Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

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Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG), DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE) and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL) for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain. Result At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC) level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). Hepatic TG level decreased significantly in mice fed diets with DHA-TG ( P < 0.05), DHA-EE ( P < 0.05) and DHA-PL ( P < 0.05), while TC level in liver was significantly lower in mice fed diets with TG and EE compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). At high fat level, mice fed diets with DHA-EE and DHA-PL had significantly lower hepatic TC level compared with the control diet ( P < 0.05). Hepatic PL concentration experienced a significant increase in mice fed the diet with PL at high fat level ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, both at low and high fat levels, hepatic DHA level significantly increased and AA level significantly decreased in all forms of DHA groups ( P < 0.05), compared to control groups at two different fat levels, respectively. Additionally, cerebral DHA level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL significantly increased compared with the control at high fat level ( P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed among dietary treatments for mice fed diets with low fat level. Conclusion The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.

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Publié le 01 janvier 2012
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Tanget al. Lipids in Health and Disease2012,11:70 http://www.lipidworld.com/content/11/1/70
R E S E A R C HOpen Access Short term effects of different omega3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet 1121 11 1 Xiao Tang, ZhaoJie Li, Jie Xu , Yong Xue , JinZhang Li , JingFeng Wang , Teruyoshi Yanagita , 1* 1* ChangHu Xueand YuMing Wang
Abstract Background:Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method:Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHAFFA), DHA bound triglyceride (DHATG), DHA bound ethyl ester (DHAEE) and DHA bound phospholipid (DHAPL) for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain. Result:At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC) level in mice fed diets with DHAFFA, DHAEE and DHAPL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Hepatic TG level decreased significantly in mice fed diets with DHATG (P<0.05), DHAEE (P<0.05) and DHAPL (P<0.05), while TC level in liver was significantly lower in mice fed diets with TG and EE compared with the control group (P<0.05). At high fat level, mice fed diets with DHAEE and DHAPL had significantly lower hepatic TC level compared with the control diet (P<0.05). Hepatic PL concentration experienced a significant increase in mice fed the diet with PL at high fat level (P<0.05). Furthermore, both at low and high fat levels, hepatic DHA level significantly increased and AA level significantly decreased in all forms of DHA groups (P<0.05), compared to control groups at two different fat levels, respectively. Additionally, cerebral DHA level in mice fed diets with DHAFFA, DHAEE and DHAPL significantly increased compared with the control at high fat level (P<0.05), but no significant differences were observed among dietary treatments for mice fed diets with low fat level. Conclusion:The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHAPL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega3 concentration in liver and brain. Keywords:Omega3 fatty acid, DHA, EPA, Lipid metabolism, Triglycerides, Ethyl ester, Phospholipids
* Correspondence: xuech@ouc.edu.cn; wangyuming@ouc.edu.cn Equal contributors 1 College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© 2012 Tang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.