Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific Region
122 pages
English

Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific Region

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YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
122 pages
English
YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication

Description

The East Asia and Pacific region has made great progress, relative to other regions, with regard to both economic development and, specifically, economic opportunities for women. However, aspiring female entrepreneurs continue to face unequal barriers to starting, operating, and growing their businesses. Not only does this hurt business women in the region, but it also ultimately hurts poverty reduction and economic growth.
'Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and the Pacific Region' brings together data and available evidence on the constraints that female entrepreneurs in the region face with regard to: access to assets, business regulations and governance issues, and available avenues for expanding businesses and trading with larger markets. The authors present recommendations at the end of each chapter.
This book will be of interest to policy makers, donors, nongovernmental organizations, and researchers looking to further examine the constraints that are holding back female entrepreneurs in East Asia and the Pacific.

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Publié par
Publié le 03 mai 2010
Nombre de lectures 41
EAN13 9780821383087
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Exrait

DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT
Private Sector Development
E c onomic Oppor tunities f or
Women in the East Asia
and Pacifi c Region
Amanda Ellis
Daniel Kirkwood
Dhruv MalhotraEconomic Opportunities for Women in
the East Asia and Pacific RegionEconomic Opportunities
for Women in the East Asia
and Pacific Region
Amanda Ellis, Daniel Kirkwood, and Dhruv Malhotra © 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
Internet: www.worldbank.org
E-mail: feedback@worldbank.org
All rights reserved
1 2 3 4 13 12 11 10
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this
volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the
governments they represent.
The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The bound-
aries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply
any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the
endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
Rights and Permissions
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this
work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will
normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly.
For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete
information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
USA; telephone: 978-750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: www.copyright.com.
All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the
Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA;
fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8300-1
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8308-7
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8300-1
The Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for.
Cover photo: Curt Carnemark/World Bank
Cover design: Naylor Design, Washington, DCContents
Foreword ix
Acknowledgments xi
Abbreviations xiii
Chapter 1 Overview 1
Regional Performance 4
Framework for Analysis 7
Main Findings 11
Notes 14
References 15
Chapter 2 Access to Assets 17
External Assets 17
Internal Assets: Human Capital and Time 37
Opportunities to Learn and Reform: Improving
Security and Equality of Access to Assets 54
Notes 55
References 56
vvi Contents
Chapter 3 Starting a Business 61
Entry Regulations 63
The Gender Dimensions of Regulatory Burden
and Informality 66
Other Business Environment Issues 68
Opportunities to Learn and Reform: Creating
an Enabling Environment for Women-Led
Businesses 76
Notes 78
References 78
Chapter 4 Going for Growth 81
Trading across Borders 82
The Role of Intermediary Institutions 89
Business Development Services and Training 90
Opportunities to Learn and Reform: Going to Scale 93
References 94
Index 97
Boxes
2.1 Case Study Excerpt 21
2.2 36
3.1 64
3.2 Economic Crisis, Informality, and the Vulnerability
of Women 67
3.3 Case Study Excerpt 69
4.1 Country-Level Evidence on the Impact of Gender
on International Trade 85
4.2 87
4.3 Connecting Women with International
Markets: The International Trade Centre 91
Figures
1.1 Poverty Headcount vs. Relative Female Human
Development, 1997 2
1.2 Correlations between Ease of Doing Business
and Women’s Economic Participation 4
1.3 Global Correlation between Female
Entrepreneurship and Employment,
Selected East Asian and Pacific Economies Highlighted 5Contents vii
1.4 Labor Force Participation, by Sex 6
1.5 Global Correlation of Early Marriage and
Female/Male Paid Worker Ratio, Selected East Asian
and Pacific Economies Highlighted 8
1.6 Proportion of Men and Women Engaged in
Entrepreneurship, Formal and Informal, Selected
East Asian and Pacific Economies 9
1.7 Organizing Framework for the Analysis 11
2.1 Assets that Affect Opportunities for Entrepreneurship 18
2.2 Correlations of Female-to-Male Employer and Adult
Literacy Ratios by Inheritance Practices 19
2.3 Composite Credit Indicator, Selected East Asian
and Pacific Economies 25
2.4 Female-Male Earning Gaps,Asian
and P 34
2.5 Enforcement of ILO Convention 100 (equal pay)
and 111 (nondiscrimination in employment) in
Selected East Asian and Pacific Economies 35
2.6 Global Correlation of Adult Female-to-Male Literacy
Ratio and Female-Male Employment Ratio, Selected
East Asian and Pacific Economies Highlighted 39
2.7 Adult Female Literacy Rates, by Region 40
2.8 Access to Vocational and Technical Training by Gender 41
2.9 Differential Statutory Retirement Ages for Men and
Women, Selected East Asian and Pacific Economies 42
2.10 Proportion of Administrative and Managerial Positions
Held by Women 44
2.11 Social Attitudes toward Value of Men’s and Women’s
Employment, Selected East Asian and Pacific Economies 45
2.12 Global Correlation of Attitudes toward Female Work and
Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio, Selected East Asian
and Pacific Economies Highlighted 46
2.13Attitudes toward Female Work
and F, Selected East Asian
and P 47
2.14 Access to Child Care, Selected East Asian and Pacific
Economies 49
2.15 Maternity Leave Provisioning, Selected East Asian
and Pacific Economies 51
3.1 Global Correlation of Start-Up Procedures and Business
Entry Rates, Selected Countries 62viii Contents
3.2 Number of Days and Procedures Required to
Start a Business, East Asian and Pacific Economies 63
3.3 Women in Parliament, East Asian
and Pacific Countries 73
3.4 Global Correlation between Percent of Seats in
Parliament Held by Women and Quality
of Maternity Leave Provision, East Asian and
Pacific Countries Highlighted 75
4.1 Manufacturing Wage Trends for Women, Selected
East Asian and Pacific Economies, 1983–2007 83
4.2 Export Procedures and Costs, Selected East Asian
and Pacific Economies 86
4.3 Quality of SME Training and Business Development,
Selected East Asian and Pacific Economies 92
Tables
2.1 Getting Credit: East Asia and Pacific vs. Other Regions 24
2.2 ILO Convention Ratifications, East Asian
and Pacific Countries 33
2.3 Maternity Leave Provisions, East Asian and Pacific
Economies as of September 2009 52
3.1 Requirements to Start a Business, by Region 62
3.2 Contract Enforcement in the East Asia and
Pacific Region 71

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