan.
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This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The
World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily
reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The
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ISBN-10: 0-8213-6308-5 (softcover) 0-8213-6368-9 (hardcover)
ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6308-9
eISBN-10: 0-8213-6309-3
eISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6309-6
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-6308-9
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Finger, J.M.
Safeguards and antidumping in Latin American trade liberalization : fighting fire with fire/
by J. Michael Finger and Julio J. Nogués
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-6308-9
ISBN-10: 0-8213-6308-5
1. Protectionism—Latin America. 2. Dumping (International trade)—Law and legislation
Latin America. 3. Foreign trade regulation—Latin America. I. Nogués, Julio J. II. Title.
HF1770 5.F56 2005
Cover photos: Yuri Kozyrev/The World Bank; Royalty Free/Corbis.Contents
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xv
Contributors xvii
Abbreviations and Acronyms xix
1 Introduction and Overview 1
J. Michael Finger and Julio J. Nogués
2 Political Economy of Antidumping and Safeguards
in Argentina 45
Julio J. Nogués and Elías Baracat
3 Antidumping and Safeguard Mechanisms:
The Brazilian Experience, 1988–2003 79
Honorio Kume and Guida Piani
4 Keeping Animal Spirits Asleep: The Case of Chile 109
Sebastián Sáez
5 Application of Safeguards and Antidumping Duties
in Colombia 137
Mauricio Reina and Sandra Zuluaga
6 Antidumping Policies and Safeguard Measures in the
Context of Costa Rica’s Economic Liberalization 169
Ricardo Monge-González and Francisco Monge-Ariño
7 Antidumping and Safeguard Measures in the Political
Economy of Liberalization: The Mexican Case 205
Luz Elena Reyes de la Torre and Jorge G. González
8 Antidumping Mechanisms and Safeguards in Peru 247
Richard Webb, Josefina Camminati, and Raúl León Thorne
Index 279
vvi Contents
2.1 Argentina: Real Exchange Rate, 1985–2002 49
2.2 Ar Trade Flows 50
2.3 Argentina: Antidumping Initiations and GDP Growth,
1995–2003 58
3.1 Indexes of Import Volumes, Real Exchange Rate, Real GDP,
and Average Nominal Tariff Rate for the 1987–2003 Period 84
3.2 Brazil: Ratio of Import to Domestic Production Values
for Certain Products, 1990 and 2002 85
3.3 Number of Antidumping Cases in Brazil, 1988–2003 94
3.4 Share of Approved Anrazil, 1988–2002 94
4.1 Chile: Tariffs and Real Exchange Rate, 1973–2003 111
4.2 Chile: Applications Submitted and Investigations Initiated,
1981–2002 114
5.1 Colombia: Average Tariff, 1986–2002 139
5.2 C Real Exchange Rate Index 140
5.3 Colombia: Number of Dumping and Safeguard
Applications and Real Exchange Rate 151
5.4 Colombia: Textile and Apparel Imports 159
6.1 Costa Rica: Exports, Imports, and Average Tariff,
1982–2003 172
6.2 Costa Rica: Evolution of Share of Destination Countries
for Main Exports 173
6.3 Costa Rica: Current Account Deficit, 1983–2003 174
6.4 C Evolution of Inflation and Real Effective
Exchange Rate, 1983–2003 175
6.5 Costa Rica: Direct Foreign Investment Flows, 1970–2003 176
6.6 C Relative Importance of Nontraditional
Exports, 1982–2003 176
6.7 Costa Rica: Composition of Exporting Firms,
by Size of Firm, 2003 177
6.8Costa Rica:Per Capita GDP,Open Unemployment,
Underemployment, and Percentage of Households below
Poverty Line, 1982–2003 177
6.9 Costa Rica: Degree of Liberalization and Per Capita GDP 178
6.10 Stages in the Process of a Dumping Complaint in Costa Rica,
Pursuant to the Central American Rules 183
7.1 Investigations Initiated in Mexico, 1987–2003 219
7.2 Invnitiated and Over- and Undervaluation
Margins of the Exchange Rate in Mexico, 1987–2003 219
7.3 Investigations Initiated in Mexico in Relation to Major
Economic and Political Events, 1987–2003 220
