World Development Report 2012
458 pages
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World Development Report 2012


YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication
458 pages


The lives of women around the world have improved dramatically, at a pace and scope diffi cult to imagine even 25 years ago. Women have made unprecedented gains in rights, education, health, and access to jobs and livelihoods. More countries than ever guarantee equal rights in property, marriage, and other domains. Gendergaps in primary schooling have closed in many countries, while in a third of all countries girls now outnumber boys in secondary school. And more young women than men attend universities in 60 countries. Women are using their education to participate more in the labor force: they now make up for 40 percent of the global labor force and 43 percent of its farmers. Moreover, women now live longer than men in every region of the world.
Despite the progress, gaps remain in many areas. Women are more likely to die-relative to males-in many low- and middle-income countries than their counterparts in rich countries-especially in childhood and during their reproductive years. Primary and secondary school enrollments for girls remain much lower than for boys in many Sub-Saharan African countries and some parts of South Asia, as well as among disadvantaged populations. Women are more likely than men to work as unpaid family laborers or in the informal sector, to farm smaller plots and grow less profi table crops, operate in smaller fi rms and less profi table sectors, and generally earn less. Women-especially poor women-have less say over decisions and less control over household resources. And in most countries, fewer women participate in formal politics than men and are underrepresented in the upper echelons.
The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development argues that closing these persistent gender gaps matters. It matters because gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. But it is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative.
Building on a growing body of knowledge on the economics of gender equality and development, the Report identifi es the areas where gender gaps are most signifi cant-both intrinsically and in terms of their potential development payoff-and where growth alone cannot solve the issues. It then sets forth four priorities for public action:
▪ Reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain
▪ Improving access to economic opportunities for women
▪ Increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society
▪ Limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.
Policies need to focus on the underlying determinants of gender gaps in each priority area. In some priority areas-such as excess female mortality in infancy and early childhood as well as in the reproductive years-improving service delivery (especially of clean water and sanitation, and maternal care) is of primary importance. For other priority areas-such as gender gaps in earnings and productivity-policies need to tackle the multiple constraints that originate in the workings of markets and institutions to limit progress. Policy makers will need to prioritize these constraints and address them simultaneously or sequentially.
While domestic policies are central to reducing gender inequalities, development partners should focus on complementing these efforts in each of the four priority areas, and on supporting evidence-based public action through better data, evaluation, and learning. This will require a mix of more funding, efforts to foster innovation and learning, and broader partnerships. The funding should be directed particularly to supporting the poorest countries in reducing excess female mortality and gender gaps in education. Investments are needed to improve the availability of better gender-disaggregated data and support more experimentation and systematic evaluation. And the partnerships should involve the private sector, development agencies, and civil society organizations.



Publié par
Publié le 28 septembre 2011
Nombre de lectures 29
EAN13 9780821388105
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 14 Mo