7.4 Investigations in Mexico, by Sector, 1987–2002 221Contents vii
8.1 Organizational Structure of the National Institute
for the Defense of Competition and the Protection
of Intellectual Property (Indecopi) 255
8.2 Antidumping Procedure 261
8.3 Safeguards Procedure 263
8.4 Investigations and Antidumping Duties in Peru,
1993 to July 2004 268
1.1 Colombia: Safeguard and Antidumping Investigations,
1990–June 2004 13
1.2 Mexico: Antidumping Duty Levels in Different Situations 19
1.3 Outcomes of Peru’s Antidumping Investigations,
1993–June 2004 23
1.4 Applied Tariff Rates on Industrial Goods for Selected
Latin American Countries 27
1.5 Antidumping Initiations as Notified to WTO, 1995–June 2004:
Countries Included in the Study and Major Users 28
1.6 Antidumping Measures as Notified to WTO,
1995–June 2004 28
1.7 Countervailing Duty Initiations and Measures,
1995–June 2004 30
1.8Numbers ofSafeguard Initiations and Other Safeguard
Actions Notified to the WTO by Selected Latin American
Countries, 1996–October 18, 2004 32
2.1 Argentina: Ad Valorem Tariffs and Import Licenses, 1980–92 47
2.2 A Antidumping Investigations by Requesting
Industries, 1995–2004 59
2.3 Argentina: Annvestigations by Target Country,
1995–2004 60
2.4 Argentina: Percentage of Antidumping Measures Coverage 61
2.5 Argentina: Injury Determinations in Antidumping
Investigations, 1995–2004 62
2.6 Argentina: Antidumping Measures 64
2.7 Ar Outcome Petitions under the Safeguards Agreement 69
2.8Argentina:Petitions for Safeguards under the A70TC Agreement
3.1 Brazil: Number and Percentage of Investigations with On-the-Spot
Verifications for Injury and Dumping Determinations 89
3.2 Number of Antidumping Cases Initiated between 1995
and 2002—Main Countries 90
3.3 Countries Initiating the Largest Numbers of Safeguard Cases 92
3.4 Number of Antidumping, Antisubsidy, and Safeguard Cases
Initiated by Brazil, 1987–2003 93viii Contents
3.5 Brazil: Antidumping Cases by Group of Products, 1988–2002 96
3.6 Number of Antidumping Cases in Brazil with Final
Determinations, Grouped by Exporting Country or Bloc 97
3.7 Antidumping Cases for Brazil: Preliminary Duty Rates,
Normal Value Method, and Antidumping Duty
as Percentage of Estimated Dumping Margin 98
3.8Brazil:Cases Ended without a Restrictive Outcome,
Classified by Motives 99
3.9 Brazil: Distribution of Antidumping Cases with a Final
Determination, by Number of Domestic Firms 100
3.10 Brazil: Antidumping Cases and Selected Indicators,
by Subperiods 100
3.11 Safeguard Measures in Brazil, 1996–2003 102
4.1 Chile: Development of Legislation, 1981–2000 112
4.2 Chile: Definitive Measures of the National Commission
for Price Distortions and Sectors Affected 115
4.3 Chile: Investigation Procedure and Stages 119
4.4 Chile: Antidumping Duties, 1992–2002 123
4.5 Chile: Global Safeguards and Bilateral Agreements 126
4.6 Chile: Safeguard Investigations, 1999–2003 128
5.1 Preferential Tariffs Granted by Colombia:
Liberalization Levels 141
5.2 Colombia: Investigations Conducted, 1990–2004 149
5.3 C Investigations by Sector, 152
5.4 Colombia: Dumping Investigations by Sector, 1990–2004 153
5.5 C Safeguard Dumping Investigations by Sector,
1990–2004 154
6.1 Costa Rica: Dumping Cases 191
6.2 C Summary of the Outcome of Dumping Cases
Dealt with by Investigating Authority 192
6.3 Costa Rica: Refrigerator Imports, 1995–96 193
6.4 C Refrigerator Imports, 1994–2002 194
6.5 Costa Rica: Safeguard Cases 195
6.6 C Summary of the Outcome of Safeguard Cases
Dealt with by Investigating Authority 196
6.7 Costa Rica: Origin of Imports of Cabuya Bags, 1992–95 197
6.8Costa Rica:Summary ofCases Dealt with
by Investigating Authority 198
6.9 Costa Rica: Summary ofith
by Investigating Authority 199
7.1 Mexican Macroeconomic Indicators during
Economic Liberalization 207
7.2 Mexican Comparative Tariff Structures in Selected Years 208

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