world development report2012
ANDDEVELOPMENTworld development report2012
Gender Equality
and Developmentworld development report2012
Gender Equality
and Development© 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
All rights reserved
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This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel-
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ISSN: 0163-5085
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8810-5
eISBN: 978-0-8213-8812-9
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8810-5
ISSN: 0163-5085
ISBN: 978-0-8213-8825-9
DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8825-9
Cover photo: Arne Hoel, World Bank
Photo credits: Overview/World Bank, Part I/National Geographic, Part II/Kiet Vo,
Part III/National Geographic
Cover design: Critical Stages
Figures design and infographics: Design Symphony, Cymetrics, Harkness Design,
and Naylor Design
For the fi rts time, the World Development Report is published with a companino mobile
app for the iPad. Key features include: access content from the WDR 2012 in multiple ways;
browse by key messages; browse and search the report by topic, region, and keyboard; access
the report overview and key messages document, both available in 7 languages; share and
save features; and view tabular data from the report. For more information, visit
Foreword xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Abbreviations and data notes xvii
Main messages xx
Overview 2
Why does gender equality matter for development? 2
What does this Report do? 6
Where has there been the most progress in gender equality? 8
Where have gender inequalities persisted and why? 13
What is to be done? 22
The political economy of reforms for gender equality 35
A global agenda for greater gender equality 36
Notes 38
References 40
Introduction: A guide to the Report 46
Gender equality and development: Why do the links matter? 46
What does this Report do? 48
Navigating this Report: A roadmap 50
Notes 51
References 51
Part I Taking stock of gender equality 54
1 A wave of progress 56
Times are changing? 56
Rising global consensus for women’s rights 57
Better outcomes for women in many domains 59
Change begets change 66
Notes 69
References 69
2 The persistence of gender inequality 72
Severely disadvantaged populations 73
“Sticky” domains, despite economic progress 76
Reversals 85
“Sticky” gets “stickier” 87
Notes 88
References 89
Spread 1 Women’s pathways to empowerment: Do all roads lead to Rome? 94
Notes 97
References 97
Part II W hat has driven progress? What
impedes it? 98
Explaining the framework 99
Applying the framework 101
Notes 102
References 102
3 Education and health: Where do gender differences
really matter? 104
Endowments matter 105
Education 106
Health 117
Technical Annex 3.1 Computing the fl ow of missing girls at birth and excess
female mortality after birth 139
Chapter summary: In reducing gender gaps in education and health,
tremendous progress has been made where lifting a single barrier—in
households, markets, or institutions—is suffi cient to improve outcomes.
Progress has been slower either where multiple barriers need to be lifted
at the same time or where a single point of entry produces bottlenecks 141
Notes 142
References 143
4 Promoting women’s agency 150
Women’s agency matters 151
Economic growth can promote women’s agency but has limited impact 152
Rights and their effective implementation shape women’s choices and
voices 157
Social norms prevent—or promote—gains in women’s agency 168
Women’s collective agency can shape institutions, markets, and social
norms 176
Chapter summary: Women continue to have less capacity than men to
exercise agency 181 Contents vii
Notes 182
References 184
Spread 2 The decline of the breadwinner: Men in the 21st century 194
Note 196
5 Gender diff erences in employment and
why they matter 198
Understanding gender differences in productivity and earnings 201
What explains employment segregation by gender? A fi rst look 210
Gender, time use, and employment segregation 215
Gender differences in access to productive inputs and
employment segregation 224
Gender impacts of “aggregate” market and institutional failures 230
Breaking out of the productivity trap: How and why to do it 236
Chapter summary: Persistent employment segregation by gender traps women
in low-productivity, low-paying jobs 239
Notes 240
References 242
6 Globalization’s impact on gender equality:
What’s happened and what’s needed 254
The world is becoming more integrated—Recent trends and facts 255
Trade openness and ICTs have increased women’s access to economic
opportunities 255
Adapt or miss the boat 264
Globalization could also promote more egalitarian gender roles and norms 267
Old problems, emerging risks 269
Is the glass half full or half empty? The need for public action 271
Chapter summary: Globalization has the potential to contribute to greater
gender equality 271
Notes 272
References 273
Spread 3 Chang ing ages, changing bodies, changing times—Adolescent boys
and girls 280
Note 283
Part III The role of and potential for public action 284
Choosing the right policies 285
Enabling policy implementation 285
The global agenda for action 286
7 Public action for gender equality 288
Policies to reduce gaps in health and education 289
Po improve economic opportunities 296viii CONTENTS
Policies to improve women’s agency 305
Avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities across generations for
adolescents and young adults 314
Making gender-smart policies: Focusing “gender mainstreaming” 317
Wanted: Better evidence 320
Notes 321
References 323
8 The political economy of gender reform 330
Informal institutions—Social networks as agents of change 332
Inclusive markets 340
Bringing gender into formal institutions and policies 345
Seizing windows of opportunities 348
Pathways to change 350
Notes 354
References 355
9 A global agenda for greater gender equality 360
Rationale for and focus of a global agenda 360
What to do and how to do it 362
Notes 370
References 371
Bibliographical Note 373
Background Papers and Notes 377
Selected Indicators 381
Selected World Development Indicators 389
Index 411
1 What do we mean by gender equality? 4 7 Intervening early to overcome future labor market failures—
The Adolescent Girls Initiative 34 2 The Millennium Development Goals recognize the intrinsic
and instrumental value of gender equality 4
0.1 Problems with estimating the effect of gender equality on
3 How women and men defi ne gender in the 21st growth 49
century 7
1.1 Gender and the Millennium Development Goals 58 4 What do we mean by markets, formal institutions, and
informal social institutions? 8
2.1 The many faces of climate change 86
5 Reducing maternal mortality—What works? Look at
Malaysia and Sri Lanka 25 3.1 Adult mortality risks: Who are the outliers? 119
6 Catalyzing female employment in Jordan 29 3.2 Four Africas 135

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